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Digital Poster - Tuesday
Weekend and Oral

Digital Poster (no CME credit)

Monday Digital Poster Wednesday Digital Poster Thursday Digital Poster

Tuesday Digital Poster (No CME Credit)

General Cancer Imaging

08:15
2299 - 2398

Spectroscopy & Non-Proton MR

09:15
2474 - 2548

Neuro

09:15
2549 - 2648
13:30
2649 - 2821
14:30
2822 - 2993
15:45
2994 - 3164
16:45
3165 - 3338

Cancer Metabolism, pH & Oxygenation

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 General Cancer Imaging

2299
Computer 1
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Oxygen Carriers in Treatment of Hypoxic Tumours
Emma Bluemke1, Joshua Owen1, Elinor Thompson2, Paul Kinchesh3, Sean Smart3, Eleanor Stride1, and Daniel Bulte1

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 3Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

It is established that tumour hypoxia is a predictor of cancer disease progression, treatment failures, and metastatic potential. There remains a need for oxygen delivery mechanisms for hypoxia reduction. The ideal method for measuring oxygen in tissue is noninvasive and quantitative, allowing tumour pO2 measurements to be obtained before, during, and after treatment. We investigated effects of oxygen nano-carriers on the longitudinal relaxation times of tumour tissues in vivo and a phantom. T1 decreased with increased oxygen concentration in phantom. The injection of the oxygenated nanobubbles resulted in a statistically significant decrease in T1-weighted signal when measured 6-8 minutes post-injection.

2300
Computer 2
Investigating the effects of hypoxia on fibroblast invasion and metabolism
Jesus Pacheco-Torres1, Tariq Shah1, Flonne Wildes1, Dimitry Artemov1, and Zaver M. Bhujwalla1,2,3

1Division of Cancer Imaging Research, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Fibroblast are considered as a major source of Collagen 1 fiber in the tumor stroma and to play a fundamental role in extracellular matrix (ECM) modification. Thus, cancer associated fibroblast has been related with increased tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis. In the present study, we want to characterize the effect of different tumor microenvironments, as hypoxia and acidic extracellular pH, in the ability of prostate fibroblast cells to invade and degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM), as well with changes in their metabolome. We used our MR compatible cell perfusion system to assess this.

2301
Computer 3
Choline kinase-α downregulation decreases prostate cancer associated fibroblast viability
Jesus Pacheco-Torres1, Flonne Wildes1, Tariq Shah1, Balaji Krishnamachary 1, and Zaver M Bhujwalla1,2,3

1Division of Cancer Imaging Research, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center. The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) significantly influence the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells.  CAFs are detected in most tumors and provide a ubiquitous target that is being actively investigated in cancer treatment.  In prostate cancer, fibroblasts have been shown to induce growth, confer castration-resistance, and increase metastatic potential.  Choline kinase (Chk)-α downregulation has been previously shown to significantly decrease cancer cell viability but its effect on CAFs has not been investigated before.  Here we found, for the first time, a significant decrease of prostate cancer fibroblast (PCAF) viability with Chk-α downregulation.

2302
Computer 4
Design and validation of an MRI-based oxygen sensor for a cervical cancer clinical trial
Gregory J. Ekchian1, Junichi Tokuda2, Brian Barnes1, Robert Cormack3, Larissa Lee3, and Michael Cima1,4

1Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

Many cancer patients experience lower survival rates if they have less well oxygenated tumors. Lower tumor oxygen levels can lead to a reduced effectiveness of radiation therapy. The ability to overcome this radiotherapy resistance has been severely limited by the lack of a clinically compatible quantitative oxygen sensing technology. We report the design and validation of a silicone-based oxygen sensor measured with MRI for an approved human clinical trial in patients with cervical cancer. The sensor has been validated for compatibility with the clinical workflow and is specifically designed to achieve the endpoints of the trial.

2303
Computer 5
Multiparamter MRI Investigation of High-Grade Glioma Response to CAR T Cell Immunotherapy
Harshan Ravi1, Olya Stringfield2, Gustavo De Leon3, Sandra Johnston4, Christine E Brown5, Kristin R Swanson3, Robert A Gatenby6, and Natarajan Raghunand1

1Department of cancer physiology, Moffitt Cancer research center, Tampa, FL, United States, 2Irat Shared service, Moffitt Cancer research center, Tampa, FL, United States, 3Mathematical NeuroOncology Lab Precision Neurotherapeutics innovation program, Mayo clinic, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 5Department of Cancer Immunotherapy and Tumor Immunology, City of Hope Beckman Research Institute and Medical Center, Duarte, CA, United States, 6Department diagnostic and interventional radiology, Moffitt Cancer research center, Tampa, FL, United States

Immunotherapy is gaining interest for treatment of even poorly immunogenic cancers like gliomas. Pseudo-progression and pseudo-response are frequently noted on standard of care MRI in glioma patients receiving immunotherapy. We present a "Habitat" imaging approach to objectively follow response to CAR T cell therapy of glioma. 

2304
Computer 6
In vivo evaluation of pentose phosphate pathway activity in orthotopic glioma using hyperpolarized δ-[1-13C]gluconolactone
Georgios Batsios1, Pavithra Viswanath1, Peng Cao1, Celine Taglang1, Elavarasan Subramani1, Robert Flavell1, Peder Larson1, and Sabrina Ronen1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

Flux via the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) is typically upregulated in tumor cells. Imaging this upregulation could therefore help in monitoring tumor development and response to treatment. A previous study presented the use of hyperpolarized δ-[1-13C]gluconolactone to detect flux through PPP by monitoring its conversion to 6-phospho-[1-13C]gluconate in isolated perfused livers. Here, we demonstrate that HP δ-[1-13C]gluconolactone can also be used to monitor PPP activity in healthy brain and in gliomas, and that the ratio of HP 6-phospho-[1-13C]gluconate to 6-phospho-δ-[1-13C]gluconolactone is significantly higher in tumor regions compared to healthy brain.

2305
Computer 7
Tracking adoptive cell transfer of primary human and mouse T-cells in naïve NSG and Balb/c mice, respectively, using PET and MRI methods
Naomi S. Sta Maria1, Leslie A. Khawli2, Sharon W. Lin1, Vyshnavi Pachipulusu2, Long Zhen2, Daniel Cohrs3, Alan L. Epstein2, and Russell E. Jacobs1

1Zilkha Neurogenetic Institute, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Keck School of Medicine of USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States

We determined the biodistribution of adoptively transferred primary T-cells in naïve mice to create a basis for quantifying adoptively transferred modified T-cells in mice cancer models, using PET and MRI cell labeling techniques simultaneously. Separate populations of T-cells were labeled with either a PET (89Zr) or an MRI label (ferumoxytol), and were injected intravenously into mice together. Animals underwent simultaneous PET/MRI imaging up to 5 days following cell injection in an MR Solutions 7 Tesla scanner with a PET camera. We looked at two models: primary mouse T-cells in naïve Balb/c mice and primary human T-cells in naïve NSG.

2306
Computer 8
A Pre-Clinical PET/MRI/MRS Study on Lactate Transport Inhibition by Bitter Melon Juice in Pancreatic Cancer Models
Deepanshi Dhar1, Aaron Safadi2, Jenna L Steiner2, Raina Komal1, Chapla Agarwal1, Rajesh Agarwal1, and Natalie J Serkova2

1Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States, 2Radiology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, United States

Pancreatic cancer (PDAC) is a highly aggressive malignancy, displaying poor response to the frontline chemotherapeutics. PDAC cells undergo cellular reprograming to meet their bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands, with glycolytic shift emerging as the primary metabolic hallmark of carcinogenesis. Bitter melon juice (BMJ) is a widely consumed vegetable in Asia; recent studies have reported an increased AMPK phosphorylation and activation in BMJ-treated tumor xenografts. Here, we report on an inhibition of lactate export in PANC1 cells upon BMJ treatment, leading to acidification and cell death mediated by decreased transporter expression of GLUT1 and MCT4, both in vitro and in vivo.

2307
Computer 9
13C Metabolomic and Fluxomic Study of Human Melanoma Metabolic Network in vivo
Alexander A. Shestov1, Seung-Cheol Lee1, Kavindra Nath1, Jeff Roman1, Clementina Mesaros2, David A. Nelson2, Dennis Leeper3, Ian A. Blair2, and Jerry D. Glickson1

1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Information from 13C isotopomers, which appear as multiplets in 13C spectra can be measured and quantified in vivo. Using this additional information alone with extended melanoma tumor  bionetwork model has enable simultaneous fitting of experimental dynamic isotopomer turnover curves and evaluation of metabolic parameters and fluxes

2308
Computer 10
Comparison of the Capability for Quantitative Distinguishing Malignant from Benign Solitary Pulmonary Nodules among actual DWI, computed DWIs with different b values and FDG-PET/CT
Yuji Kishida1, Masao Yui2, Yoshimori Kassai2, Shinichiro Seki3,4, Takeshi Yoshikawa3,4, Katsusuke Kyotani5, Takamichi Murakami1,5, and Yoshiharu Ohno3,4

1Division of Radiology, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 2Canon Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara, Japan, 3Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 4Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan, 5Center for Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Kobe University Hospital, Kobe, Japan

    There are no major papers that compared differentiating capability of SPNs among actual DWI (aDWI), computed DWIs (cDWIs)with different b values and FDG-PET/CT in patients with SPN.  We hypothesize that cDWI obtained appropriate b value can improve the capability for differentiating malignant from benign SPNs as compared with aDWI and FDG-PET/CT.  The purpose of this study is to directly compare the capability for differentiating malignant from benign pulmonary nodules among aDWI, cDWIs with different b values and FDG-PET/CT.

2309
Computer 11
Towards a Small Molecule GDPD6 Inhibitor: Investigating Dipyridamole via 1H HRMRS and Computational Studies
Caitlin Tressler1, Kanchan Sonkar1, and Kristine Glunde1,2

1The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

We are studying the role of GDPD6 in breast cancer, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target. GDPD6 silencing experiments showed decreased invasion and migration in breast cancer cells. There is currently no small molecule inhibitor for GDPD6. We have identified dipyridamole as potential GDPD6 inhibitor, which can be used both in the lab and potentially in the clinic. We are using a combination of 1H MRS and computational studies to determine how dipyridamole inhibits GDPD6 to evaluate its potential as an inhibitor and identify other potential small molecule inhibitors of GDPD6. 

2310
Computer 12
Time evolution of extracellular pH with BIRDS in a rabbit model of human liver cancer
Daniel Coman1, Lynn Jeanette Savic1, Isabel Schobert1, John Walsh2, Lucas Christoph Adam1, Nina Tritz1, MingDe Lin1,3, Julius Chapiro1, Albert John Sinusas1,4, Todd Constable1, Douglas Rothman1,2, James Duncan1,2, Fahmeed Hyder1,2, and Dana Peters1

1Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 3Visage Imaging, Inc., San Diego, CA, United States, 4Cardiovascular Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States

Here we report extracellular pH (pHe) mapping with BIRDS using TmDOTP5- in normal and VX2 tumors in rabbit liver tissue. Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed and the rabbits were scanned without TACE, or at 1 day and 2 weeks post TACE. The pHe maps show lower pHe in tumor and tumor edge compared to normal liver. Tumor acidity prior to TACE remain at 1 day post TACE, but it is almost normalized at 2 weeks post TACE. The ability to measure pHe in a translational model and compare it with “normal” tissue improves tumor detection and monitoring of tumor treatment.

2311
Computer 13
Toward Quantitative MRI Parameter Mapping of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patient-Derived Xenographs: The Challenge of Tumor Heterogeneity
Xia Ge1, John A Engelbach1, James D Quirk1, Larry G Bretthorst1, Joel R Garbow1,2, and Joseph JH Ackerman1,2,3

1Departments of Radiology, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States, 2Alvin J. Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States, 3Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St Louis, MO, United States

Triple negative breast cancer patient-derived xenographs were implanted in the 4th abdominal mammary fat pads of mice enrolled in a ~60 minute, multi-contrast, same-day (morning vs. afternoon), test-retest MRI protocol. Quantitative T1, T2, and ADC maps were acquired. Parameter distributions were characterized by standard statistical measures (mean, median, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis) and a Bayesian implementation of the maximum-entropy method-of-moments density function. TNBC PDX T2 maps were found to be markedly more robust to test-retest assessment compared to T1 and ADC maps. These results will inform studies employing MRI assessment of TNBC PDX response to docetaxel/carboplatin therapy.

2312
Computer 14
OE-MRI, DCE-MRI and DWI provide complementary response evaluation in patients with rectal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy
Ross A Little1, Anubhav Datta2, Adam K Featherstone1, Yvonne Watson1, Susan Cheung1, Lucy Buckley3, Mark P Saunders3, Geoff JM Parker1,4, and James PB O'Connor1,2,5

1Quantitative Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom, 3Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, United Kingdom, 4Bioxydyn Ltd, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Division of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Biomarkers derived from functional MRI have potential to monitor response to therapy and stratify patient care. In this study of 22 patients with rectal cancer we evaluated the relative merits of using OE-MRI, DCE-MRI and DWI biomarkers to assess response to chemoradiotherapy. We show that OE-MRI is feasible in rectal cancer tumours and provides complementary information to that measured by DWI and DCE-MRI. Data suggests that OE-MRI may be useful as a pharmacodynamic tool to identify hypoxia modification as this was present by day 14, but not at day 7 into therapy. 

2313
Computer 15
Association between Metabolism Measured by PET/CT and Vascular Parameters Measured by Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Spinal Lesions
Jiahui Zhang1, Enlong Zhang1, Yanyan Zhang2, Yongye Chen1, Ning Lang1, Hon J Yu3, Huishu Yuan1, and Min-Ying Lydia Su3

1Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China, 2Department of Nuclear Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China, 3Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States

A total of 49 patients with spinal lesions receiving DCE-MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT were analyzed. The ROI was manually placed on strongly enhanced area on MRI to measure DCE enhancement kinetics, and from which the wash-in and maximum enhancement ratio, wash-out slope, Ktrans and kep were extracted. SUVmax was measured from the corresponding lesion on FDG uptake map. The results showed that vascular parameters measured from DCE-MRI were not correlated with glucose metabolism measured by PET/CT; therefore, they represent different aspects of lesion, and may be combined for better staging or predicting prognosis rather than being used for diagnosis.

2314
Computer 16
Weekly T2’ and rOEF-mapping monitoring tumor oxygenation in patients with recurrent glioblastoma undergoing antiangiogenetic therapy
Katharina J. Wenger1, Elke Hattingen1, Joachim P. Steinbach2, Oliver Bähr2, Marlies Wagner1, Ralf Deichmann3, and Jan-Rüdiger Schüre1

1Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2Dr. Senckenberg Institute of Neurooncology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 3Brain Imaging Center, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany

For tumor treatment with bevacizumab (BEV), a VEGF-specific antibody, some preclinical reports describe a partial normalization of vessels resulting in a transient improvement in tumor oxygenation, while others observed a decrease in neovascularization, with induction of intratumoral hypoxia. By weekly monitoring rOEF with MRI in six glioblastoma patients until tumor progression according to RANO, we were able to discriminate between two tumor phenotypes with different biological behavior.

2315
Computer 17
Quantification of Cerebral Blood Flow using arterial spin labeling in glioblastoma multiforme; challenges of calibration in the presence of oedema.
Paula L Croal1,2, Flora Kennedy-McConnell1,2, Benjamin Harris3,4, Ruichong Ma4, Stasya M Ng3, Puneet Plaha4,5, Simon Lord3,4, Nicola R Sibson6, and Michael A Chappell1,2

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 4Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5Nuffield Department of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 6Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) offers a non-invasive and repeatable method for quantifying CBF, a promising biomarker in cancer imaging. However, the consensus for voxelwise calibration may not be appropriate for application in tumours. We hypothesise that voxelwise calibration in the presence of oedema will decrease sensitivity to alterations in CBF, and test this by measuring CBF with pseudocontinurous ASL in seven patients with glioblastoma multiforme, comparing the impact of voxelwise, white matter, and CSF calibration on tumour CBF. Calibration choice significantly affects absolute CBF; with a loss of CBF contrast in tumours when using voxelwise calibration, which may have clinical implication.

2316
Computer 18
The effect of sunitinib treatment assessed by intravital microscopy and DCE-MRI in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma xenografts
Jon-Vidar Gaustad1, Catherine S Wegner1, Anette Hauge1, Trude G Simonsen1, and Einar K Rofstad1

1Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway

The effect of sunitinib treatment was evaluated by DCE-MRI, intravital microscopy, and immunohistochemistry in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) xenografts growing in dorsal window chambers or intramuscularly in the hind leg of mice. Sunitinib selectively removed small-diameter vessels and increased blood flow velocity. The increased blood flow velocity was not sufficient to compensate for the loss of tumor vessels, and, consequently, sunitinib-treated PDAC xenografts showed increased fractions of hypoxic tissue. Ktrans derived by pharmacokinetic analysis of DCE-MRI data was sensitive to microvascular density and hypoxia in both untreated and sunitinib-treated PDAC xenografts.

2317
Computer 19
Correlation of Multiparametric MRI with extracellular pH mapping in a Rabbit Model for Liver Cancer
Dana C Peters1, Lynn J Savic1, Steffen Huber1, John J Walsh1, Isabel Schobert1, Lucas Adam1, Nina Tritz1, Fahmeed Hyder1, Mingde Lin1, James S Duncan1, Douglas Rothman1, Albert J Sinusas1, Julius Chapiro1, R. Todd Constable1, and Daniel Coman1

1Yale University, New London, CT, United States

Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) was studied using multiparametric MRI in a rabbit liver tumor model, comparing native T1 and T2* mapping, ADC, and dynamic contrast enhanced parameters, with extracellular pH maps. Tumor heterogeneity was well characterized by parametric mapping. 

2318
Computer 20
Implementation of A Novel Deep Learning Network on Predicting Isocitrate Dehydrogenase (IDH) Mutation in Patients with Gliomas
Haonan Xiao1 and Zheng Chang2

1Medical Physics Program, Duke Kushan University, Kunshan, China, 2Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States

The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of the Inception-ResNet to reduce image pre-processing and improve the prediction accuracy of the IDH status of gliomas. The T1w-post contrast, T2, and FLAIR images of 91 glioma patients after intensity normalization are fed to the network as training and validation set, and another group of 12 patients is randomly selected as the test set. The prediction accuracies of two repeated experiments are consistent,  both greater than 90%. The result shows that with Inception-Resnet, IDH status could be predicted at a high accuracy with minimal image pre-processing.

2319
Computer 21
Interrogations of Human Lung Cancer Metabolomics Measured from Intact Tissue Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy with Mass Spectrometry Imaging
Stephen J Eyles1, Mari Mino-Kenudson2, Igor A Kaltashov1, Richard W Vachet1, Yiying Zhang3, Kristen Sikora1, Cedric Bobst1, David C Christiani4, and Leo L Cheng5

1University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States, 2MGH/Harvard Medical School, Combridge, MA, United States, 3MGH/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States, 4Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, United States, 5Radiology and Pathlogy, MGH/Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States

Current radiology can detect small lung cancer (LuCa) lesions. However, their high costs coupled with their unproven efficacies as screening tools have prevented their use in annual screening protocols to detect LuCa at early and clinically asymptomatic stages. A simple and non-invasive screening technique, preferably a blood test, is needed to control the disease. Here we present results from mass spectrometry imaging that can produce localized “microscopic” maps of cancer metabolomic distributions revealed by high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HRMAS MRS), and can further assist establish blood serum LuCa biomarkers from analyses of human LuCa tissue-serum paired samples.

2320
Computer 22
Differentiating infiltrative tumor from vasogenic edema in glioblastom using oxygen-enhanced MR imaging
Junchao Qian1, Xian Zhang1, Xiang Yu1, Qi Chen1, Junjun Li1, Le Zhang1, Huajing Xie1, Mei Zhu1, Jun Yang1, and Hongzhi Wang1

1Hefei Cancer Hospital, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, China

Glioblastoma (GBM) induces both vasogenic edema and extensive tumor cells infiltration, both of which present with similar appearance and not be differentiated on conventional MRI. To distinguish between these infiltrative tumor and vasogenic edema components within the nonenhancing lesion area using novel techniques thus holds great clinical importance. Oxygen-enhanced MRI may directly reflect tissue oxygenation, has shown promising applications in the measurement of hypoxia or radiation-induced necrosis. Therefore, in this study we explored the possibility to differentiate vasogenic edema from infiltrative tumor in patients with GBM using oxygen-enhanced MRI. The results showed significant more negative ΔR1 levels (p < 0.05) were observed in the infiltrative tumor area compared to those in the vasogenic edema and tumor site. Oxygen-enhanced MR imaging has thus the potential to differentiate infiltrative tumor from vasogenic edema in glioblastoma.

