Mindfulness based program for newly diagnosed Parkinson’s patients.
Azima Shaji1, Nora Ko2, Aaron Lasker3, Meera Solanki4, Yahnily Ocasio1, Parampreet Kaur1, Emma Muller1, Adriana C Mendez2
1St. Luke's University Health Netwrok, 2Neurology, St. Luke's University Health Netwrok, 3University of Pennsylvania, 4Temple University
Objective:
To investigate the impact of 8-week course of Mindfulness based intervention program on motor and non-motor symptoms of PD assessed by improvement in scores of UPDRS, PSS, NMS and MAAS.
Background:
There is a growing recognition of the value of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). MBIs are designed to train individuals to cultivate mindfulness and incorporate its practice into daily life. Mindfulness has been defined as “paying attention in a particular way, on purpose, in the present moment, and nonjudgmentally”.
Design/Methods:

 We enrolled 25 participants with PD. Data gathered before participants begin the MBI 8-week program, at post-MBI and 3-months post-MBI cycle.

 The following measurement instruments administered:

  1. The Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) 
  2. The Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS)
  3. The perceived stress Scale (PSS) 
  4. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS)  
Results:
25 patients completed the MBI with pre, post-MBI, and 3-month post-MBI. PSS showed a reduction in stress by 14.5% post-session and by 22.4% after 3 months which reflects emotional wellbeing and improvement. Higher MAAS scores reflect higher levels of dispositional mindfulness. Similarly, MAAS showed 5.8% improvement in post-session and 8.6% improvement in post 3-month survey. NMS showed 12% decrease in mean value at post-intervention i.e., improvement in symptoms however 7.2% increase in score at 3 months follow up which means no major change in NMS post 3 months. Similar to other scores, there was improvement in UPDRS (Part-1,2,4) scores after the intervention. Part-1 showed 27.7% improvement in post-session and 34.7% improvement in post 3 month, part-2 showed 19.8% improvement in post-session and 18.1% improvement in post 3 months, part-4 revealed 21.7% improvement in post-session and 22% in post 3-month survey. Our finding were clinically significant with p value <0.05. 
Conclusions:
Overall, our study shows improvement in both motor and neuropsychiatric deficits in PD immediately following the mindfulness intervention and at 3 months follow up.