2321
Computer 23
Lactate chemical exchange saturation transfer MRI as a biomarker for differentiating lactate dehydrogenase activity in 9L and F98 glioma
Puneet Bagga1, Mohammad Haris2,3, Hari Hariharan1, and Ravinder Reddy1

1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Research Branch, Sidra Medicine, Doha, Qatar, 3Laboratory Animal research Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar

Lactate chemical exchange saturation transfer (LATEST) MRI method has been shown to be applicable in detecting and imaging changes in the lactate level in human subjects post heavy exercise and to measure the lactate in a mouse model of lymphoma. In this study, LATEST was implemented to differentiate the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in vivo in two different preclinical glioma models. The two gliomas studied are widely used 9L (highly immunogenic, gliosarcoma) and F98 (weakly immunogenic, glioblastoma). The LATEST contrast was found to be higher in the tumor region of F98 rats compared to the 9L glioma carrying rats.

2322
Computer 24
PET/MRI as a sensitive diagnostic tool for peritoneal carcinomatosis: early results from a single center prospective study
Amy Law1,2, Naik Vietti Violi1,3, Stefanie Hectors1,2, Eliahu Y. Bekhor4, Somali Gavane5, Daniel Labow4, and Bachir Taouli1,2

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Surgery, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

The goal of our study was to assess the diagnostic value of PET/MRI for diagnosis and spatial localization of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) in patients prior to potential cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). We found that PET/MRI is sensitive and accurate at predicting PC at the patient level as compared to surgery, the reference standard. However, PET/MRI was not to as accurate in localizing PC in the abdominopelvic cavity. Findings need to be validated in a larger study.

2323
Computer 25
PET/MRI versus PET/CT in Oncology: A Prospective Single-center Study Focusing on Implications for Patient Management and Cost Considerations
Marius Erik Mayerhoefer1,2, Helmut Prosch3, Lucian Beer3, Dietmar Tamandl3, Thomas Beyer3, Ivo Rausch3, Dominik Berzaczy3, Markus Raderer3, Christoph Hoeller3, Matthias Preusser3, Ahmed Ba-Ssalamah3, Georgios Karanikas3, Julia Kesselbacher3, Gerald Prager3, Michael Weber3, Bernhard Brauner4, Markus Mitterhauser3, Harald Eidherr3, and Alexander Haug3

1Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria, 2Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 3Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Siemens Healthineers, Vienna, Austria

To prospectively investigate the clinical impact of PET/MRI, compared to PET/CT, in a mixed population of cancer patients, and to perform an economic evaluation of PET/MRI. 263 patients (330 same-day PET/CT and PET/MRI examinations) were analyzed. PET/MRI was accurate in 319/330 examinations, and PET/CT in 277/330 examinations; respective accuracies (97.3% vs. 83.9%) differed significantly (P<0.001). Additional findings on PET/MRI had implications for clinical management in 21/263 patients (8.0%). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for PET/MRI were 22.47 EUR (~26.28 USD) per percent of diagnostic accuracy, and 37.64 EUR (~44.06 USD) per percent of correctly managed patients.


Cancer Therapy Response Assessment

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 General Cancer Imaging

2324
Computer 26
Golden angle radial undersampling to accelerate synthetic CT generation with generative adversarial networks for prostate MR-guided Radiotherapy
Matteo Maspero1,2, Tom Bruijnen1,2, Mark H F Savenije1,2, Linda GW Kerkmeijer1, Peter R Seevinck2,3, and Cornelis A T van den Berg1,2

1Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Center for Image Sciences, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Image Science Institute, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Synthetic-computed tomography (sCT) is crucial to enable MR-only radiotherapy and accurate MR-based dose calculations. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of using undersampled golden angle radial acquisition in combination with a conditional adversarial network to accelerate both acquisition and sCT generation for patients with prostate cancer. Golden angle radial acquisitions were simulated for several undersampling factors in a retrospective manner on 3D Cartesian spoiled gradient-echo data that were clinically acquired on fourty patients with prostate cancer. Dose planning demonstrated that accurate MR-based dose calculations were possible up to an undersampling factor 30 resulting in fast (<20s) sCT generation, which is of particular interest for online MR-guided radiotherapy.

2325
Computer 27
Rapid 4D-MRI reconstruction using a Deep RAdial ConvoLutionAl neural network: Dracula
Joshua N. Freedman1,2, Oliver J. Gurney-Champion1, Hannah E. Bainbridge3, Jennifer P. Kieselmann1, Michael Dubec4, Henry C. Mandeville3, Simeon Nill1, Marc Kachelrieß5, Uwe Oelfke1, Martin O. Leach2, and Andreas Wetscherek1

1Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 2CR UK Cancer Imaging Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 3Department of Radiotherapy, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 4Department of Radiotherapy Related Research, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Medical Physics in Radiology, The German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

4D-MRI could inform online treatment plan adaptation on MRI guided radiotherapy systems, but long iterative reconstruction times (> 10 minutes) limit its use. A deep convolutional neural network was trained to learn the joint MoCo-HDTV algorithm and high-quality 4D-MRI (1.25x1.25x3.3 mm3, 16 respiratory phases) were reconstructed from gridded raw data in 27 seconds. Calculated 4D-MRI exhibited a high structural similarity index (0.97 ± 0.013) with the iteratively reconstructed test images and only a minor loss of fine details. Despite exclusively training the network on data from a diagnostic scanner, 4D-MRI were successfully reconstructed from raw data acquired on an MR-linac.

2326
Computer 28
A deep neural network based model for treatment response prediction using longitudinal diffusion MRI
Yu Gao1,2, Vahid Ghodrati1,2, Anusha Kalbasi3, Jie Fu2,3, Dan Ruan2,3, Minsong Cao2,3, Chenyang Wang3, Fritz C. Eilber4, Nicholas Bernthal5, Susan Bukata5, Sarah M. Dry6, Scott D. Nelson6, Mitchell Kamrava7, John Lewis2,3, Daniel A. Low2,3, Michael Steinberg3, Peng Hu1,2, and Yingli Yang2,3

1Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Physics and Biology in Medicine IDP, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Department of Pathology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States

A deep neural network based model was proposed to predict post-radiotherapy treatment effect score for localized soft tissue sarcoma patient using longitudinal diffusion MRI. Diffusion images were acquired three times throughout patient’s hypofractionated radiotherapy treatment. A convolutional neural network was constructed to learn the most useful spatial features from the tumor ADC maps at each time point, which is then fed into a recurrent neural network to exploit the temporal information between the extracted features. Excellent prediction performance of 97.4% accuracy on slice-based classification, and 95% accuracy on patient-based classification were achieved on independent test sets.

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Investigation of Abdominal Organ Respiratory Motion Probability Distribution Function and its Inter-Fractional Reproducibility Assessment Using Fast Volumetric 4D-MRI for Probability-Based Radiotherapy Planning
Yihang Zhou1, Jing Yuan1, Oi Lei Wong1, Kin Yin Cheung1, and Siu Ki Yu1

1Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, China

Respiratory motion is a major concern in radiotherapy (RT) in liver cancer patients.  Probability-based treatment planning is an evolving approach for tumor motion management. A major hurdle of this approach is that the dosimetric error is tightly linked to the reproducibility of the tumor motion probability density function (PDF). Previous studies in lung used single-slice dynamic MRI for PDF reproducibility evaluation that could only captured the 2D respiratory motion restricted by the MRI acquisition speed. Moreover, inter-subject and inter-fractional variability of time evolved PDF might be underestimated by using just two fractions. In this study, we aim to investigate the inter-fractional and inter-subject abdominal motion PDF and its reproducibility using an ultrafast volumetric 4D- MRI.

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Respiratory motion characterization and motion uncertainty estimation using a fast 3D+t MRI and bootstrapping for abdominal radiotherapy
Oi Lei Wong1, Jing Yuan1, Yihang Zhou1, Siu Ki Yu1, and Kin Yin Cheung1

1Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Respiratory motion characterization and uncertainty estimation is important in radiotherapy treatment planning, and is hindered by the imaging capability of 4DCT or time-resolved single/multi-slice MRI (2D+t). In this study, characterization of the positional and orientation uncertainty of abdominal organ respiratory motion, extracted from the time-resolved volumetric 3D+t MRI, was done using bootstrapping and tensor analysis.

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Baseline Tumor Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Value Can Predict First-line Sunitinib Therapy Response of Stage IV Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma
Liqiang Cui1, Yichen Wang2, and Yan Chen2

1Surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospitall, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China, 2National Cancer Center/National Clinical Research Center for Cancer/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

Our single-center retrospective study focused on Stage IV Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma patients who received first-line sunitinib therapy and found that baseline tumor apparent diffusion coefficient value derived from 3T diffusion weighted imaging showed different level in different response group. Baseline tumor ADC value also had significant correlation with progression-free survival. Patients with higher tumor ADC value had significantly longer progression-free survival. Basline tumor ADC can be a potential predictor in assessing targeted therapy response of Stage IV ccRCC.  

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Treatment response and recurrence prediction on MR during radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma
Tim Schakel1, Boris Peltenburg1, Remco de Bree2, Chris H.J. Terhaard1, and Marielle E.P. Philippens1

1Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Weekly MR imaging allows for tumor monitoring during treatment. T2 weighted imaging and distortion-free DW-TSE SPLICE were acquired weekly in 20 patients. Changes in volume and ADC could be followed over the course of (chemo)radiotherapy: volume decreases and ADC increases. Tumor delineation is crucial and becomes increasingly difficult during treatment. For the current patient population, 4 patients developed recurrent disease. However, volume changes measured on T2 weighted imaging and ADC changes did not yet show to be prognostic of tumor recurrence.

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Respiratory motion variability in 4D-MRI for MR-guided radiotherapy
Bjorn Stemkens1,2, Max van Riel1,3, Tom Bruijnen1, Jan JW Lagendijk1, Cornelis AT van den Berg1, and Rob HN Tijssen1

1Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2MR Code B.V., Zaltbommel, Netherlands, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands

Respiratory-induced motion of abdominal tumors can lead to displacements up to five centimeter, making radiotherapy treatments very challenging. The respiratory motion can be characterized by a 4D-MRI, acquired prior to treatment. In this study we investigate how long the 4D-MRI is valid for after acquisition. Additionally, the longitudinal validity of a motion model, derived from the 4D-MRI is assessed. 

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Radiomic analysis to determine glioma’s IDH1 gene status based on multi-MR sequences
Yi Liu1,2, Tong Han2, Xiaoling Yan3, Xuebin Zhang3, and Zhengting Cai4

1graduate school, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin, China, 2Department of Radiology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin, China, 3Department of Pathology, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin, China, 4Innovation Department, Huiying Medical Technology Co., Ltd, Beijing, China

The purpose of this retrospective study was to demonstrate the feasibility of radiomic methods to determine glioma’s IDH1 gene status based on MR imaging. We used a training set (99 patients)with a test set (29 patients), and extracted 1029 radiomic features from each sequence of T2WI, ADC, FLAIR, T1WI-CE and the combined, then reduced by Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator. Five logistic regression classifiers were built based on training set, evaluated using test set and compared by DeLong test. The results indicated the radiomics of combined four sequences had the best performance in distinguishing IDH1 gene status.

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Reproducible radiomic features from post-chemoradiation T2-weighted MRIs can more accurately discriminate pathologic T stage in rectal cancer patients
Amrish Selvam1, Jacob Antunes1, Justin T Brady2, Joseph E Willis3, Rajmohan Paspulati4, Anant Madabhushi1, and Satish Viswanath1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Department of General Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Department of Pathology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States

We present initial results for identifying radiomic features to effectively characterize pathologic chemoradiation response in rectal cancers, by ensuring feature reproducibility within reference non-tumor regions on post-chemoradiation T2w MRIs. Our approach used a new feature reproducibility measure to prune radiomic features and thus minimize variability due to acquisition or imaging differences. Microscale gradient radiomic features were found to be most reproducible and discriminable in segregating rectal cancer patients by post-chemoradiation pathologic stage independent of disease metastasis, across both training (AUC=0.75) and hold-out validation (accuracy = 84.6%) cohorts.

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Directional-gradient based radiomic descriptors from pre-treatment perfusion DSC-MRI to differentiate long-term from short-term survivors in Glioblastoma: Preliminary findings
Bolin Song1, Ramon correa1, Prateek Prasanna1, Niha Beig1, Anant Madabhushi1, and Pallavi Tiwari1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

We explored the utility of radiomic analysis to identify radiomic features (computer extracted features from MRI) that distinguish long-term survival patients from their short-term survival counterparts based on the pre-treatment perfusion DSC-MRI. Initial results indicate that dynamically extracted radiomic features from enhancing tumor and infiltrative edges on perfusion scans can segregate the 2 survival groups. A non-invasive means of predicting survival based on perfusion imaging may help clinicians to determine prognosis, and inform treatment strategy.

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Early non-invasive prediction of response to Temozolomide in low-grade glioma
Marina Radoul1, Elavarasan Subramani1, Chloe Najac1, Georgios Batsios1, Anne Marie Gillespie1, and Sabrina Ronen1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Newly diagnosed low-grade glioma (LGG) patients have a relatively long survival, but nonetheless ultimately recur. New therapies are therefore being considered for LGG. One approach is the use of Temozolomide, previously reserved for treating high grade glioblastoma. However, early indicators of response are still needed. Here, we investigated response to Temozolomide treatment in an orthotopic LGG mouse model. Using 1H MRS we detected an early decrease in total choline and a surprising increase in both glutamine and glutamine plus glutamate that were associated with ultimate tumor shrinkage. This identifies potential early metabolic biomarkers of response to Temozolomide treatment in LGG.

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4DMRI-based abdominal corset study for radiotherapy purposes
Kai Dolde1,2,3, Christian Dávid3,4, Gernot Echner1,2, Ralf Floca2,5, Clemens Hentschke2,5, Nina Niebuhr1,2,3, Kai Ohmstedt1,2,6, Nami Saito7, Merkur Alimusaj8, Beate Flügel8, and Asja Pfaffenberger1,2

1Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Heidelberg Institute for Radiooncology (HIRO), National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg, Germany, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 4X-Ray Imaging and Computed Tomography, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 5Medical Image Computing, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 6Department of Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany, 7Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, 8Center for Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany

Abdominal organ motion provides challenges for radiotherapy treatments, leading to inhomogeneous dose distributions with over- and underdosage regions in the target volume. Repeated 4D-MRI acquisitions, allow to analyze inter- and intrafractional spatial motion. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of abdominal corsets for motion reduction purposes, based on repeated 4D-MRI data sets. We found pronounced reductions in cranio-caudal and anterior-posterior direction using corsets, which additionally lead to more reproducible motion amplitudes. Lower amplitudes and better reproducibility are beneficial for radiotherapy and could lead to smaller irradiation margins and dose reductions to healthy tissue.

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Response monitoring by DCE-MRI in an experimental prostate tumor after single dose 12C-ion and photon radiotherapy
Alina Leandra Bendinger1,2, Lisa Seyler3, Maria Saager4,5, Charlotte Debus5,6,7, Peter Peschke4,5, Dorde Komljenovic1, Jürgen Debus5,7,8, Jörg Peter1, Ralf Omar Floca5,9, Christian Peter Karger4,5, and Christin Glowa4,5,7

1Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Faculty of Biosciences, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany, 4Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 5Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO) and National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg, Germany, 6Translational Radiation Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 7Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 8Clinical Cooperation Unit Radiation Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 9Department of Medical Image Computing, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

A series of DCE-MRI measurements was used to quantify the vascular changes after therapeutic and subtherapeutic doses of photon and 12C-ion irradiation of the anaplastic rat prostate tumor Dunning R3327-AT1. DCE-MRI data were analyzed by pharmacokinetic modelling employing the Extended Tofts model. Independent of dose, 12C-ions led to stronger and earlier treatment response than photons within the observation period indicated by increased Ktrans and ve parameters. Results were correlated to histological analyses for microvascular density, vessel maturity, tumor hypoxia, and proliferation that further underlined the faster, stronger, and more homogeneous treatment response after 12C-ion irradiation.

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Change of Radiotherapy Planning Target Volume Delineated on Pre-Treatment and mid-RT Follow-up MRI After 3-4 Weeks of Treatment
Yang Zhang1, Liming Shi2, Xiaonan Sun2, Tianye Niu2, Ning Yue3, Jeon-Hor Chen1,4, Tiffany Kwong1,3, Min-Ying Lydia Su1, and Ke Nie3

1Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA, United States, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Rutgers-The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, United States, 4Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

As tumor shows substantial shrinkage over the course of treatment, should radiation treatment volume be adjusted? A quantitative method using “radial distance”- the distance from the outer boundary of the tumor to the center of the rectum, was developed to evaluate the gross tumor volume (GTV) delineated on MRI acquired before treatment and after 3-4 weeks of radiation. In 35 patients, the mean tumor volume decreased from 19.1 to 10.5 cm3 but the mean radial distance only decreased slightly from 16.3 to 15.6 mm. When the remaining tumor was close to the rectal wall, the PTV should not be adjusted.

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Quantifying Information Content of Multiparametric MRI Data for Automatic Tumor Segmentation using CNNs
Lars Bielak1,2, Nicole Wiedenmann2,3, Thomas Lottner1, Hatice Bunea2,3, Anca-Ligia Grosu2,3, and Michael Bock1,2

1Dept.of Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Multimodality imaging with CT, PET, and MRI is the basis for precise tumor segmentation in radiation therapy. We analyze which MR imaging contrasts mainly improve the segmentation performance of a CNN by training multiple networks using different input channels. The predictive value of 7 different contrasts is compared for two tumor regions, gross tumor volume and lymph node metastasis, in head and neck tumor patients.

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Integration of DCE-MRI Texture Features with Clinical Data for Improved Early Prediction of Breast Cancer Therapy Response
Archana Machireddy1, Guillaume Thibault1, Alina Tudorica1, Aneela Afzal1, May Mishal1, Kathleen Kemmer1, Arpana Naik1, Megan Troxell1, Eric Goranson1, Karen Oh1, Nicole Roy1, Neda Jafarian1, Megan Holtorf1, Wei Huang1, and Xubo Song1

1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States

This study investigated the effect of integrating clinical data with DCE-MRI texture features in early prediction of breast cancer therapy response. DCE-MRI data collected from 55 breast cancer patients before and after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis.  Texture features were extracted from voxel-based DCE-MRI parametric maps.  Predictive performances with imaging features alone and in combination with clinical features were assessed and compared. Addition of clinical features to image texture features increased predictive capability in discriminating pathologic complete response (pCR) vs. non-pCR compared to using imaging features alone.

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Comparison of DCE-MRI Parametric Map-Based Features for Early Prediction of Breast Cancer Therapy Response
Archana Machireddy1, Guillaume Thibault1, Alina Tudorica1, Aneela Afzal1, May Mishal1, Kathleen Kemmer1, Arpana Naik1, Megan Troxell1, Eric Goranson1, Karen Oh1, Nicole Roy1, Neda Jafarian1, Megan Holtorf1, Wei Huang1, and Xubo Song1

1Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, United States

DCE-MRI data from 55 breast cancer patients collected before and after the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were subjected to pharmacokinetic analysis.  Four texture features, GLCM, RLM, single- and multi-resolution fractals extracted from DCE-MRI parametric maps, were analyzed for early prediction of therapy response. Generally, the multi-resolution fractal features from individual maps or the concatenated features from all parametric maps showed better predictive performance. The results suggest that multi-resolution analysis, which decomposes the texture at various spatial-frequency scales, may more accurately capture changes in tumor vascular heterogeneity as measured by DCE-MRI, and thus provide better early prediction of therapy response.     

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SLICs Algorithm for Non-Invasive Response Evaluation in Osteosarcoma with Multiparametric MR Imaging
Amit Mehndiratta1, Esha Badiya Kayal1, Sneha Patil 1, Sameer Bakhshi2, Raju Sharma3, and Devasenathipathy Kandasamy3

1Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India, 2Medical Oncology, IRCH, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 3Radio Diagnosis, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Osteosarcoma is a highly morbid bone-tumor with poor prognosis. Neoadjuvant-chemotherapy(NACT) is the current standard of care. The response of NACT is judged on Histopathology-examination(HPE) after surgical resection of tumor. However, a non-invasive and accurate methods for evaluation of treatment response during the course of therapy is highly desirable. In this research, a Simple-linear-iterative-clustering supervoxels(SLICs) algorithm based methodology using multiparametric MRI (T2,DWI and ADC) has been developed for identification of sub-parts of tumor (active-tumor, necrosis). The volume of active-tumor and necrosis were estimated using this novel approach in patients with OS, before NACT(baseline) and after 3 cycles of NACT(follow-up). The level of necrosis estimated using SLICs and measure with HPE showed a close match. SLICs based estimation of necrosis level is a non-invassive technique that can be useful in response evaluation of cancer imaging.

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Diffusion-weighted MRI for assessing longitudinal effect of radiation (photon beam) versus proton beam therapy on cranial bone marrow in children treated for brain tumors
Erika Pace1,2, Enrico Clarke3, Henry Mandeville3,4, Andrew Mackinnon2,5, and Nandita M deSouza1,2

1Cancer Research UK Imaging Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, United Kingdom, 2MRI Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom, 3Dept. of Clinical Oncology, The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom, 4Children's and Young Person's Unit and Haemato-oncology Unit, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom, 5Department of Neuroradiology, Atkinson Morley Regional Neuroscience Centre, St George's University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

Bone marrow ADC measurements were feasible from the clivus in children. Measurements were reproducible (95% confidence intervals -5.5% to +11%). Following radiation (photon) treatment or proton beam therapy, there was an early rise in ADC at 2 months consistent with bone marrow edema, followed by a fall. The level of early ADC increase (39% for radiation therapy, 42% for proton beam therapy) and pattern of change was similar in both treatment regimens.

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Extended texture analysis of unenhanced T1 and T2 sequences on whole body MRI for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma
Kaspar Ekert1, Christopher Kloth2, and Marius Horger1

1Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tubinga, Tubinga, Germany, 2Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany

Extended texture analysis of unenhanced T1 and T2 sequences on whole body MRI for evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients with multiple myeloma. Patients in a pre-treatment and post-treatment setting using a standardized imaging protocol and a standardized hematological and clinical surveillance were included. 107 features, based on the pyradiomics library, were analyzed for the main medullary lesion in myeloma patients. Extracted texture features were able to discriminate between responders and non-responders at follow-up in particular when using T2-imaga data.

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Genomically and Radiographically Adjusted Dose (GRAD) Framework for Biologically Adaptive MR-guided Radiotherapy
Zachary R. L. Boyd1, William A. Hall2, Douglas E. Prah2, and Eric S. Paulson1,2,3

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

Tumor burden, tumor proliferation, and tumor hypoxia, all of which vary in space and time, are evidence-based contributors of radiotherapy failure. In addition, it has been demonstrated that gene expression can influence radiosensitivity.  We demonstrate here the initial feasibility of a framework to incorporate genomic and radiographic information to derive patient-specific, voxelwise radiation dose prescription maps for use in a biologically adaptive MR-guided radiotherapy (BAMRgRT) strategy.

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MRI Independent Predictors of Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
Lijuan Wan1, Hongmei Zhang2, and Chongda Zhang2

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, 2National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

In order to tapped the potential of pCR prediction on T2WI comprehensively, both quantitative and qualitative parameters were evaluated in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. A development group were enrolled to assess these parameters and an external validation group to verify the diagnostic performance. Post-nCRT CATV (CATVpost) and the reduction rate of SIT (SITRR) were proved that were independently associated with pCR and can help for pCR prediction.

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The Evaluation of Signal Intensity Related Predictors on T2-weighted for Pathological Complete Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer
Lijuan Wan1, Chongda Zhang2, and Hongmei Zhang2

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China, 2National Cancer Center/Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China

In order to evaluate the value of tumor signal intensity related parameters on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for pathological complete response (pCR) prediction, the signal intensity of tumor(SIT) and the muscle(SIM) were both measured automatically, SIT was defined as an absolute T2W signal intensity of tumor, and SIM was used to correct SIT, resulting in the relative T2W signal intensity(SIT/M), the reduction rate of SIT and SIT/M were calculated.Post-nCRT SIT(SITpost), post-nCRT SIT/M(SIT/Mpost), SITRR and SIT/MRR were proved to be significantly different between pCR and non-pCR, and The diagnositic efficiency is better in non-mucinous adenocarcinoma than mucinous adenocarcinoma.

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Application of 3D_NerveVIEW to neurography of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in radiotherapy treatment planning
Biaoshui Liu1, Yimei Liu1, Wenchao Diao1, Along Chen1, Yingjie Mei2, Qinping Gu2, Queenie Chan3, Jianhua Wu1, Chengguang Lin1, and Ying Sun1

1Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, 2Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China, 3Philips Healthcare, Hongkong, China

In radiotherapy, CT/MR images are used to delineate the region of targets and normal structures. In this study, 3D_NerveVIEW sequence was performed on a volunteer, and then the image of cranial nerve was rigidly registered and fused to CT image. In the fused image, the cranial nerve had better visualization than CT and T1w images, and the contour of nerve was easily identified. Which could improve the accuracy of nerve contour and reduce the radiotherapy-induced nerve palsy.


Cancer Perfusion, Diffusion & Relaxometry

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 General Cancer Imaging

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An analysis of post-processing steps for residue function dependent DSC-MRI biomarkers through their clinical impact on glioma diagnosis for both 1.5 and 3T
Laura C. Bell1 and C. Chad Quarles1

1Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States

Several recent initiatives have focused on optimizing and standardizing DSC-MRI imaging protocols and post-processing steps. With the availability of public imaging databases that include clinical outcomes, various post-processing steps can be carefully assessed for their impact on the clinical outcomes. Here we evaluated post-processing steps for advanced perfusion biomarkers that relay on determining the residue function by examining the clinical impact of each step. In summary we determined that updating the current deconvolution steps is beneficial, and that normalization allows for tumor grading across clinical field strengths.  

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Bolus arrival time estimation for DCE-MRI signals without fast up-slope
Alina Leandra Bendinger1,2, Charlotte Debus3,4,5, Christin Glowa4,5,6, Christian Peter Karger4,6, Jörg Peter1, and Martin Storath7

1Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Faculty of Biosciences, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Translational Radiation Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 4Heidelberg Institute for Radiation Oncology (HIRO) and National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology (NCRO), Heidelberg, Germany, 5Department of Radiation Oncology and Radiotherapy, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 6Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 7Natural Sciences and Humanities, University of Applied Sciences Würzburg-Schweinfurt, Schweinfurt, Germany

Accuracy in pharmacokinetic modelling of DCE-MRI data can be impaired due to a delay between the contrast agent arrival in the tissue of interest and an artery further upstream. To correct the delay, bolus arrival times (BATs) are estimated from the concentration curves. However, the state-of-the-art method for estimating BATs may give unsatisfactory results if the curves do not exhibit a fast up-slope. We propose a spline-based method for BAT estimation for concentration curves without fast up-slopes which are often observed in small animal data. The proposed method gives accurate results on simulated and in vivo acquired rat data.


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IDH Genotypes Differentiation in Glioblastomas Using DWI and DSC-PWI in the Enhancing and Peri-Enhancing Region
Hua Zhang1, Dairong Cao1, Zhen Xing1, Dejun She1, Yu Lin1, Zhongshuai Zhang2, and Mengxiao Liu2

1Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou, Fujian, China, 2Scientific Marketing, SIEMENS Healthcare, Diagnostic Imaging, Shanghai, China

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the contribution of DWI and DSC-PWI in the peri-enhancing region for discriminating glioblastomas IDH genotypes. Further, the diagnostic value of this two MR techniques were compared with those in the enhancing portion. Features of conventional MRI, rADCmin-t, rADCmin-p, rCBVmax-t and rCBVmax-p were compared between IDH-m and IDH-w glioblastomas. IDH-mutated glioblastomas tended to present in frontal lobes and younger patients. Both rCBVmax-t and rCBVmax-p show significant difference between two subgroups, while rADCmin-t and rADCmin-p do not. The results showed that the accuracy of rCBVmax-p is higher than that of rCBVmax-t in the diagnosis of IDH-m glioblastomas. rCBVmax-p may have a better diagnostic value than rCBVmax-t in predicting IDH glioblastomas genotypes.

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Evaluating the effectiveness of preload in mitigating the leakage effect of dynamic contrast susceptibility MRI
Xin Li1, Seymur Gahramanov2, Ramon F Barajas3, and Edward A Neuwelt4

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 4Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States

Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) with low molecular weight Gadolinium based contrast agent (GBCA) is often confounded by GBCA’s leakage into intersitium space. Thus,  pre-DSC injection of GBCA (preload) is often used to mitigate the underestimation of relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) due to the leakage of GBCA. Here, we present results to demonstrate that preload is generally effective. However, small dose effect could still be expected in the process.

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Bayesian Pharmacokinetic Modeling of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Validation and Application
Andreas Mittermeier1, Birgit Ertl-Wagner2, Jens Ricke1, Olaf Dietrich1, and Michael Ingrisch1

1Department of Radiology, LMU University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2Div of Paediatric Neuroradiology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada

We implemented a tracer-kinetic model within a Bayesian framework which infers full posterior probability distributions for parameter estimates. We validate our Bayesian model using a digital reference object and compare it to a standard non-linear least squares approach. Furthermore, we use this approach to obtain pharmacokinetic parameter distributions during the course of a therapy for breast cancer DCE-MRI data, and we demonstrate how Bayesian posterior distributions can be utilized to assess treatment response.

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Investigating How to Optimally Combine Multimodal MRI Data to Better Identify Glioblastoma Infiltration.
Haitham Al-Mubarak1, Antoine Vallatos2, Joanna Birch3, Lindsay Gallagher1, Lesley Glmour4, Anthony Chalmers5, and William Holmes4

1Glasgow Experimental MRI Center, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2Centre of Clinical Brain Science, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 4University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 5Glasgow university, Glasgow, United Kingdom

The infiltration of glioblastoma tumour cells into normal tissue presents a major obstacle to effective treatment, may then be responsible for tumour recurrence after surgery. Clinical MRI failed to detect the invasion of tumour cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the information contained in the individual MR images and multi-regression analysis can be used to probe of invasion, applying a mouse model of an infiltrative brain tumour.

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Accuracy and precision of DCE-MRI acquired with golden-angle radial k-space under-sampling
Andrew J Fagan1, Silvin P Knight2, Matthew Clemence3, and James F Meaney2

1Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2National Centre for Advanced Medical Imaging (CAMI), St James Hospital / Trinity College University of Dublin, Dublin, Ireland, 3Philips Healthcare, Surrey, United Kingdom

The effects of using a continuous golden-angle radial k-space sampling trajectory, with varying degrees of under-sampling and compressed sensing image reconstruction, on the accuracy and precision of pharmacokinetic modeling of DCE data, were quantitatively investigated.  DCE image temporal resolutions (Tres)  ranging from 1.85s to 0.09s (corresponding to radial sampling densities of 100% to 4.68%) produced absolute accuracy/precision errors in all Ktrans, ve and kep values of ≤ 2%/4% (for Tres =1.85s) to ≤ 12%/11% (for Tres =0.09s), respectively.  These results demonstrate that DCE image acquisition protocols can be designed which constrain pharmacokinetic parameter value errors within prescribed thresholds.

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Optimized tumor volumes by dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging for assessing response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple negative breast cancer
Benjamin Charles Musall1, Beatriz E Adrada2, Abeer H Abdelhafez2, Hagar S Mahmoud2, Ken-Pin Hwang1, Jong Bum Son1, Lumarie Santiago2, Gary J Whitman2, Huong Le-Petross2, Tanya W Moseley2, Rosalind P Candelaria2, Bora Lim3, Senthil Damodaran3, Jennifer K Litton3, Stacy L Moulder3, Wei T Yang2, Jingfei Ma1, Mark D Pagel4, and Gaiane M Rauch2

1Imaging Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 3Breast Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4Cancer Systems Imaging, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

We evaluated several methods of measuring tumor volumes on DCE MRI for assessment of treatment response in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), including functional tumor volume (FTV), enhanced tumor volume(ETV), and clinical tumor volume (CTV). We compared different parameters for measurement of functional tumor volume at baseline as well as its changes during therapy, and established optimal parameters for FTV measurements. We found that optimized FTV and ETV have potential to serve as an imaging biomarker for evaluation of NAC treatment response in TNBC patients

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Quantitative ADC measurement of breast cancer with ssEPI and reduced FOV diffusion weighted imaging techniques
Benjamin Charles Musall1, Beatriz E Adrada2, Abeer H Abdelhafez2, Hagar S Mahmoud2, Ken-Pin Hwang1, Jong Bum Son1, Lumarie Santiago2, Gary J Whitman2, Huong Le-Petross2, Tanya W Moseley2, Rosalind P Candelaria2, Thorunn Helgason3, Elizabeth E Ravenburg3, Jennifer K Litton3, Stacy L Moulder3, Wei T Yang2, Jingfei Ma1, Mark D Pagel4, and Gaiane M Rauch2

1Imaging Physics, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 3Breast Medical Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4Cancer Systems Imaging, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

The goal of this study was to assess differences in quantitative ADC of breast cancer between ssEPI and rFOV DWI techniques. The two techniques were used to acquire breast DWI images in 27 patients at three different time points during their neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Tumor ADC from the two techniques at baseline and mid-treatment scans show strong correlation and minimal bias. However, tumor ADC from the two techniques at pre-surgery correlated more moderately and showed a slight bias. The relative and absolute changes in ADC at mid-treatment or pre-surgery from baseline showed only moderately-strong non-parametric correlation between the two techniques.

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Non-gaussian IVIM-DWI for HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer patients who received marked dose de-escalation in chemo-radiotherapy: Intra-treatment imaging response evaluation
Ramesh Paudyal1, Nadeem Riaz2, Vaios Hatzoglou3, Nancy Lee2, and Amita Shukla-Dave1,3

1Medical Physcis, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States

This study aims to evaluate treatment response in human papillomavirus-related (HPV+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using pre- treatment (TX), intra- TX week 1, 2, 3, and post-TX week 4 quantitative imaging metrics derived from non-Gaussian IVIM DWI.  ADC and D showed a significant increase between pre- and post-TX week 4 in complete response (CR) group, who were treated with dose de-escalation to 30Gy chemo-radiation therapy.

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Readout-segmented vs. Single Shot Diffusion MRI for Radiation Therapy Planning in Head and Neck Tumor
Lars Bielak1,2, Nicole Wiedenmann2,3, Thomas Lottner1, Hatice Bunea2,3, Anca-Ligia Grosu2,3, and Michael Bock1,2

1Dept.of Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Partner Site Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical Center University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

Image distortion is a major limitation in radiation therapy (RT) planning, especially for diffusion weighed imaging in regions with strong B0-inhomogeneity. In this study we analyze the improvement of Readout-segmented-EPI over conventional single shot EPI in the geometrically challenging anatomical region of the neck. RS-EPI effectively increases geometric accuracy in head and neck tumor DWI and significantly reduces ghosting artifacts at the cost of a slightly prolonged acquisition time. Therefore it has proven a clear clinical benefit compared to standard SS-EPI.

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Combined diffusion and perfusion MRI in Glioblastoma predicts glial stem cells proliferation and aggressiveness
Tanguy Duval1, Jean-Albert Lotterie1,2, Anthony Lemarié3, Caroline Delmas3, Christine Toulas3, Elizabeth Moyal3, and Vincent Lubrano1,2

1UMR 1214 Toulouse Neuroimaging Center, INSERM, Toulouse, France, 2Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital of Toulouse, Toulouse, France, 3U1037 Toulouse Cancer Research Center, INSERM, TOULOUSE, France

Interpretation of diffusion and perfusion MRI in the hyper-FLAIR is challenging. In this work, biopsies were extracted from 16 subjects and infiltrative tumorous stem cells were counted and cultivated intraoperatively to measure their aggressiveness. Diffusion was found to be a good predictor of the time to form tumorous neurospheres. Glioblastoma stem cells were found preferably in regions with strong perfusion, that is to say near vascular niches.

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Getting more from less: a morphological model of diffusion in the prostate for improving the predictive power of DWI in identifying tumors.
David Willis1, Donnie Cameron1, Paul Malcolm2, and Glyn Johnson1

1Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7UQ, UK, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich, United Kingdom

We constructed a morphological model of diffusion in the prostate from a limited number of diffusion-weighted images to increase the sensitivity of such diffusion imaging to the presence of prostate cancer. Estimating the measurement error (9.9%) and characterizing the prostate from a large public dataset (n=206) has shown morphological relationships (|r|>0.5) and provided distributions and relationships within the available ADC measures. A model can then be used to give expected values to test against, and enable much larger datasets to be synthesized with the aim of testing various machine learning approaches.

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Serial ADC measurements in the T2 hyperintense, but otherwise normal-appearing white matter of glioblastoma patients correlates with survival
Aaron Rulseh1, Jan Sroubek2, Jan Klener2, and Josef Vymazal1

1Department of Radiology, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Na Homolce Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic

Glioblastoma is the most common malignant primary intracranial tumor and, despite multi-modal treatment, the prognosis remains poor. Additional tools to improve early detection or evaluate treatment response are highly desirable. We evaluated serial ADC measurements in the T2-hyperintense, but otherwise normal-appearing white matter at 1.5 T in thirty-five subjects diagnosed with glioblastoma and treated by surgical resection, radiotherapy, temozolomide and tumor-treating fields. We found that serially increasing ADC in the T2-hyperintense, but otherwise normal-appearing white matter in glioblastoma patients is prognostically favorable, with significantly greater overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with increasing ADC.

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Characterising early stage cervical cancer using radiomic features derived from T2- and diffusion-weighted images: a potential prognostic tool in surgical management?
Ben Wormald1,2, Simon Doran1, James D'Arcy1, James Petts1, Thomas Ind3,4, and Nandita M deSouza1,2

1Cancer Research UK Imaging Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, United Kingdom, 2MRI Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton, United Kingdom, 3Gynaecology Unit, The Royal Marsden Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 4Gynaecology, St. Georges University Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Radiomic features were compared between cervical tumors below and above the volume threshold of eligibility for trachelectomy (< or >4 cm3) to determine their potential prognostic value. Textural feature differences between smaller and larger tumors were similar for both the T2-W and the ADC data. Homogeneity and Energy were increased and Entropy, Contrast and Cluster Prominence decreased in larger tumors. This may reflect the transition from a mixed morphology (tumor elements interspersed with normal glands and stroma) in smaller tumors to more homogenous sheets of malignant cells as tumors increase in size and de-differentiate.

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Cluster analysis of IVIM parameter maps reveals tumor subregions of different proliferative status
Oscar Jalnefjord1,2, Mikael Montelius1, Jonathan Arvidsson1,2, Eva Forssell-Aronsson1,2, Göran Starck1,2, and Maria Ljungberg1,2

1Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden

Tumors are often heterogeneous, which can be seen with various imaging techniques. Even so, analysis based on quantitative imaging is often restrained to average tumor parameter values. In this study we used cluster analysis to identify tumor subregions based on IVIM parameter maps. The tumor subregions showed strong agreement with proliferative status as derived from histological analysis.

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Longitudinal diffusion kurtosis MRI in an intracranial rat glioblastoma model
Clementine Lesbats1, Claire Kelly1, Gabriela Czanner2, and Harish Poptani1

1Centre for Preclinical Imaging, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2Department of Applied Mathematics, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Diffusion kurtosis MRI was used to evaluate the longitudinal changes in a tumor microstructure of a rat model of glioblastoma. F98 tumor cells were injected into six rat brains and imaged longitudinally 8, 11 and 14 days post-implantation. For DKI, an EPI-DTI sequence was used with 2 b-values (1000-2000 s/mm2) and 15 directions. Diffusional kurtosis parameters increased in the tumor compared to the contralateral healthy brain. No significant change with time in the tumor was observed for any diffusion or kurtosis parameters.


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Probing the combined effects of collagen concentration and cell density on MR diffusion and relaxivity using a model system
Hannah MacDonald1, David J Collins1, and Nandita M deSouza1

1Cancer Research UK Imaging Centre, The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, United Kingdom

Cell-encapsulating collagen-based models can be used to investigate the relative contributions of the intra and extracellular compartments to ADC, T1 and T2. ADC is mostly affected by cell density, while T2 is influenced primarily by the collagen density; a 120% reduction in T2 was seen when collagen density was increased seven-fold, but this reduction was only 80% in cell containing collagen gels. ADC was not altered by increasing collagen density, unless cell density was also increased.

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Diffusion Weighted Imaging at 7T for Differentiation by Grade and Cellularity of Murine Endogenous Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma
Irina Heid1, Geoffrey Topping2, Florian Englert1, Katja Steiger3, Ernst Rummeny1, Markus Schwaiger2, Franz Schilling2, and Rickmer Braren1

1Radiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2Nuclear Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 3Institute of Pathology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

DWI of mice with endogenous PDAC tumours were acquired in a 7T MRI system without breath gating.

Inclusion of DWI with b-values above 800 s/mm2 in fits substantially improves the qualitative appearance and reduces variance of uniform region fit ADC.

Tumours were grouped (based on histology) by cellularity (amounts of neoplastic cells and stroma, and clustering) and separately by grade. ADC reliably distinguishes tumours of different cellularity (PDAClow 1.58±0.08; PDACmed 1.35±0.07; PDAChigh 1.17 ± 0.11; P<0.0001). Grades G2 and G3 were not distinguishable via ADC (1.43±0.15 vs. 1.43±0.16 10-3 mm2/s), however G4 had significantly lower ADC (1.16±0.10 10-3 mm2/s, P<0.0001).


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Detection of pre-metastatic niches in perfused mouse livers by diffusion-weighted imaging at ultra-high field
Rui Vasco Simões1, Sergio Caja-Galán1, Rafael Neto Henriques1, Bruno Costa-Silva1, and Noam Shemesh1

1Champalimaud Research, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal

Cancer cells can induce phenotypic modifications at future sites of dissemination (pre-metastatic niches), which support tumor growth and metastasis. Here we evaluated whether diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) could detect mouse liver pre-metastatic niches (LPM) ex vivo using ultrahigh magnetic field MRI. Our results show that mean diffusivity (MD) and mean kurtosis (MK) can depict microstructural changes associated with LPM formation, consistent with a more fibrotic and cellular microenvironment revealed by histologic analysis of the same samples. These results represent a solid step toward the development of a non-invasive imaging tool for pre-metastatic niche diagnosis.

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T1 relaxivity in the bone marrow to monitor response to therapy in acute myeloid leukemia xenografts
Ana L. Gomes1, Diana Passaro1, Dominique Bonnet1, and Bernard Siow2

1Haematopoietic Stem Cell Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom, 2In Vivo Imaging, The Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom

Mouse models of cancer are extensively used to better understand the pathobiology of the disease, to test potential novel therapies, and for the development of diagnostic and prognostic imaging tools. Currently, diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is quite invasive. It is based predominantly on blast quantification in the blood and bone marrow (BM) analysis, and imaging is not part of the clinical follow-up of the patients. T1 relaxivity of the mouse BM has not been reported previously. . BM of mice injected with AML cells from patients present higher T1 relaxation values than normal BM, and it further increased after chemotherapy treatment. Although analysis of bigger cohorts of patients would be required, our data suggest a good potential for BM T1 monitoring as a non-invasive marker for AML resistance to therapy.

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Quantitative Imaging of Pharmacodynamics in a Phase 1 Clinical Study of the Vascular Disrupting Agent Crolibulin (EPC2407)
Andres M. Arias Lorza1, William L. Read2, Raoul Tibes3, Ronald L. Korn4, and Natarajan Raghunand1,5

1Department of Cancer Physiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, TAMPA, FL, United States, 2Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Perlmutter Cancer Center, NYU Langone Health, New York, NY, United States, 4Imaging Endpoints, LLC, Scottsdale, AZ, United States, 5Department of Oncologic Sciences, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, United States

Diffusion and DCE-MRI were performed at baseline and 2-3 days following Crolibulin (EPC2407) treatment in a phase 1 clinical study of this vascular disrupting agent. ADCw, Ktrans, Ve, and Vp parameter maps were computed and co-registered across scan dates. Over 10 subjects there was an average of 44% decrease in mean tumor Ktrans 2-3 days after initiation of therapy relative to baseline Ktrans values. The decrease in whole-tumor Ktrans was significantly greater in subjects who received 24 mg/m2 drug relative to those who received 13 mg/m2 Crolibulin. Voxel-wise analysis of changes in ADCw, Ktrans, Ve, and Vp will be presented.

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Optimisation of luminal water imaging for classification of prostate cancer
Fiona Gong1, William Devine1, Francesco Giganti2, Edward Johnston1, David Atkinson1, and Shonit Punwani1

1Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, University College London Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

Luminal Water Imaging (LWI) using a multi-echo T2 sequence with 64 echoes has been proposed for microstructural assessment of prostate cancer. We have previously demonstrated that LWI could be simplified and performed using 32 echoes. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether further reduction in echo train length is possible. Reducing echo train length reduces SAR and provides the opportunity to improve LWI resolution and/or volume coverage without exceeding maximum SAR requirements for imaging patients.

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The influence of different ROI delineation strategies for relaxation measurements in nasopharyngeal carcinoma using Synthetic MR imaging
Liangru Ke1, Tie-bao MENG1, Hui-ming LIU1, Long Qian2, Bing Wu2, Hui Li1, Yun He1, Hao-qiang HE1, and Chuan-miao XIE1

1Department of Medical Imaging, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China, 2GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Beijing, China

Recently, a novel quantification method named synthetic MRI have attracted more and more attention in the field of clinical research, such as neural disorders and tumor since the first study in 2008. However, this quantitative assessment of diseases based on relaxation times requires regions of interest (ROI), the delineation of which can impact the accuracy of estimated values. To evaluate how the distinct methods of ROI delineation would impact the relaxation value estimation, in current study, 30 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) were acquired using synthetic MRI.

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Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Imaging for Monitoring the Immune Response to Cyclophosphamide in C57BL/6 Mice with GL261 gliomas
Junjiao Hu1, Long Qian2, and Xiangran Cai1

1Medical image center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China

It is known that the intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been widely applied to the detection and characterization of tumors. However, there were no studies to investigate the use of IVIM-DWI in the evaluation of anti-neoplastic agents induced immune response. In this work, to assess whether IVIM-DWI can predict the immune response to anti-neoplastic agents, six C57BL/6 mice with GL261 mouse gliomas were applied using Metronomic cyclophosphamide. Our results indicated that IVIM-DWI is sensitive to detect the Cyclophosphamide-induced Immune Response.


Cancer Detection & Monitoring

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 General Cancer Imaging

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Correlation of breast tumor grade and lymphovascular invasion with biomechanical properties: first results from a breast cancer trial
Sweta Sethi1,2, Daniel Fovargue3, Stefan Heinz Hoelzl3, Ayse Sila Dokumaci3, Emma Burnhope3, Jurgen Runge3, Sanjay Mistry1, Keshthra Satchithananda4, Arnie Purushotham2, and Ralph Sinkus3

1Guy's and St.Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, 2Division of Cancer Studies, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Division of Imaging Sciences & Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 4King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom

Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) has been considered a promising novel imaging modality in the quantification of viscoelastic properties of breast tumours. The purpose of this study was to evaluate reproducibility and repeatability of a newly developed MRE breast system and investigate whether aberrant biomechanical properties correlate with tumour histopathology. MRE was conducted on 20 healthy volunteers and 15 breast cancer patients. Malignant lesions demonstrated an increase in viscoelasticity when compared to adipose or fibroglandular tissue. While lesions with lymphovascular invasion demonstrated a tendency towards more elevated viscoelasticity than those without lymphovascular invasion, histological grades clearly did not correlate with biomechanics.

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MRI-based radiomic to predict lipomatous soft tissue tumors malignancy
Benjamin Leporq1, Amine Bouhamama2, Fabrice Lame2, Catherine Bihane2, Michael Sdika1, Jean-Yves Blay3, Frank Pilleul2, and Olivier Beuf4

1CREATIS CNRS UMR 5220; Inserm U1206; INSA-Lyon; UCBL Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France, 2Department of Radiology, Centre de lutte contre le cancer Léon Berard, Lyon, France, 3Department of Oncology, Centre de lutte contre le cancer Léon Berard, Lyon, France, 4CREATIS CNRS UMR 5220; Inserm U1206; INSA-Lyon; UCBL Lyon 1, Université de Lyon, Lyon, France

In this study a MRI-based radiomic method was developed to predict lipomatous soft tissue tumors malignancy. 81 subjects with lipomatous soft tissue tumors whose histology was known and with fat-suppressed T1w contrast enhanced MR images available were retrospectively enrolled to constitute a database. A linear support vector machine was used after learning base dimension reduction to develop the model. Results demonstrate that the evaluation of lipomatous tumor malignancy is feasible with good diagnosis performances using a routinely used MRI acquisition in clinical practice.

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Quality assurance of quantitative MRI for biomarker discovery in locally advanced cervical cancer
Petra J van Houdt1, Kari Tanderup2, Jesper F Kallehauge2, Remi A Nout3, Robert Hudej4, Supriya Chopra5, Jamema Swamidas5, Zdenko J van Kesteren6, Cornelis A.T. van den Berg7, Michaela Daniel8, Dietmar Georg8, Eirik Malinen9, Jean-Charles Côté10, Ives R Levesque11, and Uulke A van der Heide1

1Radiation Oncology, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark, 3Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 4Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia, 5Radiation Oncology, Tata Memorial Centre, Mumbai, India, 6Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 7Radiatiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 8Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 9Medical Physics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 10Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 11Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Large multi-center studies are needed to realize the utilization of quantitative MRI (qMRI) as a biomarker for cervical cancer. In this study we created a framework for a multi-center imaging biomarker study, maximizing the consistency between quantitative results in the presence of a large variety of MRI systems. This way, large deviations in qMRI values can be detected and corrected before enrolment of patients in a study. Furthermore, these results can be used to determine the statistical power of the study.

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The value of 1.5T contrast-enhanced T1 SPACE sequence in the simulation and planning for Cyberknife stereotactic radiosurgery of brain metastases: patient positioning accuracy, lesion detectability, and target delineation reliability
Jing Yuan1, Oilei Wong1, Winky WK Fung2, Gladys G Lo3, Franky KF Cheng2, Yihang Zhou1, George Chiu2, Kin Yin Cheung1, and Siu Ki Yu1

1Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Happy Valley, Hong Kong, 2Department of radiotherapy, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Happy Valley, Hong Kong, 3Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Happy Valley, Hong Kong

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is increasingly used for multiple brain metastases (BM) treatment and imposes critical requirements on the accuracy of BM detection, localization and definition in the treatment planning. SPACE sequence is valuable in BM detection for diagnosis, while its value in the BM SRS planning has rarely been explored. We prospectively and quantitatively assessed CE-T1-SPACE in the treatment simulation and planning of Cyberknife-guided BM SRS on a 1.5T MRI-simulator. The results showed that CE-T1-SPACE facilitated high patient positioning accuracy, superior BM detectability and reliable GTV delineation, showing great value in the treatment planning of BM SRS.

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Measuring eye deformation between planning and proton beam therapy position using MRI.
Myriam Jaarsma-Coes1, Megan Schuurmans2, Kilany Hassan2, Eleftheria Astreinidou3, Marina Marinkovic4, Femke Peters3, and Jan-Willem Beenakker1

1Radiology & Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 3Radiotherapy, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 4Ophthalmology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands

MRI is becoming a new important imaging modality for ocular tumours. The acquisition of the MR-images for therapy planning are acquired in supine position, but proton beam radiotherapy is performed with the patient in sitting position. By performing scans in supine and in flexed position, we found that this change in gravity direction produces no substantial changes (<0.3mm) in eye and tumour shape. Our results indicate that supinely acquired MR images can be used to accurately plan proton beam radiotherapy of ocular tumours.

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Understanding the Biomechanical Signature of Pressurised Tumour on the Surrounding Tissue: a Modelling Study
Marco Fiorito1, Jack Lee1, Daniel Fovargue1, Adela Capilnasiu1, David Nordsletten1,2, and Ralph Sinkus1,3

1School of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 3U1148, INSERM, Paris, France

Solid tumour growth is often associated with the accumulation of mechanical stresses acting on the surrounding host tissue. These forces alter the biomechanics of the adjacent soft tissue, generating a variation in stiffness resulting in a signature pattern that can be probed through MR-Elastography. The probed stiffness, however, is strongly dependent on the direction of propagation of the employed shear waves, leading to the reconstruction of anisotropic mechanical properties of the peri-tumoural tissue. Here we present, using theoretical and experimental means, a closed theoretical understanding of the observed alteration of tangent stiffness of soft tissue generated by pressurised tumour expansion.

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Molecular MRI differentiation between thyroid papillary carcinoma and thyroid adenoma without cystic degeneration using endogenous protein-based Amide Proton Transfer  Signals
guomin li1, yingjie mei2, and jianhao yan1

1Department of Radiology, Guangdong Second Provincial General Hospital, guangzhou, China, 2Philips Healthcare,Guangzhou, China, guangzhou, China

To identify thyroid papillary carcinoma from thyroid adenoma, we acquired amide proton transfer(APT) value of the both by using the 3T MRI. The differences of APT value of the both were statistically compared by means of nonparametric methods and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were used. The results showed statistical differences among the two nodules, suggesting that APTw imaging can be considered for differentiation of thyroid carcinoma from benign thyroid carcinoma.

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Detailed MRI Report Findings Play Important Role in Establishing Predictive Machine Learning Models For Recurrence in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma
Weijing Zhang1, Chunyan Cui1, Huali Ma1, Li Tian1, Annan Dong1, Zhiqiang Tian2, Xinlei Deng3, Xucheng Zhang3, Nian Lu1, Haojiang Li1, and Lizhi Liu1

1Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China, 2Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi an, China, 3Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China

To compare different machine-learning approaches, develop the best predictive model for recurrence, and explore interactions between different types of data in non-metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Auto Machine Learning (AutoML) classifier plus the minimum redundancy and maximum correlation (mRMR) method achieved the best predictive accuracy to build prediction model for recurrence in NPC. The model incorporating databases including T/N stage data, clinical data, or detailed MRI report findings showed the best performance. Detailed MRI report findings have potential as useful biomarkers in predicting NPC recurrence, which may help develop more individualized multidisciplinary treatment and follow-up strategies.

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In vivo MR imaging of pelvic lymph nodes at ultra-high magnetic field (7T)
Tom Scheenen1,2, Bart Philips1, Rutger Stijns1, Ansje Fortuin1, Marloes Van Der Leest1, Mark Ladd3, Harald Quick2,4, Jelle Barentsz1, Stefan Rietsch2,4, Sacha Brunheim2,4, Stephan Orzada2, and Marnix Maas1

1Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Erwin L Hahn Institute, Essen, Germany, 3German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany, 4University Hospital Essen, Essen, Germany

The presence of metastases in pelvic lymph nodes marks the transition from local to systemic disease in many primary cancers in the lower abdomen. This crucial step in disease progression determines prognosis and the choice of treatment. Detection of metastatic lymph nodes is currently done with invasive diagnostic surgery, but could profit from USPIO-enhanced MRI. In this 7T study we present an in vivo anatomical baseline of number, size and location of visible lymph nodes in healthy volunteers, as well as the feasibility of using USPIO-enhanced MRI to detect suspicious lymph nodes in patients with prostate and rectal cancer.

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Detection and Risk-stratification of Prostate Cancer with MR Molecular Imaging using Extradomain-B Fibronectin as a Biomarker
Zheng-Rong Lu1, Amita M Vaidya1, Nadia Ayat1, Jing-Can Qin1, and Sarah Roelle1

1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Early detection and differential diagnosis of high-risk prostate cancer is imperative, so as to enable risk-stratification and decision-making in disease management. This research shows that the ECM oncoprotein Extradomain-B Fibronectin (EDB-FN) is strongly associated with high-risk prostate tumors and with low-risk prostate tumors that evolve into high-risk tumors, highlighting the potential of EDB-FN as a promising diagnostic biomarker for prostate cancer imaging. In addition, we have developed EDB-FN-specific peptide targeted MRI contrast agents that facilitate accurate differential detection and risk-stratification of prostate cancers.

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The Effects of Ground Truth Variance on Radio-Pathomic Mapping in Prostate Cancer
Sean D McGarry1, John D Bukowy2, Kenneth A Iczkowski3, Wei Huang4, Tatjana Antic5, Gladell Paner5, Allison K Lowman2, Tucker Keuter6, Anjishnu Banerjee6, Alex Barrington2, Samuel Bobholz1, Petar Duvnjak2, Michael Griffin2, Mark Hohenwalter2, Kenneth Jacobsohn7, and Peter S LaViolette2

1Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wauwatosa, WI, United States, 2Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wawautosa, WI, United States, 3Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wawautosa, WI, United States, 4Pathology, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 5Pathology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 6Biostatistics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wawautosa, WI, United States, 7Urological Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Wawautosa, WI, United States

achine learning provides a framework for non-invasively extracting more information from a clinical prostate scan by leveraging aligned post-surgical tissue samples with in-vivo imaging to create predictive models of histological characteristics. Many of these algorithms rely on a pathological diagnosis as the ground truth for the classification or regression task. This study aims to investigate the effects of varying the ground truth label in generating voxel-wise radio-pathomic maps of epithelium and lumen density in prostate cancer.

2385
Computer 87
Feasibility of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting of Glioblastoma Multiforme
Joshua D Kaggie1, Fulvio Zaccagna1, Mary McLean2, Dimitri A Kessler1, Guido Buonincontri3, Rolf F Schulte4, Amy Frary1, Martin J Graves1, Ferdia A Gallagher1, and Tomasz Matys1

1Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2Cancer Research UK, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 3IMAGO7 Foundation, Pisa, Italy, 4GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) research seeks to establish fast, sensitive, repeatable, and quantitative methods.  The reduction of MRI acquisition times is important for patients who have significant disease, such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and therewith difficulties with lengthy scan sessions.  Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a method that can enable fast quantitative T1 and T2 mapping by exploiting transient signals caused by the variation of pseudorandom sequence parameters.  This work demonstrates the feasibility of MRF in three patients with GBM, showing two before and after gadolinium contrast.

2386
Computer 88
Zero TE based pseudo CT conversion: impact of different HU value assignment methods for bones in the Head.
Cristina Cozzini1, Mikael Bylund2, Sandeep Kaushik3, Joakim H Jonsson2, Josef A Lundman2, Mathias Engström4, Tufve Nyholm2, and Florian Wiesinger1

1GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany, 2Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden, 3GE Global Research, Bangalore, India, 4GE Healthcare, Stockholm, Sweden

Patient specific and accurate pseudo CT are needed for the adoption of MR-only in the radiation therapy workflow. Zero TE (ZTE) acquisition has proven to be very robust and reliable for bone segmentation, with the additional advantage of showing a reproducible inverse linear correlation with corresponding CT HU for ZTE intensity values in the bone range. Here we specifically investigate the impact on the dose accuracy of continuous versus single HU value assignment for bones and the strength of the Zero TE inverse linear correlation to CT values for accurate pseudo CT conversion.

2387
Computer 89
Statistical prediction of recurrence-free survival at 10 years in breast cancer patients
Isha Punn1, Renee Cattell1, Pauline Huang1, James Kang1, Thomas Ren1, Varsha Talanki1, Ashima Muttreja1, Sarah Dacosta1, Jules Cohen1, Haifang Li1, Lea Baer1, Cliff Bernstein1, Sean Clouston1, Roxanne Palermo1, and Timothy Duong1

1Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States

This study examined whether axillary lymph-node size accurately predicts or improves prediction of 10-year recurrence-free survival. We found that for single-variable analysis, the top predictor of recurrence-free survival was pre-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) nodal volume (AUC=0.67), followed by pre-NAC tumor volume (AUC=0.66). In 4-variable analysis, the top set of predictors was pre-NAC nodal volume, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity, pre-NAC tumor volume, and tumor volume difference between pre- and early-NAC time points (AUC=0.79). This is the first study of investigating prediction performance of recurrence-free survival using longitudinal volume change of axillary lymph-node volume in breast cancer patients.

2388
Computer 90
Gradient-entropy based radiomic features to predict molecular sub-types of pediatric Medulloblastoma on Gadolinium-enhanced T1w MRI
Sukanya Iyer1, Marwa Ismail1, Benita Tamrazi2, Ashley Margol3, Ramon Correa1, Prateek Prasanna1, Niha Beig1, Ruchika Verma1, Volodymyr Statsevyc4, Anant Madabhushi1, and Pallavi Tiwari1

1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angels, Los Angels, CA, United States, 3Hematology, Children's Hospital Los Angels, Los Angels, CA, United States, 4Diagnostic Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States

Genomic Characterization of Medulloblastoma (MB) has recently identified 4 distinct molecular subgroups: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH), wingless (WNT), Group 3, and Group 4. These subgroups have shown different clinical behaviours and benefits to subgroup-specific treatments. We explored the feasibility of a new gradient-entropy radiomic feature, CoLlAGe, to distinguish molecular sub-types of MB on Gd-T1w MRI.  Our results using multi-class comparison via one way ANOVA and post-hoc comparison showed significant differences in CoLlAGe features obtained across molecular sub-types. Our feasibility results suggest that the CoLlAGe features in different tumor regions observed on routine Gd-T1w MRI may potentially serve as surrogate markers to non-invasively characterize molecular sub-types of pediatric MB.

2389
Computer 91
Characterization of the arrest and retention of iron-labeled breast cancer cells and the growth and progression of brain metastases in NSG mice
Natasha Knier1,2, Amanda M. Hamilton1, Ashley V. Makela1,2, and Paula J. Foster1,2

1Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

Patient-derived xenografts in NSG mice provide a novel and more clinically relevant model of studying breast cancer brain metastasis in comparison to traditional cell lines in nude mice. NSG and nude mice both received brain-seeking breast cancer cells and were imaged with MRI to assess cell arrest, retention, and growth. Images revealed significantly more brain metastases and overall whole-body tumour burden in NSG mice than nudes. These results provide characterization of the NSG mouse as a preclinical platform for PDX models and demonstrates the importance of imaging to establish this model for future advancements in drug development and personalized medicine.

2390
Computer 92
Stacked In-plane Histology for Quantitative Validation of Non-invasive Imaging Biomarkers: Application to an Infiltrative Brain Tumour Model
Haitham Al-Mubarak1, Antoine Vallatos2, Joanna Birch3, Lindsay Gallagher1, James Mullin4, Lesley Glmour4, John Foster5, Anthony Chalmers6, and William Holmes1

1Glasgow Experimental MRI Center, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 2Centre of Clinical Brain Science, Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 4University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 5Department of Clinical Physics and Bioengineering, Greater Glasgow Health Board and University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom, 6Institute of Cancer Sciences, Glasgow university, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Despite the advance in medical imaging, it is important to validate new imaging biomarkers for a particular disease against histopathology, which is considered the ground truth. Here we propose a methodology for the quantitative validation of MRI biomarkers by the co-registration of histological probability maps with MR images. Using a mouse model of infiltrative brain tumours, we show this approach is far more robust than those currently applied.

2391
Computer 93
Reductive microenvironment responsive gadolinium-based polymers as potential safe MRI contrast agents
Xueyang Xiao1, Shiwei Guo2, Kui Luo2, and Qiyong Gong2

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 2Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, Sichuan University, Chengdu,Sichuan, China

The abstract provided an alternative strategy to develop highly efficient and safe gadolinium-based MRI macromolecular contrast agents (Gd-mCAs) via conjugation of small molecular DOTA-Gd to a stimuli-responsive biodegradable and amphiphilic block DHPMA copolymer through a ROX-sensitive biocleavable disulfide bond. Also, its potential as efficient and safe MRI mCAs for cancer diagnosis have been investigated. 

2392
Computer 94
MR spectroscopy to assess decreased tumor choline as a marker of response to choline kinase inhibitors
Claire Louise Kelly1, Clementine Lesbats1, Sofya Osharovich 2, Arthur Taylor1, Violaine See3, Edward Jim Delikatny2, and Harish Poptani1

1Centre for Preclinical Imaging, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Biochemistry, Centre for Cell Imaging, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Tumor volume and single voxel in vivo ¹H MRS were used to assess the effects of the choline kinase inhibitor JAS239 in the F98 rat glioblastoma (GBM) model. Five F344 rats were inoculated with GBM cells and subsequently treated for 5 consecutive days with 4 mg/kg JAS239 or saline. A reduction in total choline (tCho) in tumors treated with JAS239, along with tumor growth arrest was noted in comparison to saline treated rats. JAS239 preferentially inhibited choline metabolism in tumors as no changes were observed in tCho levels from the contralateral brain.  

2393
Computer 95
High-Throughput Automatic Tumor Detection and Segmentation in Small-Animal MR Imaging of Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts
Sudipta Roy1 and Kooresh Shoghi1

1Washington University in St. Louis, Saint Louis, MO, United States

Computer aided tumor detection and segmentation of small animal MR images are prone to spurious lesion, false detection, under segmentation, over segmentation, incompatibles of huge number of images for small animal MR imaging. We propose computer aided method using the combination of fast C-means, morphology and single-phase level set to detect and segment tumor lesions from T2 weighted MR images. Proposed method gives over 90% accuracy when applied to homogeneous tumors.

2394
Computer 96
Blood oxygen level dependent MRI detects changes in hepatocellular carcinoma induced by sorafenib treatment
Keith Michel1, Nina Munoz2, Kiersten Maldonado1, James Bankson1, Jia Sun3, Aliya Qayyum4, and Rony Avritscher2

1Department of Imaging Physics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 2Department of Interventional Radiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 3Department of Biostatistics, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

Imaging biomarkers are needed for assessing treatment response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated BOLD MRI with hyperoxic challenge in an orthotopic rodent model of HCC for animals treated with the widely used kinase inhibitor sorafenib. A reduction in ΔT2* in tumor and background liver was exhibited for rats treated with sorafenib relative to untreated controls, while no significant change was observed in skeletal muscle. These results demonstrate that BOLD MRI could be a useful tool for detecting treatment effects in HCC.

2395
Computer 97
TrueFISP MRI assay for fast & reliable tumor stage classification  in  carcinogen induced orthotopic  bladder cancer
Daniele Procissi1, Alexander P Glaser 2, Yanni Yu3, and Joshua J Meeks3

1Radiology & Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Surgery, Division of Urology, Northshore University Health System, Evanston, IL, United States, 3Urology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States

Using a TrueFISP sequence we implemented a non-invasive assay for stage classification of bladder tumors using  a orthotopic murine bladder cancer model.  Because generation of this tumor model is achieved by administration of carcinogenic agents it is naturally heterogeneous. The imaging method proposed allows accurate assessment of tumor burden and provides a tool for  randomization to experimental treatments.

2396
Computer 98
Spleen metabolism altered by human pancreatic cancer xenografts
Santosh Kumar Bharti1, Paul T Winnard1, Raj Kumar Sharma1, Yelena Mironchik1, Marie-France Penet1,2, and Zaver M. Bhujwalla1,2,3

1Division of Cancer Imaging Research, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 33Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

  Cachexia is a poorly understood metabolic syndrome characterized by cancer-induced tissue wasting and weight loss. Cachexia occurs with the highest frequency and severity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). To further understand this syndrome, here we used 1H MRS to analyze spleen metabolites in normal mice and mice with and without cachexia-inducing PDAC. We detected profound spleen weight loss in cachectic mice. 1H MR spectra identified significant depletion of amino acids, cholines, creatine in cachectic mice that provide new insights into the syndrome that may present novel strategies to prevent or reduce cachexia-induced weight loss and the morbidity and mortality associated with the syndrome

2397
Computer 99
3D non-rigid motion correction for quantitative assessment of hepatic lesions with dynamic contrast enhanced MRI
Matteo Ippoliti1, Tobias Schaeffter2, Marcus Richard Makowski1, and Christoph Kolbitsch2

1Radiology, Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig and Berlin, Germany

Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI of the liver is a powerful qualitative and quantitative clinical methodology used to identify lesions and characterize their functional behavior. Respiratory motion can lead to artefacts, impairing the calculation of contrast uptake curves and quantitative functional information. Here we present an approach, which provides non-rigid motion-corrected endothelial permeability (Ktrans) maps obtained from DCE images with temporal resolution of 6s and isotropic spatial resolution of 1.5mm3 acquired during free-breathing. The proposed framework was evaluated in 10 patients and led to an improved visualization of hepatic lesions and subsequent derivation of Ktrans maps.

2398
Computer 100
A novel imaging biomarker for cancer from multicomponent T1 relaxometry
Ana-Maria Oros1, Anna Weglage2, and N. Jon Shah2,3,4,5

1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 2Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 3JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Research Centre Juelich, Aachen, Germany, 4Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-11, JARA), Research Centre Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 5Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

We hypothesised that T1 relaxation curves sampled with very high temporal resolution reflect the existence of several environments in healthy and brain tumour tissue. Relaxation properties of healthy as well as tumour tissue, identified by FET-PET in a hybrid MR-PET environment, were investigated using a Look-Locker inversion recovery sequence sampled with a 17ms time resolution and 460 time points. The properties of normal appearing tissue were very similar in patients and healthy volunteers. In addition, a novel component was identified in brain tumour patients, which seems characteristic of the presence of tumour and oedema.


Optimizing Reconstruction

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 Acquisition, Reconstruction & Analysis

2399
Computer 101
Optimization of a 3-channel gradient waveform for FRONSAC encoding
E. H. Bhuiyan1, Nadine L. Dispenza1, R. Todd Constable1, and Gigi Galiana1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States

This work reports the performance of various gradient waveforms for Fast Rotary Nonlinear Spatial Acquisition (FRONSAC) encoding, varying the amplitude, frequency and phase of the oscillation on different channels. Waveforms using three NLG channels were used to image an American College of Radiology (ACR) phantom, and root-mean-square error (RMSE) relative to a fully sampled reference was used to evaluate performance. Experimentally observed trends support those reported in previous work, which was based on theory and simulations.  For the given hardware, the results suggest that the best combination for C3, S3 and Z2 are 64, 64 and 32 cycles per readout and 1.74×106mTm-3, 1.74×106mTm-3 and 3.05×106mTm-2 respectively.

2400
Computer 102
Feasibility Study of Improving SPIRiT by Exploiting Artificial Sparsity in Dynamic MRI
Jucheng Zhang1, Zhikang Wang1, Wenhong Ding2, Xia Kong3, and Zhifeng Chen4,5

12nd Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 2Radiology, 2nd Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 3School of Computer and Information Science, Hubei Engineering University, Xiaogan, China, 4School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 5Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, Guangzhou, China

Improving spatiotemporal resolution is of great importance for dynamic MRI in clinical circumstances. An improved SPIRiT method using artificial sparsity and PCA denoising is proposed in this work. Simulated cardiac perfusion phantom and in-vivo cardiac cine experiments were conducted. The proposed method showed better image quality compared with GRAPPA and the frame-by-frame SPIRiT method.

2401
Computer 103
PHASE OFFSET CORRECTION METHODS FOR 7T MRI
Shaeez Usman Abdulla1, David Reutens1, Steffen Bollmann1, and Viktor Vegh1

1Centre for advanced Imaging, University of Queensland, Australia, Brisbane, Australia

At the 7T MRI field, the absence of a volume reference coil results in inter channel phase offsets. It is therefore important to understand the impact of using different phase offset correction methods for producing combined phase images. We quantitatively analysed multi-channel offset corrected 7T GRE-MRI phase images of a phantom obtained using five established methods. Magnetic susceptibility images of a brain were assessed qualitatively in addition. We found that methods which phase offset correct using echo time dependent signal phases contain systematic errors, whereas single echo time methods produce more accurate results.

2402
Computer 104
System conditioning during GRAPPA kernel training improves temporal SNR in accelerated EPI-based functional, diffusion, and perfusion MRI applications
W Scott Hoge1,2,3 and Jonathan R Polimeni2,3,4

1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

This work examines methods to improve the conditioning of the linear system of equations used to compute GRAPPA and Dual-Polarity GRAPPA reconstruction coefficients, and it's effect on temporal SNR in applications that employ accelerated EPI data.  We test three methods: (i) system normalization, (ii) simple Tikhonov regularization, and (iii) 2D k-space filters applied to the calibration data prior to the linear system formation. Examples of tSNR improvement are shown, drawing from EPI-based in-vivo functional, diffusion, and perfusion imaging data acquired at 3T and 7T.

2403
Computer 105
Low-Latency Reconstruction for Real-Time Speech MRI
Sagar Sudhakara1, Yongwan Lim1, Weiyi Chen1, Shrikanth Narayanan1, and Krishna S. Nayak1

1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Real-time MRI provides the ability to visualize dynamic processes as they occur. This may require low latency, defined as the total time between when a pose occurs and when a digital representation appears on a screen for interpretation and/or use by the scan operator. We explore the tradeoff between image quality and latency for speech production imaging, where high-latency constrained reconstruction is the current state-of-the-art. We demonstrate that image quality adequate for a) confirmation of stimuli compliance and b) identification of subject motion can be provided to the scan operator with a latency less than 70ms.

2404
Computer 106
Simultaneous multislice reconstruction for spiral MRI using slice-SPIRiT
Changyu Sun1, Yang Yang2, Craig H. Meyer1, Xiaoying Cai1, Michael Salerno1,2,3, Daniel S. Weller1,4, and Frederick H. Epstein1,3

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 3Radiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 4Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States

Simultaneous multislice (SMS) imaging provides through-plane acceleration.  While current reconstruction methods for non-Cartesian imaging (and also for Cartesian imaging) utilize either in-plane or through-plane coil information, we reasoned that a slice-SPIRiT model could utilize both in-plane and through-plane kernel calibration information, and potentially outperform methods like conjugate-gradient SENSE (CG-SENSE).  We developed a slice-SPIRiT method and compared it to CG-SENSE for spiral cardiac cine imaging.  Slice leakage artifacts using slice-SPIRiT were 52.9% lower than using CG-SENSE in phantoms, and the artifact power of slice-SPIRiT was 24.2% less than CG-SENSE in five volunteers.   Slice-SPIRiT is a promising method for spiral SMS imaging.

2405
Computer 107
Self-Estimated Subspace Reconstruction for Highly-Accelerated Dynamic Golden-Angle Radial MRI
Li Feng1, Qiuting Wen2, Hersh Chandarana3, and Ricardo Otazo1,4

1Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 3Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R) and Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States

Subspace-constrained reconstruction is a powerful technique to accelerate dynamic MRI. However, its performance is relatively limited for applications where a robust temporal model is not available. This work proposes to estimate temporal basis from undersampled dynamic golden-angle radial data without the need of a model or additional navigators, and to apply the estimated temporal basis for subspace-constrained reconstruction of undersampled dynamic images. The reconstruction algorithm also enforces an additional low-rank constraint on the resulting low dimensional dynamic images in the subspace. The proposed self-estimated subspace-constrained reconstruction technique was demonstrated for DCE-MRI of the prostate.

2406
Computer 108
Refined-subspaces for two iteration single shot T2-Shuffling using dictionary matching
Yamin Arefeen1, Nick Arango1, Siddharth Iyer1,2, Borjan Gagoski3,4, Kawin Setsompop2,4,5, Jacob White1, and Elfar Adalsteinsson1,5,6

1Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Fetal Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 5Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 6Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Cambridge, MA, United States

Half-Fourier-acquisition-single-shot-turbo-spin-echo (HASTE) serves as a valuable tool for fetal MRI as it is robust to fetal motion and produces images with T2-weighted contrast. However, due to T2-decay and T1-recovery during the acquisition, clinically applied HASTE with sub-180° refocusing pulses and partial-fourier readouts, often yield images with compromised diagnostic quality compared to multi-shot T2-weighted imaging. T2-shuffling exploits a forward model of signal evolution to mitigate blurring and improve contrast in image reconstruction. We propose single-shot imaging with a refined-subspace, iterative application of T2-shuffling, with demonstration in numerical models, that reduces blurring artifacts and improves image contrast in comparison to conventional HASTE.

2407
Computer 109
Improving the Performance of Accelerated Image Reconstruction in K-Space: The Importance of Kernel Shape
Rodrigo A. Lobos1 and Justin P. Haldar1

1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

A variety of popular k-space reconstruction methods (e.g., GRAPPA, SPIRiT, SAKE, LORAKS) assume that missing k-space data can be interpolated by convolving the k-space data with appropriate filters.  In most of these methods, the kernel shape is usually chosen to be rectangular.  However, when these filters are interpreted in the spatial domain, the use of rectangular kernels implies that the filters will have anisotropic resolution.  In this work, we investigate the use of elliptical kernels that have more isotropic resolution.  Results demonstrate that elliptical kernels have better reconstruction performance, lower computational complexity, and lower memory usage than rectangular kernels. 

2408
Computer 110
Improved Parallel Imaging with a 3D Spiral Staircase Trajectory
Ashley G Anderson III1, Dinghui Wang2, and James G Pipe2

1Philips Healthcare, Gaineseville, FL, United States, 2Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

A flexible 3D “Spiral Staircase” (SSC) trajectory is introduced that reduces g-factor losses from through-plane parallel imaging acceleration, regardless of coil geometry. Results demonstrate up to a 5x g-factor improvement over Cartesian SENSE for through-plane acceleration in axial brain acquisition with R = 3.

2409
Computer 111
Making Reconstruction WORK (Weighted Optimized Reconstruction of K-Space): Improving CNR/SNR via non-FFT Weighted Reconstruction
Vincent Jerome Schmithorst1 and Ashok Panigrahy1

1Radiology, UPMC Pittsburgh Children's Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

FFT-based reconstruction is suboptimal in the presence of signal decay during acquisition and between-excitation (shot-to-shot) variance in relaxation parameters.  We present a novel reconstruction algorithm, Weighted Optimized Reconstruction of K-space (WORK), which weights each k-space point differently, optimizing for all sources of variance.  Simulation results demonstrate the potential for 2X temporal SNR improvement in gradient-echo EPI acquisitions compared to standard FFT reconstruction while preserving spatial information.  Substantial SNR improvement is also demonstrated for a pCASL 2D GE-EPI-SMS acquisition.

2410
Computer 112
kz-GRAPPA for 3D parallel imaging with localized estimation of interpolation kernels
Steen Moeller1, Sudhir Ramanna1, Essa Yacoub1, Kamil Ugurbil1, and Mehmet Akcakaya1,2

1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

A kz-dependent shift-variant 3D GRAPPA approach for reconstructing 2D under-sampled k-space is proposed. The method results in equal or lower g-factors compared to a conventional shift-invariant 3D kernel. In turn, this permits higher 2D ky-kz accelerations, and promises significant advantages for functional and diffusion imaging. The method is demonstrated with anatomical and diffusion imaging using thin slabs.

2411
Computer 113
Full 3D ky-kz-kx GRAPPA reconstruction of SMS MB EPI
Chan Hong Moon1, Hoby P. Hetherington 1, and Jullie W. Pan2

1Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

EPI with sub-second sampling rates is essential for fMRI to increase tSNR and filter out physiological noise. Simultaneous multiple slice (SMS)-EPI using multi-band (MB) slice excitation has been successfully applied to acquire whole brain fMRI data in < 1s. However, the reconstruction of SMS-EPI remains in separate 2D/1D GRAPPA or partial 3D GRAPPA in ky-kz’-kx domains. To further increase acquisition speed, TR< 500ms, higher k-space dimensional GRAPPA can be used to improve reconstruction performance, e.g. increase SNR and decrease aliasing artifacts. To meet this need we developed a full 3D ky-kz-kx GRAPPA reconstruction for SMS-EPI validated it by simulation and experiment at 7T.

2412
Computer 114
Reducing g-factor for TGRAPPA accelerated real-time cardiac cine imaging
Sen Jia1,2, Haifeng Wang1, Xin Liu1, Hairong Zheng1, and Dong Liang1,2

1Paul C. Lauterbur Research Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China, 2Medical AI Research Centre, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen, China

TGRAPPA acceleration alleviates the intense tradeoff between spatial and temporal resolutions for real-time cardiac cine imaging. However, it suffers from significant noise amplification due to ill-conditioned inverse reconstruction at high acceleration factors. A quadruple extended TGRAPPA reconstruction model is established to jointly utilize the additional spatial encoding capability of background phase and the high-order noise model by nonlinear kernel method. Prospective real-time cine experiments showed superior noise suppression of this non-iterative technique at 6-8X acceleration.

2413
Computer 115
Virtual Slice Concept for Improved Simultaneous Multi-Slice MRI Employing an Extended Leakage Constraint
Suhyung Park1, Liyong Chen2, Alexander Beckett1, and David Feinberg1,2

1University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States, 2Advanced MRI Technologies, Sebastopol, CA, United States

Simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) MRI has recently drawn attentions in its use by acquiring linearly combined signals contributed from all excited slices. In this work, we introduce a novel, SMS reconstruction that extends an inter-slice leakage constraint to intra-slice aliasing with virtual slice concept by generalizing parallel MRI as a special case, thus directly estimating the individual slices from undersampled SMS data. Motivated by the leakage block, we generate virtual slices from intra-slice aliasing signals and then penalize these virtual slices as well as real slices simultaneously by keeping only aliasing-free slice of interest while enforcing inplane aliasing and neighboring slices to zeros, respectively.

2414
Computer 116
Enhanced MR-STAT by a multi-coil reconstruction framework
Oscar van der Heide1, Mike A. Eijbersen1, Cornelis A.T. van den Berg1, Peter R. Luijten1, and Alessandro Sbrizzi1

1Center for Image Sciences, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

MR-STAT is a framework for obtaining multi-parametric quantitative MR maps using data from single short scans. A large-scale optimization problem is solved in which spatial localisation of signal and estimation of tissue parameters are performed simultaneously by directly fitting a Bloch-based volumetric signal model to the time domain data. Previously, only data from a single receive channel could be incorporated into the reconstruction. In this work we extend the MR-STAT framework to allow parameter maps to be reconstructed from multi-coil data resulting in a more robust reconstruction process that has higher scan-efficiency and is less prone to coil shading artefacts.

2415
Computer 117
Correcting MRI-specific biases introduced when Bland-Altman plots are used to compare the performance of reconstruction algorithms
Michael Smith1, Ishani DasGupta1, and Elise Fear1

1University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

The Bland-Altman plot is a commonly-used graphical method to compare two measurement techniques and look for systematic biases or outliers.  We have identified that the Bland-Altman approach of plotting the differences between the two techniques against their average will introduce false biases in an MRI context.  These biases are introduced by the magnitude operation necessary to display or analyze MRI images. We demonstrate a modified Bland-Altman approach that corrects these biases.

2416
Computer 118
Acoustic Noise Reduction Using Digital Filters
JP Jordaan1, Andre Van der Kouwe1,2, Ali Alhamud1,3,4, and Ernesta M. Meintjes1,3

1Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Massachusetts, MA, United States, 3Cape Universities Body Imaging Centre (CUBIC-UCT), University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 4MRI Research Unit, University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libyan

We explored the use of digital low-pass filters to reduce the acoustic noise produced during DTI acquisitions, focusing mainly on the EPI readout. The filters attenuate the high-frequency harmonics of the gradient waveforms which results in reduced spectral content of the mechanical vibrations induced in the gradient coil assembly. Results showed a reduction of 2.9 dBA for peak sound pressure level (SPL) and 2 dBA for equivalent continuous sound level (Leq) with no acquisition time penalty or reduction in image quality. The proposed method has the potential to be generalized to most gradient waveforms.

2417
Computer 119
Method for Reduction of Reconstruction Time for Compressed Sensing of Multi-Image Series
Andrew J Wheaton1, Samir D Sharma1, and Antonios Matakos1

1Canon Medical Research USA, Mayfield, OH, United States

This proof-of-concept study demonstrates a method to reduce CS reconstruction time for multi-image series (e.g.  relaxometry mapping, multi-echo, or dynamic) by leveraging the similarity of data across the image series.  The method consists of two components: a) re-using auto-calibrated coil sensitivity maps computed from data of the first image[0] and b) warm starting the iterative reconstruction of each image[i] using the final output from the reconstruction of the previous image[i-1] in the series.  One insight is a ‘hybrid warm start’ created by combining the magnitude from the previous image[i-1] reconstruction and the phase of the back-projection of the current image[i].

2418
Computer 120
Optimization of increasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast of black-blood T1-weighted images in carotid artery
Yuhki Hamada1, Daisuke Yoshimaru1, Ayumi Ueno1, Ayumu Funaki1, Chifumi Maruyama1, Tatsunori Sone1, and Masataka Sato1

1Department of Radiological Service, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Yachiyo Medical Center, YACHIYO, Japan

We have developed a new black-blood imaging with radial scan (multi vane) method and improved motion sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE). In this study, we changed the following parameters [refocusing flip angle (RFA), TE prep, flow velocity encoding (VENC)]. In addition, we measured SNR and Contrast ratio (CR) to optimize image quality. As RFA increased in radial scan with iMSDE, SNR of muscle rose gently and CR increased. With the extension of TE prep, SNR of muscle declined and CR also declined. As VENC decreased, CR rose gently. There was a significant difference compared with the conventional method.

2419
Computer 121
Rapid prOtotyping of 2D non-Cartesian K-space trajEcTories (ROCKET)
Pavan Poojar1, Sairam Geethanath1,2, Ashok Kumar Reddy3, and Ramesh Venkatesan3

1Dayananda Sagar Institution, Bangalore, India, 2Columbia Magnetic Resonance Research Centre, Columbia University, New York, NY, United States, 3Wipro GE Healthcare, Bangalore, India

Rapid prOtotyping of 2D non-CartesIan K-space trajEcTories (ROCKET) aims to aid researchers interested in rapid development and testing of new MR methods starting from pulse sequence design to image analysis. This was achieved by utilizing Pulseq for pulse sequence design and graphical programming interface for image reconstruction and analysis. ROCKET was demonstrated on two non-Cartesian k-space trajectories – FID based radial and spiral. Each trajectory was tailored into three different trajectories based on rotating angle – standard, golden angle and tiny golden angle.  All studies were performed on Siemens scanner demonstrated on in-vitro phantom and in-vivo healthy brain acquisitions and SNRs were computed.

2420
Computer 122
Dual-venc phase contrast MRI with increased flow encoding efficiency
Maria Aristova1, Alireza Vali1, Hassan Haji-Valizadeh1, Liliana Ma1, Suvai Gunasekaran1, Daniel Kim1, Michael Markl1, and Susanne Schnell1

1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

To decrease scan time while maintaining SNR and velocity dynamic range of dual-venc 2D phase-contrast MRI with 3-directional velocity encoding, the sequence was modified to zero-fill the extremes of k-space in the high-venc (HV) acquisition while collecting fully sampled low-venc (LV). In vitro sensitivity analysis shows antialiasing success over 95% with up to 50% zero-filled HV scans. Preliminary data from a healthy control aorta indicate that antialiasing success approaching 100% can be maintained using HV scans. This promising approach may be extended to further improve flow encoding efficiency in volumetric scans.

2421
Computer 123
A Neural Network for Rapid Generation of Cardiac MR Fingerprinting Dictionaries with Arbitrary Heart Rhythms
Jesse Ian Hamilton1, Danielle Currey2, Mark Griswold1,3, and Nicole Seiberlich1,3

1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Computer Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Radiology, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, United States

Cardiac MR Fingerprinting with ECG gating typically requires that a new Bloch equation simulation be performed after each scan so that the subject’s cardiac rhythm is incorporated in the dictionary. However, this may be challenging for clinical translation and online reconstruction. This study proposes to use a neural network to rapidly generate the dictionary when given input ranges for T1 and T2, as well as the cardiac rhythm (RR intervals). The network produces dictionaries for arbitrary cardiac rhythms and is more than 100 times faster than performing a Bloch equation simulation. 

2422
Computer 124
THE IMPACT OF MR IMAGES ACQUISITION PROCESS ON RADIOMIC FEATURES: PHANTOM STUDIES TO SUPPORT CLINICAL RESEARCH
Linda Bianchini1,2, Francesca Botta3, Daniela Anna Origgi3, Marta Cremonesi3, Paolo Arosio1,2, and Alessandro Lascialfari1,2

1Physics Department, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy, 2INSTM, Milan, Italy, 3IEO, European Institute of Oncology IRCCS, Milan, Italy

Radiomic analysis of radiological images allows the extraction of quantitative features that can represent a support tool for clinical decision. The investigation of these features stability during the MR image acquisition process represents the aim of this study. The features short- and long-term repeatability was tested on a common MR phantom, imaged with the clinical protocol for gynecological imaging. The non-repeatable features were identified and can be excluded a priori in potential clinical studies. Simultaneously, a dedicated phantom was designed to mimic the pelvis and to investigate the stable features, especially the ones characterizing the texture of the imaged tissue. 

2423
Computer 125
On the Selection of Slice Profile for Through-Plane Resolution in Multi-Slice MR Imaging
Eric G. Stinson1, Soudabeh Kargar2, Roger C. Grimm1, and Stephen J. Riederer1

1Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering and Physiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

Multislice imaging is a mainstay of clinical MR exams, but image reformatting is limited by through-plane resolution. Some methods aim to overcome this by acquiring overlapping slices and deconvolving the slice profile. However, slice profiles which have zero crossings in the Fourier (spatial frequency) domain preclude the recovery of those spatial frequencies. Here, we describe the problem and provide a solution in the form of slice profiles without zero crossings in $$$k_Z$$$-space.


Image Reconstruction

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 Acquisition, Reconstruction & Analysis

2424
Computer 126
90 min in 12 min? Accurate Surface Reconstruction from Short Ultra-High (0.5mm iso) Resolution T1-Weighted Image
Giovana Cover1, Andre van der Kouwe2, and Reza Farivar1

1McGill Vision Research Unit, Research Institute - Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC, Canada, McGill, Montréal, QC, Canada, 2Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States

Gray matter (GM) thickness is a marker of injury and is detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Even though it possible to acquire images that has substantially higher resolution, they suffer from high noise, requiring multiple acquisitions and averaging to yield suitable quality. In this work, we aimed to improve the sensitivity of surface-based GM estimation from 0.5mm resolution MRI acquired over a clinically-normal time. We evaluated four denoising filters and compared the GM thickness estimates using surface reconstruction from the results, showing that it is possible to reduce MRI acquisition time and maintain relevant features for the GM thickness.

2425
Computer 127
Compressed Sensing Velocity Encoded Phase Contrast Imaging:  Monitoring Skeletal Muscle kinematics
Vadim Malis1, Usha Sinha2, and Sinha Shantanu3

1Physics, UC San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Radiology, UC San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

Velocity Encoded Phase Contrast (VE-PC) imaging is an established technique for monitoring muscle kinematics.  Dynamic studies require consistent repeated execution of motion paradigms to map skeletal motion. The high number of repeated contractions limits studies to low % maximum voluntary contraction and limits participation of cohorts with compromised muscle function. We explore combining multi-coil data with compressed sensing and reconstruction to reduce acquisition times. VE-PC images acquired with different compressed sensing factors are assessed for accuracy of velocities and strain rate tensor during isometric contractions. Our results show that CS undersampling by 4 yields accurate velocity and strain tensor values. 

2426
Computer 128
A GPU-based Modified Conjugate Gradient Method for Accelerating Wave-CAIPI Reconstruction
Haifeng Wang1, Shi Su1, Xin Liu1, Yuchou Chang2, and Dong Liang1

1Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China, 2Department of Computer Science and Technology Engineering, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX, United States

Wave-CAIPI is a novel 3D imaging method with corkscrew trajectory in k-space to speed up MRI acquisition. However, the 3D data acquisitions of Wave-CAIPI are also tremendous for reconstruction calculations. In order to accelerate the reconstruction procedure, we realized a Wave-CAIPI reconstruction using a modified GPU-based conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm to reduce time cost of reconstructions. The experiments of in vivo human brain dataset show that using our GPU-based Wave-CAIPI reconstruction can achieve similar image results as the conventional CPU-based Wave-CAIPI reconstruction with less time cost than the conventional CPU-based Wave-CAIPI reconstruction.

2427
Computer 129
Spatial-Temporal Super-Resolution Technique on Complex-Valued T2*-Weighted Dynamic MRI
Duohua Sun1, Chidi Patrick Ugonna1, Marc Lindley1, and Nan-kuei Chen1

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, BIO5 institute, Tucson, AZ, United States

We present an approach for improving spatial and temporal resolution of complex-valued T2*-weighted dynamic MRI. Compared with traditional magnitude-valued spatial super-resolution method, our technique can better recover signal loss caused by the susceptibility dephasing effect. We propose that phase information can be utilized in spatial super-resolution to reduce the dephasing artifact. The feasibility of temporal super-resolution using complex-valued data is also separately evaluated for time-signal variation recovery. One limitation of our temporal super-resolution approach, which will be addressed in our future work, is the presence of leakage artifacts in the recovered time-signal due to linear interpolation bias.

2428
Computer 130
Robust 3D UTE T2* Mapping in MSK Using Fractional Order Bloch Equation
Dorottya Papp1, Gyula Kotek1, Stephan Breda1, Dirk H.J. Poot2, Edwin H.G. Oei1, and Juan Antonio Hernandez-Tamames1

1Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 2Medical informatics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands

Determination of the T2* relaxation times with biexponential and monoexponential models has limitations, especially in case of complex, heterogeneous materials1. Using fractional order fitting model we can overcome these limitations8,9. In this model the introduced  α parameter is the measure of the deviation from the monoexponential decay, and it accounts for micro-structural complexity. To evaluate the fractional order fitting, it was performed in patella tendon from UTE measurements, and we could demonstrate that compared to biexponential and monoexponential models it is less sensitive to variations to SNR. 

2429
Computer 131
Native Space Outlier Rejection (NaSOR) for Arterial Spin Labelling
Courtney Alexandra Bishop1, Mari Lambrechts2, James O'Callaghan2, Adam Connolly1, and Roger Gunn1

1Analysis, Invicro LLC, London, United Kingdom, 2MRI, Invicro LLC, London, United Kingdom

ASL suffers from relatively low signal-to-noise, so data cleaning strategies are required to optimise its utility. A previous method for outlier rejection of 2D-PASL data required time-consuming spatial normalization to standard space, degrading the original ASL data, and was limited to single inversion-time (TI) 2D-PASL. We therefore developed two native-space processing workflows, termed Native Space Outlier Rejection (NaSOR) and Native Space Perfusion-weighted Outlier Rejection (NaSPOR). The two native-space workflows performed comparably to an implementation of the previous standard-space method, in terms of both percentage of outliers rejected and coefficients of variation (CV) for test-retest CBF values, suggesting clinical utility.

2430
Computer 132
Verification and Validation of Merging Patient-Specific Computational Fluid Dynamics and 4D-Flow MRI
Alexandria M Miller1, Ali Bakhshinejad2, Mojtaba Fathi Firoozabad3, Ahmadreza Baghaei4, Raphael Sacho2, Kevin M Koch5, Christoff Roloff6, Philipp Berg6, and Roshan M D'Souza1

1Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4New York Institute of Technology, Long Island, NY, United States, 5Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 6Research Campus STIMULATE, University of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany

In this work, we present the result of verification and validation of our previously developed method that enabled merging of patient-specific Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and 4D-Flow MRI using Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) to address limitations of both modalities. A constant fluid flow boundary condition was applied on a transparent in vitro aneurysm phantom geometry and the volumetric velocity field was scanned using 4D-Flow MRI, and tomographic Particle Image Velocimetry (tPIV). The latter has much higher spatial resolution and can be used to verify the accuracy of the results of merging CFD and volumetric 4D-Flow MRI. Results show that the POD-based merging algorithm enables reconstruction of fine flow details not seen in 4D-Flow MRI due to limited spatial resolution. 

2431
Computer 133
Single-lung dynamics assessed using XD-GRASP MRI and automatic segmentation
Artem Mikheev1, Nicole Wake1, Henry Rusinek1, and Hersh Chandarana1

1Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

MRI is an attractive modality for monitoring dynamic lung function since it does not expose patients to ionizing radiation.  In this study, a method to automatically segment the right and left lungs using XD-GRASP MRI was developed.  The accuracy of our segmentation algorithm was assessed by comparing the automated segmentation results to manual segmentations outlined by expert observers.  Excellent agreement was seen between the automated technique and the ground truth, suggesting clinical applicability of the method.

2432
Computer 134
Intra-Session, Intra-Day and Inter-Day Reproducibility of MRI Image Quality Metrics in a Controlled Scan Setup
Till Huelnhagen1,2,3, Ricardo Corredor-Jerez1,2,3, Michael Amann4,5,6, Emmanuelle Brès1, Pavel Falkovskiy1,2,3, Philippe Cattin5, Tobias Heye6, Oliver Bieri6, Till Sprenger7, Christoph Stippich6, Jens Wuerfel4,5, Ernst-Wilhelm Radue4, and Tobias Kober1,2,3

1Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Signal Processing Laboratory (LTS 5), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC), Basel, Switzerland, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering (DBE), University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 6Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 7Department of Neurology, DKD Helios Klinik, Wiesbaden, Germany

Image quality plays a vital role in automated pipelines for medical image processing. Automated tools have thus been developed to detect low-quality images and ensure reliability of downstream results. These tools, however, often rely on image processing algorithms that can be sensitive to certain image features. In this study, we investigate the reproducibility of image quality measures provided by the open source image quality control tool MRIQC with respect to different scan setups. Results show that the reproducibility of some IQ measures is linked to the variation in the scan setup while for others it is less dependent on it.

2433
Computer 135
GPU Based Parallel Framework for the Estimation of Receiver Coil Sensitivities in SENSE Reconstruction
Afaq Ashfaq1, Muhammad Adil Khalil1, Hassan Shahzad2, Sohaib Ayyaz1, and Hammad Omer1

1Electrical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2National Centre for Physics, Islamabad, Pakistan

The estimation of receiver coil sensitivity information is important for SENSE (Sensitivity Encoding) reconstruction. Inaccurate sensitivity profiles degrade the reconstructed image quality. However, the methods to estimate the receiver coils sensitivity information are computationally intensive. This work proposes a parallel framework (for GPU implementation) for a recently proposed method of sensitivity estimation (which uses Eigen value decomposition of the multi coil low resolution images). The results show that the proposed method provides a 3.5x speed in our experiments while maintaining the reconstructed image quality.

2434
Computer 136
A novel feature based image reconstruction for neuro-interventional MRI
Kang Yan1, Blanca Zufiria1,2, Alexa Singer1,2, Xudong Chen1, Zhiyu Yang1, Shuo Li1, Suhao Qiu1, Huajun She1, Bomin Sun3, Yiping Du1, Zhipei Liang4, and Yuan Feng1

1Biomedeical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 2KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 3Functional Neurosurgery, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 4Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States

Interventional MRI (I-MRI) provides exceptional advantages to other imaging modalities in image-guided neurosurgery. However, real-time imaging presents great challenges for temporal/spatial resolution, image contrast, and SNR. We presented a novel feature based image reconstruction algorithm using golden-angle sampling and compressed sensing. Images were decomposed into the reference part and the novel feature reflecting the interventional process. Experiments of using porcine brain for biopsy showed the proposed method had better performance in terms of SNR and computational time. It demonstrated that the proposed method have potentials in applications of MR-guided intervention such as image-guided epilepsy treatment.

2435
Computer 137
Efficient Motion-Corrected, Model-Driven Reconstruction for Simultaneous Multi-Contrast MPnRAGE
Steven Kecskemeti1 and Andrew Alexander1

1University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States

A model-based denoising algorithm is developed for efficient reconstruction of a large number of images with different T1 contrasts using MPnRAGE.   The method takes only 50% the time of a single iteration of traditional constrained reconstruction methods.  

2436
Computer 138
High performance GPU enabled GRAPPA reconstruction using CUDA
Omair Inam1, Hamza Akram1, Zoia Laraib1, Mahmood Qureshi1, and Hammad Omer1

1Electrical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan

GRAPPA is a parallel MRI technique that enables accelerated data acquisition using multi-channel receiver coils. However, processing a large data limits the performance of GRAPPA in terms of reconstruction time. This work presents a new GPU-enabled-GRAPPA reconstruction method using optimized CUDA kernels, where multiple threads simultaneously communicate and cooperate to perform: (i) parallel fittings of GRAPPA kernel on auto-calibration signals; (ii) parallel estimations of reconstruction coefficients; (iii) parallel interpolations in under-sampled k-space. In-vivo results of 8-channel, 1.5T human head dataset show that the proposed method speeds up the GRAPPA reconstruction time up to 15x without compromising the image quality.

2437
Computer 139
Self-Calibrated GRAPPA Operator Gridding (SC-GROG) for radially encoded Multi-Slice (SMS) Imaging
ZOONA JAVED1, IBTISAM ASLAM2, and HAMMAD OMER2

1ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, COMSATS UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD, ISLAMABAD, Pakistan, 2COMSATS UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD, ISLAMABAD, Pakistan

This work proposes a novel approach using Self-calibrating GRAPPA operator gridding (SC-GROG) for radially encoded simultaneous multi-slice imaging (SMS). The proposed method is implemented by combining non-Cartesian (NC) under-sampling (radial) with CAIPRINHA phase manipulation to accelerate data acquisition in SMS. Radial datasets are gridded using SC-GROG and reconstructed iteratively using Projection onto convex sets (POCS) algorithm. The results are compared with conventional NUFFT with POCS at increasing accelerations factors and quantified in terms of SSIM, PSNR and Artifact Power. It can be inferred from the results that the proposed method produces accurate reconstructions of SMS datasets.

2438
Computer 140
Rapid Abdominal Imaging Using Highly Accelerated Projection Imaging (HAPI
L. Tugan Muftuler1,2, Nikolai J. Mickevicius3, Andrew S. Nencka2,4, and Eric S. Paulson3

1Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Center for Imaging Research, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

Our group recently reported a new fast radial imaging method called Highly Accelerated Projection Imaging (HAPI) with coil sensitivity encoding. We demonstrated that radial projections acquired at specific angles and at high resolution resulted in a well-conditioned matrix equation. In the previous work, the performance of HAPI was demonstrated with simulations and a simple phantom scan using an 8-channel receive array. In the study presented here, the HAPI method was tested in vivo with volunteers.

2439
Computer 141
Sparse-SENSE Reconstruction of GROG gridded Radial MRI
Khan Afsar1, Ibtisam Aslam1, and Hammad Omer1

1Electrical Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan

Under-sampled non-Cartesian trajectories play a vital role in accelerating MRI scan time; however, the solution image may have aliasing artifacts. In this work, a GROG gridding based Sparse-SENSE reconstruction is presented to get the solution image from the non-Cartesian under-sampled radial MR data. The proposed method is tested on 1.5T human head data at different acceleration factors (i.e. 4, 6 and 9) and compared with pseudo-Cartesian GRAPPA scheme. The results show that the proposed method provides significant improvement (e.g. 87% improvement in AP at AF=4) in the reconstructed images as compared to conventional pseudo-Cartesian GRAPPA reconstruction.

2440
Computer 142
A novel reconstruction method using regional constraints, designed for the dual-band EPI scanned with four-channel receiver coil elements
Hiroshi Toyoda1, Sosuke Yoshinaga2, Mitsuhiro Takeda2, and Hiroaki Terasawa2

1National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Suita, Japan, 2Department of Structural Bioimaging, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto, Japan

A novel reconstruction method was proposed for dual-band EPI in an MRI system equipped with four-channel receiver coils. This method was based on a conventional kernel method utilizing an iterative calculation with regional constraints in the image domain. The method significantly improves the quality of the reconstructed images, even in the regions with less coil sensitivity. The results showed higher signal-to-noise ratio, less signal leakage, and better long-term stability in repetitions in comparison to the conventional method. The proposed method can be applied to clinical systems that have relatively few receiver coils, as well as animal systems. 

2441
Computer 143
Rapid Parallel MRI with Convolution-based Reconstruction (CORE) and Deblurring by Compressed Sensing
Efrat Shimron1, Andrew G. Webb2, and Haim Azhari1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden, Netherlands

Methods combining Compressed Sensing (CS) and Parallel MRI (PI) for accelerated MRI have shown great promise, yet they are commonly hindered by heavy iterative computations. This work introduces the novel CORE-Deblur method for accelerated MRI, which integrates CS and PI and offers fast computations with very few iterations. CORE-Deblur utilizes the recently introduced CORE-PI technique and introduces the novel concept of using CS for image deblurring. Experiments with in-vivo data show that for highly subsampled k-space (R=5) CORE-Deblur reduces the number of CS iterations by 10-fold (from 95 to about 5-7) and improves the reconstruction accuracy by 5%-8%.

2442
Computer 144
Navigated Steady-State Free Precession with Water-Excitation for Real-Time Cardiac Imaging at 3 Tesla
Xi Peng1,2 and Sutton Brad1,3

1Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 2Paul C. Lauterbur Research Center for Biomedical Imaging, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Shenzhen, China, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States

Real-time imaging offers the opportunity to be performed without the need for ECG synchronization and breath holding while requiring good contrast and high spatiotemporal resolution to resolve the myocardium dynamics. We propose a novel method employing bSSFP acquisition with partial separable model for high quality real-time cardiac imaging. For acquisition, the new method interleaves a self balanced spiral-in and spiral-out navigator with Cartesian acquisition for temporal basis estimation. A (1-1) binomial water excitation pulse is adopted to suppress lipid signal and achieve steady-state of the water.  For reconstruction, the new method exploits the partial separable model with "soft" SENSE and sparsity constraints. In vivo experiments have been conducted and results show that the proposed method is able to produce high quality dynamic cardiac images.

2443
Computer 145
A localized reconstruction method for parallel imaging in MRI
Seohee So1, Hyunseok Seo2, and HyunWook Park1

1School of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea, Republic of, 2School of Medicine Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

Conventional parallel imaging methods reconstruct MR images from subsampled data, which utilizes spatial sensitivity information of multi-channel RF coil. In this study, localization of receiving coil sensitivity along readout direction (x) is introduced to efficiently utilize the coil sensitivity for parallel imaging. In the x-ky space, localization window is applied for estimation of missing data. Sensitivity localization in the readout direction makes near channels more weighted than distant channels for calculating estimation kernel. The proposed reconstruction method for parallel imaging considers the correlation between spatial sensitivities along the readout direction of receiving channels and region to be reconstructed.

2444
Computer 146
Robust Cardiac and Respiratory Self-Gating Using an Adapted Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA-FARI): Application to Simultaneous-Multi-Slice Imaging
Sebastian Rosenzweig1,2, Nick Scholand1, H. Christian M. Holme1,2, and Martin Uecker1,2

1Institut für Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, University Medical Center Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany, 2Partner site Göttingen, German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Göttingen, Germany

In cardiac MRI we have to deal with both cardiac and respiratory motion. Nowadays, breath holds and the use of external devices such as ECG are clinical practice to deal with this motion. However, not all patients can hold their breath and external devices are error-prone. Therefore, self-gating techniques have been developed to extract the respiration and cardiac signal from the k-space data itself. Many of those require various pre- and post-processing steps like filtering or averaging and lack robustness. Here, we present a novel and robust, yet easy to implement self-gating approach based on Singular Spectrum Analysis.

2445
Computer 147
Joint Iterative Image Reconstruction and Field Map Estimation In Low Field MRI
Kirsten Koolstra1, Merel de Leeuw den Bouter2, Thomas O'Reilly1, Peter Börnert1,3, Rob Remis4, Martin van Gijzen2, and Andrew Webb1

1C.J. Gorter Center for High Field MRI, Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Institute of Applied Mathematics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands, 3Philips Research Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 4Circuits and Systems, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands

Inaccuracies and temporal fluctuations in field map measurements form a major problem in image reconstruction for permanent magnet based low field MRI systems. These inaccuracies can potentially be corrected by using a joint image reconstruction and field map estimation algorithm. Simulation results show improved image quality when using a new updating scheme compared to standard iterative reconstructions.

2446
Computer 148
Nonlocal multispectral MRI upsampling for enhanced quality of high-resolution imaging reconstruction
Nikkita Khattar1, Richard G. Spencer1, and Mustapha Bouhrara1

1National Institute on Aging (NIA), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Baltimore, MD, United States

High-resolution (HR) image reconstruction, or upsampling, is used widely in MRI post-processing analyses including image segmentation and registration. The nonlocal means (NLM) upsampling approach is simple to implement and has demonstrated excellent performance for HR image reconstruction from low-resolution images. Here, we extend this to incorporate multispectral (MS) data sets in which multiple images are acquired over a variable acquisition parameter. Further, we show that the use of our recently introduced nonlocal estimation of multispectral magnitudes filter for upsampling further enhances the quality of the reconstructed HR images as compared with use of the NLM filter or its MS version.

2447
Computer 149
A ­Partial-Fourier Method Recovering Signal Loss from Off-resonance
Seul Lee1, Haisam Islam2, and Gary Glover3

1Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Functional MRI (fMRI) can have signal dropout due to off-resonance at susceptibility interfaces between air and tissue. Partial Fourier reconstruction is used for fMRI since it reduces scan time, however, existing partial Fourier reconstruction is vulnerable to off-resonance. In a previous study, we introduced a new partial Fourier reconstruction (even/odd (E/O)) and showed the new method was more robust to off-resonance compared to homodyne through simulation from fully sampled data. In this study, we acquired subsampled hypercapnia task fMRI data using both homodyne and E/O and showed there is less signal dropout and higher activation with E/O.

2448
Computer 150
A fully automated method for concealing patient identity in 3D multi-contrast brain MR images
Ke Gan1 and Weitian Chen1

1Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China

In addition to personally identifying information (PII) commonly found in metadata of medical images, superficial anatomical features contained in 3D brain MR images pose a unique challenge to medical privacy, and this place a serious obstacle for data sharing in large-scale collaborative efforts. A fully automated method for concealing patient identity in 3D multi-contrast brain MR images is presented. The proposed method is training-free and can be applied to automatically conceal patient’s identity information in the 3D brain MR images, which makes this approach particularly useful for handling brain MR images in large neuroimaging databases.


Image Processing & Analysis

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15
 Acquisition, Reconstruction & Analysis

2449
Computer 151
Image fusion of multiple independent MRI brain slabs to cover a whole Dugong brain in a small-bore, high-field pre-clinical scanner
Simone Zanoni1, Kenneth WS Ashwell2, and Andre Bongers1

1Biological Resources Imaging Laboratory, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia, 2Department of Anatomy, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

This study we report about MRI of a fixed Dugong brain in a small bore pre-clinical MRI scanner. To enable the scanning of the brain that exceeds the sensitive scanner dimensions we propose a multi-slab imaging approach that uses an optimized image post-processing pipeline to merge independent slabs into a continuous high-resolution high-contrast 3D volume. We demonstrate that using this imaging and post-processing approach it is feasible to investigate relatively large objects in a pre-clinical scanner and retain full 3D information with the full benefit from the superior high resolution imaging capabilities of a high field pre-clinical scanner.

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Integrated image-space and Fourier-space analyses for unwrapping phase images of low signal-to-noise ratio
Nan-kuei Chen1 and Pei-Hsin Wu2

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

We report a new post-processing procedure that integrates image-space and Fourier-space data analyses to improve the accuracy and reliability of phase unwrapping for MRI data of low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

Our data demonstrate that the new phase-unwrapping method outperforms the conventional procedures in critical brain regions (e.g., near the air-tissue interfaces), and should prove valuable for studies that require accurate measurements of MRI phase values, such as quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM), B0 field mapping, and temperature mapping.


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Bayesian Hierarchical Modelling for Analyzing Neuroimaging Results
Christopher Hammill1, Benjamin C Darwin1, Darren Fernandes2, and Jason Lerch1,2

1Neuroscience and Mental Health, The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

The most common analysis of structural brain MRIs involves massively univariate modelling. Such analyses separately approach different levels of resolution (whole brain, regional, and voxel) and do not provide an easy solution to understanding whether some areas of the brain are more or less affected than others. Here we explore applying hierarchical bayesian modelling to simultaneously analyze brain MRI studies at multiple levels of resolution while allowing for the explicit interrogation of whether brain areas are differentially affected. In addition, we show that hierarchical modelling provides improved parameter recapture, sign error rate, and model fit.

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TemplateFlow: Standardizing standard 3D spaces in neuroimaging
Oscar Esteban1, Rastko Ciric1, Christopher J Markiewicz2, Yaroslav O Halchenko3, Mathias Goncalves4, Satrajit S Ghosh4, Russell A Poldrack1, and Krzysztof J Gorgolewski2

1Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH, United States, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology: MIT, Cambridge, MA, United States

New community templates are generated to improve the resolution of data, to offer better alignment of brain structures across individuals incorporated into the template, and to ensure a better correspondence between the study cohort and the template. The resource is modular, thereby allowing researchers to easily use templates "off-the-shelf" or add new templates to the repository. Spatial mappings are distributed with the templates to allow transferring brain landmarks, masks, surfaces, segmentations, and parcellations between templates.

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SEGUE Unwraps MRI Phase Images Acquired in Mouse Brains at 9.4 Tesla Faster than PRELUDE
Anita Karsa1, Rosie Goodburn2, and Karin Shmueli1

1Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

MRI phase images are increasingly used for Susceptibility Mapping or distortion correction. Spatial phase unwrapping is crucial but challenging: the computation time of PRELUDE, the current gold-standard method for robust, 3D unwrapping, increases rapidly with higher field strengths and longer echo times. A new method we have developed, SEGUE, produces similar results to PRELUDE in multi-echo brain and head-and-neck images, 1.6 to 83 times faster, but SEGUE has not been tested in pre-clinical high-field-strength phase images. Here, we show that SEGUE is similarly accurate and up to 4 times faster than PRELUDE in mouse brain images at 9.4 Tesla.

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Automated perfusion lesion delineation in stroke: comparison with experts and alternative automated strategies
Dave Saraswat1,2, Jiun-Yiing Hu1,2, Ivana Galinovic1, Jochen Fiebach1, and Ahmed Khalil1,3,4

1Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 2International Graduate Program Medical Neurosciences, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Berlin School of Mind & Brain, Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 4Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

This study aimed to validate an in-house script that detects perfusion lesions in dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance images of acute stroke patients and compare its performance with commercially available software. Perfusion lesions were estimated from time-to-maximum and mean transit time maps of 94 stroke patients using our algorithm, Perfscape/Neuroscape, PMA, and Stroketool. These automatically delineated lesions were volumetrically and spatially compared with those delineated by a trained expert. Our algorithm performs comparably to other programs on the market and overestimates lesion volumes to a lesser extent; however, it is currently limited by its reliance on manual input.

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Knowledge-based definition of morphological alterations in brain MRI through the angle-based thresholding approach
Yusuke Tomogane1, Jill Chotiyanonta 1, Can Ceritoglu2, Kumiko Oishi2, Michael I Miller2, Susumu Mori1, Kenichi Oishi1, and for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetic study3

1The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Center for Imaging Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3for the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition and Genetic study, multiple cities and states, CA, United States

An automated method to detect brain morphological alterations was developed, which was designed for clinical pediatric brain MRIs with heterogeneous clinical conditions. Numerous image-feature-recognition algorithms have successfully defined abnormalities related to specific diseases, but there has been little research into a method that could identify a wide-range of radiological findings that could vary depending on the type and severity of different pathologies. A proposed approach—structural image parcellation followed by an angle-based outlier detection (ABOD) algorithm—could identify mild morphological alterations with high sensitivity and excellent specificity, when applied to clinical pediatric brain MRIs.

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Scanner Variability of MR Based Radiomics Features
Peter Gibbs1, Eun Sook Ko1, Meredith Sadinski1, and Elizabeth Morris1

1Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States

This work utilizes an MR phantom to determine the repeatability, quartile coefficient of dispersion and potential efficacy of textural parameters calculated from gray level co-occurrence matrices, run length matrices, size zone matrices and neighborhood gray tone difference matrices. Images were obtained at 3 different field strengths, across 3 different manufacturers. Parameters based on gray level co-occurrence matrices showed excellent repeatability and low dispersion, whilst still demonstrating excellent discrimination between contrasting regions of interest.


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Segmenting Brain Metastases Using Deep Learning on Multi-Modal MRI
Darvin Yi1, Endre Grøvik2,3, Michael Iv3, Elizabeth Tong3, Greg Zaharchuk3, and Daniel Rubin1

1Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department for Diagnostic Physics, Oslo University Hospital, oslo, Norway, 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Detecting and segmenting brain metastases is a tedious and time-consuming task for many radiologists, particularly with the growing use of multi-modal 3D imaging. Using deep learning to learn from the comprehensive pixel-wise labeled MRI-data, this work aims to train a fully convolution neural network for automatic detection and segmentation of brain metastases using multi-modal MRI. By training and testing on over 100 and 50 patients, respectively, including a variety of size and number of brain metastases from several primary cancers, this work provides a comprehensive investigation on the value and potential use of machine learning in a clinically relevant setting.

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Signal Enhancement and Optimum Receiver Arrays For Human Hyperpolarized 13C MR Spectroscopic Imaging
Hsin-Yu Chen1, Adam Autry1, Jeffrey R. Brender2, Shun Kishimoto2, Murali C. Krishna2, Maryam Vareth1,3, Robert A. Bok1, Galen D. Reed4, Albert P. Chen4, Lucas Carvajal1, Jeremy W. Gordon1, Mark van Criekinge1, David E. Korenchan1, Duan Xu1, Yan Li1, John Kurhanewicz1, Peder E.Z. Larson1, and Daniel B. Vigneron1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Berkeley Institute for Data Science, Berkeley, CA, United States, 4GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, United States

A data-driven processing framework was proposed for dynamic hyperpolarized 13C-MR Spectroscopic Imaging to maximally extract diagnostic information from existing datasets and techniques that utilized whitened-SVD2 to optimally combine array data, and tensor-low-rank denoising3,4 to enhance SNR. The framework was applied and evaluated on brain, abdomen, and pelvic datasets acquired using multi-channel arrays or single-element receivers. Substantial improvement in quality of low-SNR lactate and alanine was observed with 30+ fold apparent SNR gain, whereas high-SNR pyruvate remained largely artifact-free. Correlation of high kPL with biopsy-confirmed cancer strongly indicated that this recovered important pathological information.

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Reduction of Gibbs artifacts with the Domain Decomposition Fourier Continuation Method
Ruonan Shi1, Jae-Hun Jung1,2, and Ferdinand Schweser3,4

1Department of Mathematics, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States, 2Department of Data Science, Ajou University, Yeongtung-gu, Korea, Republic of, 3Buffalo Neuroimaging Analysis Center, Department of Neurology, Jacobs School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States, 4Center for Biomedical Imaging, Clinical and Translational Research Institute, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, United States

Magnetic Resonance (MR) images are obtained from the measured k-space Fourier coefficients. Due to acquisition time limitations and noise typically only a limited part of the k-space is acquired, resulting in Gibbs ringing on the images. We propose an efficient and accurate local reconstruction method that removes the Gibbs ringing and yields sharp image profiles near local edges. 


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Association of geometric features with genetic markers in glioblastoma multiforme
Adam Hasse1, Mark Dapash2, Yong Jeong3, Star Su4, Abrianna Cummings4, Sameer Ansari5, Daniel Ginat6, and Timothy J Carroll6

1Graduate Program in Medical Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States, 4MedIx REU Program, Depaul University, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 6Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

A data analysis pipeline was developed to study relationships between geometric imaging features and the underlying tumor phenotype. This pipeline was run on the tumors of 203 patients clinically diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme. For each tumor, the tumor bulk and percent non-enhancing volume was calculated, along with the surface regularity of any tumor with a 3D T1-weighted post-contrast MR scan. These features were compared to the expression of P53 and Ki67 sampled from these tumors. Although there were significant differences between multiple features for both genes, only the surface regularity was a significant predictor of Ki-67 proliferative index.

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Spherical harmonics coefficients estimation using deep neural network
Zhangxuan Hu1, Zhe Zhang2, Yuhui Xiong1, Chun Yuan1,3, and Hua Guo1

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 3Vascular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Diffusion-weighted imaging can be used to detect orientations of fibers to study human brain connectivity using tractography techniques. Spherical deconvolution based techniques have been widely used for the estimation of fiber orientation distribution (FOD), in which FODs are represented using spherical harmonics coefficients. However, high quality FOD estimation still requires large number of measurements. In this study, a deep neural network based method is proposed to estimate high quality FODs using highly q-space undersampled measurements thus to improve the acquisition efficiency.

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A Simple Fully Automated Method for Skull-Stripping Quality Control in Brain MR Image Processing Pipelines Evaluated Using Multicenter Data
Till Huelnhagen1,2,3, Ricardo Corredor-Jerez1,2,3, Claudia Bigoni1, Veronica Ravano1, Mário João Fartaria1,2,3, Adrian Tsang4, Rodrigo D. Perea4, Sara Makaretz4, Maria Laura Blefari4, Yuchuan Zhuang4, Bénédicte Maréchal1,2,3, Elizabeth Fisher4, and Tobias Kober1,2,3

1Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Signal Processing Laboratory (LTS 5), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Biogen, Cambridge, MA, United States

Automated brain segmentation approaches are increasingly being used for decision support in routine clinical settings. While segmentation may be considered a “solved problem” in research, it is still challenging to assure reliable performance of automated tools in clinical settings, which is a crucial requirement for diagnostic tools. To ensure correct results, automated quality control procedures are of vital importance, but they are often difficult to implement or time-consuming to run. We propose a simple and fast fully automated method to detect segmentation errors, and we evaluate its performance to detect skull-stripping-errors using results of two different brain segmentation algorithms on a large multicenter dataset. Results show that the method is able to detect skull-stripping-errors with high specificity.

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A brain extraction algorithm for infant T2-weighted images based on the fuzzy c-means thresholding
Inyoung Bae1, Dongchan Kim2, Jun-Young Chung1, and Yeji Han1

1Department of Health Sciences and Technology, GAIHST, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 2College of Health Science, Gachon University, Incheon, Korea, Republic of

Brain extraction is an important step in image processing for research and diagnostic assessments using brain MR images. In this work, we proposed a brain extraction algorithm optimized for both 2D and 3D infant T2-weighted images based on the fuzzy c-means thresholding and spatial information of the neighboring slices. Quantitative analysis using the dice ratio was performed to compare the results of brain extraction using the proposed method, BET, iBEAT, and the manual segmentation.

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A 3D Fully Convolutional Network with various input dimension for brain extraction in MRI
Xibo Zhang1, Zhe Liu2, Pascal Spincemaille2, and Yi Wang2

1Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2Cornell University, New York, NY, United States

A 3D Fully Convolutional Network is proposed using cascade architecture and combining two different channels to overcome the low accuracy of traditional methods. The network is applied to do the brain extraction.

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Are Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM) the Most Appropriate Metrics for Assessment of MR Image Quality?
Allister Mason1,2, James Rioux1,2,3, Sharon Clarke2,3, Andreu Costa3, Matthias Schmidt3, Valerie Keough3, Thien Huynh3, and Steven Beyea1,2,3

1Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2Biomedical Translational Imaging Centre (BIOTIC), Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada, 3Diagnostic Radiology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada

Quantifying MR image quality is important for the evaluation of new image acquisition and reconstruction techniques. Automated objective image quality metrics (IQMs) such as root mean squared error (RMSE) and the structural similarity index (SSIM) are commonly used surrogates for radiologists’ perception of image quality, which can be considered the gold standard. By calculating the correlation between radiologists’ subjective grading and various IQM scores on degraded MR images, we demonstrate that RMSE and SSIM do not correlate as well as other IQMs and are potentially  not the most appropriate metrics for assessment of MR image quality.

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Signal intensity form of Tofts model for quantitative analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI data
Xiaobing Fan1, Aritrick Chatterjee1, Aytekin Oto1, and Gregory S. Karczmar1

1Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

The Tofts pharmacokinetic model requires contrast agent concentration as function of time (C(t)), which is normally calculated using the non-linear model that could contribute some errors. Here, we present signal intensity (S(t)) form of standard Tofts pharmacokinetic model without calculating C(t). Human prostate DCE-MRI data were analyzed to compare physiological parameters calculated from the Tofts model using S(t) and C(t). The Ktrans and ve calculated from S(t) were correlated strongly with the values calculated from C(t). Bland–Altman analysis showed moderate to good agreement between for the Ktrans and ve calculated from Tofts model with S(t) and C(t).

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Test-retest reliability of resting-state brain small-world network properties across different data processing and modeling strategies
Qianying Wu1, Ya Chai2, Hui Lei2, Fan Yang2, Jieqiong Wang2, Xue Zhong2, John Detre2, and Hengyi Rao2

1University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, China, 2University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Resting-state fMRI assessed with graph theoretical modeling provides a noninvasive approach for measuring brain network topological organization properties, yet their reproducibility remains uncertain. Here we examined the test-retest reliability of seven brain small-world network metrics from well-controlled resting-state scans of 16 healthy adults using different data processing and modeling strategies. Among the seven network metrics, Lambda exhibited highest reliability whereas Sigma performed the worst. Weighted network metrics provided better reliability than binary network metrics, while reliability from the AAL90 atlas outweighed those from the Power264 parcellation. Global signal regression had no consistent effect on reliability of these network metrics.

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Development of a Quantitative Assessment tool for Peripheral Artery Feature Extraction (pCafe)
Li Chen1, Thoetphum Benyakorn 1,2, Gador Canton1, Niranjan Balu 1, Thomas S Hatsukami 1, Jenq-Neng Hwang 1, and Chun Yuan 1

1University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand

Peripheral artery disease is a relatively common disease, normally caused by reduced blood flow to the limbs due to atherosclerosis in the arteries supplying them. Peripheral arteries’ anatomy, including collateral circulation, and flow information enable disease status assessment. We developed pCafe to semi-automatically trace peripheral arteries from 3D magnetic resonance angiography and measure both morphometry (anatomy) and intensity features (velocity). pCafe was validated on subjects with, and without peripheral artery occlusion, showing excellent agreement with human reviewer’s measurement (intra-class coefficient of 0.998). pCafe may be a useful tool to quantitatively characterize peripheral vascular structures in peripheral artery disease research.

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Simultaneous Voxel-based Magnetic Susceptibility and Morphometry Analysis in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease
Hirohito Kan1, Yuto Uchida2, Nobuyuki Arai1, Yoshino Ueki3, Yoshihiro Akagawa4, Harumasa Kasai1, Yasujiro Hirose1, Noriyuki Matsukawa2, and Yuta Shibamoto1

1Department of Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan, 2Department of Neurology, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan, 3Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, Toyokawa City Hospital, Yoyohashi, Japan

This abstract introduces an analysis pipeline of voxel-based magnetic susceptibility and morphometry (VBMSM) on single MR scan. To validate the proposed pipeline, we conducted VBMSM in control and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) groups. VBM was performed using the magnitude image. The susceptibility map was estimated by new dipole inversion utilized segmentation result. For whole brain susceptibility comparison, the susceptibility map was spatially normalized by the same transformation parameter for VBM. Significant susceptibility increases could be detected in regions associated withβ-amyloid deposition in AD. Brain atrophy also could be detected in AD. VBMSM is adaptable to neurodegenerative diseases including AD.



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Automated cloud-based workflow for quantification of MRI signal intensity – initial real-world clinical validation
Marc Ramos1, Vesna Prčkovska1, Paulo Rodrigues1, Jinnan Wang2, Franklin Moser3, Markus Blank2, Sheela Agarwal2, Jacob Agris2, and David Moreno-Dominguez1

1QMENTA Inc., Barcelona, Spain, 2Bayer Radiology, Whippany, NJ, United States, 3Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States

One-third of the brain MRI scans performed worldwide make use of contrast agent injections to enable hyperintensities detection. The long-term consequences of these contrasts can be dangerous to patients and the standard procedure to measure contrast deposition is manual, labor-intensive and time-consuming. We present a fully automatic workflow which accelerates the investigation of contrast agent depositions by extracting the T1-weighted modal intensity value and applies appropriate corrections and normalizations to allow comparison across acquisitions and protocols. Automatic results matched up to 94% correlation with manual results and reduced the time by 90%.

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Accurate Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft Palate Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging with 3D Super-resolution Reconstruction
Wei Yuan1, Na Lu1, Zhixian Deng2, Xuhong Peng2, Yingwei Qiu3, Ting Song3, Tianjing Zhang4, Zhongping Zhang4, and Guoxi Xie1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 2Qingyuan People’s Hospital, Qingyuan, China, 3The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 4Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China

The routine clinical technique for prenatal diagnosis of cleft palate (CP) is ultrasound (US). However, the technique has difficulties on definitive diagnosis of fetal CP especially cleft posterior palate because of its technical limitations. Previous studies have demonstrated that magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of fetal CP and provides better diagnosis performance than US. However, these studies are mainly based on 2D MR imaging which has limited resolution along slice selective direction and cannot freely visualize the fetal palate from any orientation. To address this issue, we sought to use a 3D super-resolution reconstruction method to reconstruct 3D isotropic volumetric images from 2D images stacks and evaluate its feasibility of CP diagnosis. 

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Analysis of Coil Combination for bSSFP Elliptical Signal Model
Nicholas McKibben1, Grayson Tarbox2, Michael Mendoza1, and Neal K. Bangerter3

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 2Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 3Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

The elliptical model method for removing residual banding in balanced steady state free precession images requires accurate phase information to operate. Most datasets have separate data for each coil channel with different sensitivity, requiring combination either before or after processing using the elliptical model to eliminate differences in coil sensitivity. We demonstrate that the order in which these steps are taken matters, requiring coil combination after processing with the elliptical model depending on the method.

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Comparison of Spatial Interpolation and Inpainting Methods for Estimation of Bad Fittings in Chemical Shift Imaging Data
Angel Torrado-Carvajal1, Daniel S Albrecht1, Ovidiu C Andronesi1, Eva-Maria Ratai1, Vitaly Napadow1, and Marco L Loggia1

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, United States

Chemical Shift Imaging (CSI) allows for the quantification of brain metabolite concentrations across multiple voxels/slices. However, issues with model fit (e.g., suboptimal standard deviation, line width/full width at half-maximum, and/or signal-to-noise ratio) can result in the significant loss of usable voxels. Here, we show that an image restoration method called “inpainting” can be successfully used to restore poorly fitted CSI voxels. This method exhibits superior performance (lowest root-mean-square errors) compared to more traditional methods. Inpainting and similar techniques can prove particularly useful as a means of minimizing voxel loss in group voxelwise analyses in standard space.


MRSI Acquisition & Reconstruction

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Spectroscopy & Non-Proton MR

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Feasibility of 7T 31P MRSI in lung tumors
Quincy van Houtum1, Catalina Arteaga de Castro1, Wybe van der Kemp1, Joost Verhoeff2, Jochem van der Voort van Zyp2, and Dennis Klomp1

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Oncology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

In this study we show the feasibility of 31P MRSI acquisition from a lung carcinoma tumor in a patient using a 31P whole body birdcage coil at 7T. We showed that even without B0 shimming, 31P spectra could be aligned and averaged to differentiate several metabolites, related to membrane metabolism, in the lung tumor. 31P MRSI has great potential for the detection of therapy response in lung tumor cancer, as often the tumor is still relatively large to obtain sufficient spectral signal.

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Reducing Signal Spreading with Non-Cartesian Encoding Methods for abdominal 31P 3D-MRSI with Focus on the Gallbladder
Lorenz Pfleger1,2, Lukas Hingerl2, Albrecht Ingo Schmid2,3, Philipp Moser2, Wolfgang Bogner2,4, Yvonne Winhofer1, Siegfried Trattnig2,4, and Martin Krššák1,2,4

1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2High-field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 3Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria

This study focuses on 31P 3D MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the gallbladder and the reduction of voxel bleeding by Non-Cartesian encoded data sampling. Our results demonstrate on a phantom that the contamination due to point-spread-function (PSF) can be decreased compared to conventional Cartesian phase encoding. Qualitative improvements were investigated by metabolic mapping of biliary phosphatidylcholine (PtdC) originating from the gallbladder.

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Comparison of Reconstruction Methods for Compressed Sensing phosphorus 31P-MRSI
Alejandro Santos Diaz1,2 and Michael Noseworthy1,2,3

1School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Research Center, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3Electrical and Computing Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Phosphorus MR spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging (31P-MRS/MRSI) provide information about energy metabolism, membrane degradation and pH in vivo. However, these methods are not often used primarily because of excessive scan time. Recently, compressed sensing has awakened interest as an acceleration method for MR signal acquisition. In this work we present a 31P-MRSI sequence that combines a flyback-EPSI trajectory with compressed sensing, and we compared two reconstruction methods, conjugate gradient L1-norm minimization and low-rank Hankel matrix completion. Overall, our results showed good preservation of spectral quality for low acceleration factors and an improved performance with the low-rank approach.

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31P MRSI of the human brain at 9.4 T: Metabolic imaging applying low-rank denoising
Loreen Ruhm1,2, Johanna Dorst1,2, Nikolai Avdievich1, Andrew Wright1,2, Christian Mirkes1, Jonas Bause1,3, Klaus Scheffler1,3, and Anke Henning1

1High-Field MR Center, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 2IMPRS for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, 3Department for Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

31P MRSI enables the imaging of important components of the energy and cell membrane metabolism but suffers from low intrinsic sensitivity. In this work, we tested the LORA and CLORA low-rank noise reduction approaches to improve the quality of 3D 31P MRSI data and present first in vivo results for 31P MRSI acquired from the human brain at ultrahigh field strength of 9.4 T.

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Accelerating High-Resolution Semi-LASER 1H-MRSI Using SPICE
Yibo Zhao1,2, Yudu Li1,2, Rong Guo1,2, Bryan Clifford1,2, Xin Yu3, and Zhi-Pei Liang1,2

1Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States

Most of the current 1H-MRSI techniques have several major practical limitations, including long data acquisition time, low spatial resolution and poor SNR. To overcome these limitations, we accelerate the semi-LASER technique by incorporating subspace modeling. With this improvement, semi-LASER is cable of achieving 1.9×1.6 mm2 resolution in a 1.5 minutes scan, which is a significant improvement over the conventional semi-LASER. This imaging capability has been validated with in vivo experiments, and it may significantly enhance the practical utility of 1H-MRSI.

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Non-Water suppressed High-Resolution 1H-MRSI of the Brain Using Short-TE SPICE with semi-LASER Concentric Ring Trajectory Acquisition
Uzay Emir1,2, Pingyu Xia1, Ulrike Dydak1,3, Xiaopeng Zhou1, Albert Thomas4, Mark Chiew5, Rong Guo6,7, Yudu Li6,7, Yibo Zhao6,7, and Zhi-Pei Liang6,7

1School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 2Weldon School of Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 3Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 56Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 6Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, United States, 7Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL, United States

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is an appealing technique in both research and clinical settings. However, the utility of MRSI has been hampered by long acquisition times and artifacts caused by lipid contamination and poor water suppression.  Recent advances in MRSI acquisition and preprocessing, like concentric rings (CRT) trajectories and SPICE (SPectroscopic Imaging by exploiting spatiospectral CorrElation) (REF3), have overcome some of these issues. This work reports our success in integrating SPICE with CRT acquisitions to address the challenges of sensitivity, spectral quality, speed, and spatial resolution.

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Parallel Imaging for Concentric Circle Readouts with GRAPPA Reconstruction for Full-Brain 3D-FID-MRSI at 7T
Lukas Hingerl1, Bernhard Strasser2, Philipp Moser1, Gilbert Hangel1, Stanislav Motyka1, Eva Heckova1, Stephan Gruber1, Siegfried Trattnig1,3, and Wolfgang Bogner1

1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, High Field MR Centre, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Radiology, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria

Non-Cartesian sampling methods for MRSI such as concentric ring trajectories (CRT) are highly suitable at field strenghts ≥7T while being SNR-efficient due to its self-rewinding property and low-pass k-space-weighting. However slewrate constraints enforce the CRT to sample the k-space periphery with 2-fold or 3-fold the time of the inner circles via more temporal interleaves (TI). The combination of variable density parallel imaging (PI) and CRT for MRSI allows high acceleration factors since the undesired but necessary variable TIs can be easily undersampled and allowing therefore higher accelerations in the k-Space periphery.

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In vivo echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) at 7 tesla with readout segmentation for improved spectral bandwidth
Graeme A. Keith1, Marco Vicari2, Rosemary A. Woodward3, and David A. Porter1

1Imaging Centre of Excellence, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, 2Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany, 3Glasgow Clinical Research Imaging Facility, NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Glasgow, Scotland

The use of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging at ultra-high field strengths is attractive due to its suitability for high spatial and spectral resolution (HiSS) acquisitions. The drawback of the method at 7T and above is the decreasing spectral bandwidth as field strength increases. This work seeks to decouple the spectral bandwidth from the spatial resolution by the use of readout segmentation to achieve shorter echo spacing. Readout segmented EPSI spectra collected in vivo at 7T and comparable to a standard SVS method are presented. This allowed the calculation of metabolite maps for NAA, creatine and choline.

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Improved whole brain water suppression efficiency with four-pulse WET in echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) at 7 tesla
Graeme A. Keith1 and David A. Porter1

1Imaging Centre of Excellence, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom

Water suppression in MR spectroscopic imaging can be sensitive to variations in B1 in the sample, such as are present at 7 tesla. This work compares two versions of the WET water suppression method, the standard 3-pulse method and the extended 4-pulse method which is expected to be less sensitive to B1 variation.  It is found that the 4-pulse method provides a greater consistency of water suppression efficiency across a range of B1 in both phantoms and the brain at 7T.

2483
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Fast  spectral imaging at 7T using COKE (COherent K-t-space Epsi) with a spatially selective IR pulse (achieved by controlling pTX coil phases)
Rita Schmidt1

1Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

In a recent study, we demonstrated the feasibility of the COKE (Coherent K-t-space EPSI) sequence at 3T MRI to halve acquisition time or double the spectral width (SW) compared to EPSI. In this study, we explored, on a phantom with mimicking brain properties, the benefits of COKE at 7T for fast spectroscopic imaging; using an SW of 2500Hz to better cover the metabolites' frequency range.  We combined it with spatially selective inversion recovery (IR) using B1 phases optimization in 8-channels transmit coil to minimize the signal drop in the center and to optimize the IR in the lipid region.  

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MR-SASSI-Accelerated, B1-Insensitive, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging at 7T: first in vivo results
Rebecca Emily Feldman1, Gaurav Verma1, and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) is a signal-starved technique compared to conventional magnetic resonance imaging. At ultra-high fields, such as 7 Tesla the increased signal to noise permits the acquisition of improved spectra. Spatial localization performed the volume of interest is can be time consuming. We created a multi-region excitation pulse embedded within a B1-insensitive MRSI sequence and demonstrated its use in vivo to excite two distinct spectroscopic grids which are simultaneously acquired and disentangle using a low-resolution reference scan, thus accelerating the acquisition of MRSI data.

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How does spatial resolution affect the spectral quality and quantification accuracy of whole-brain MRSI? A simulation study at 1.5T, 3T, 7T and 9.4T
Stanislav Motyka1, Philipp Moser1, Lukas Hingerl1, Gilbert Hangel1, Eva Heckova1, Bernhard Strasser2, Korbinian Eckstein1, Simon Robinson1, Benedikt A Poser3, Stephan Gruber1, Siegfried Trattnig1, and Wolfgang Bogner1

1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, High Field MR Centre, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Department of Radiology, Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands

The quality of MRSI data depends strongly on B0 inhomogeneities, which cause broadening of metabolite resonances and decrease signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). B0 inhomogeneity is more severe at higher B0 field, diminishing the expected SNR and spectral resolution improvements. We have created simulation models which allow us to investigate how the spectral quality and quantification accuracy of MRSI changes with increasing spatial resolution and B0 field strength, using experimentally acquired data from 1.5T, 3T, 7T, and 9.4T. These simulations show not only that accurate MRSI quantification generally benefits from smaller voxels, but it does so particularly at UHF.

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Accelerated J-Resolved 1H-MRSI with Limited and Sparse Sampling of (k, tJ)-Space
Lihong Tang1, Yibo Zhao2,3, Yudu Li2,3, Rong Guo2,3, Bryan Clifford2,3, Chao Ma4, Zhi-Pei Liang2,3, and Jie Luo1

1School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 3Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Urbana, IL, United States, 4Gordon Center for Medical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

J-resolved 1H-MRSI is a powerful tool for mapping brain molecules, especially those with large spectral overlaps (e.g., glutamate, glutamine and GABA), yet it requires very long data acquisition times. Building on work in accelerated subspace-based imaging, this work proposes an accelerated acquisition scheme with limited and sparse sampling of (k, tJ)-space, based on a physics-based spectral model and Cramer-Rao lower bound analysis. A model-based processing scheme is also proposed, which performs model-based reconstruction and spectral quantification directly from the measurement data. The proposed method has been evaluated with simulated and in vivo experiments which have yielded very encouraging results.

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Detection of Choline, Glycine and Myo-inositol in Malignant Breast Cancer In-vivo Using Multi-dimensional Spectroscopic Imaging
Andres Saucedo1, Manoj Kumar Sarma1, Sumit Kumar1, Kavya Umachandran1, Melissa Joines1, Stephanie Lee-Felker1, Maggie DiNome2, and Michael Albert Thomas1

1Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Surgery, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Multi-parametric MR techniques have been used to diagnose and monitor the therapeutic outcome of cancer in the breast and other tissues and organs. One-dimensional MRSI has shown significantly elevated choline and higher water-to-fat ratio in malignant tumors as compared to healthy controls. Two-dimensional MRS resolves peaks along an additional spectral dimension which overcomes the overlap limitation of 1D MRSI, thereby providing more discriminatory information for developing non-invasive methods for cancer grade determination. This study presents the first application of an accelerated, echo-planar based technique that acquires correlated (2D) spectroscopy data for each voxel of 1.5ml resolution within a 3D volume (5D EP-COSI) in breast cancer. Our preliminary results in a pilot cohort of malignant and breast cancer patients demonstrate changes in unsaturated fatty acids and increased choline in malignant group compared to benign and healthy women. These pilot results indicate the potential application of the 5D EP-COSI technique which may be useful in improving the specificity of breast cancer.

2488
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High-Resolution T1 maps of Brain Metabolites
Antoine Klauser1, Frédéric Grouiller2, Sebastien Courvoisier1, and Francois Lazeyras1

1CIBM, Radiology and Medical Informatics, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland, 2Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

High-resolution T1 maps are measured over the whole human brain with proton FID-MRSI with incremental flip-angles. MRSI datasets with multiple flip-angles are reconstructed simultaneously through a low-rank-total generalized variation model and T1 values are determined by fit of the steady state magnetization with B1 inhomogeneity correction. Twofold compressed-sensing acceleration enables acquisition of a single flip-angle in 5 min and resulting in acquisition of 3 flip-angles in 15 min. Precise determination of T1 would enables an accurate correction of signal loss and might provide important information on brain micro-structure.

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Comparison of ROI averaging and Spectral Localization by Imaging (SLIM) Using High Resolution 3D Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging (EPSI)
Sean Edmund Ellis1,2, Peter Adany1, Phil Lee1,2,3, and In-Young Choi1,2,3,4

1Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, United States, 3Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States, 4Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States

Conventional spectroscopic imaging methods have limitations that make acquiring metabolic information for complexly-shaped brain regions a challenge.  The following study compares two methods for acquiring the regional metabolic spectra for a complex compartment shape: spectral estimation via the spatial-averaging of voxels, and Spectral Localization by Imaging (SLIM).  Both techniques used the original data sets acquired from 3D Echo Planar Spectroscopic Imaging sequences.  The two methods were compared, with the results showing that SLIM could provide comparable compartment spectra using fewer voxel acquisitions without a significant drop in spectral quality.

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Validation of B0-adjusted and sensitivity-encoded spectral localization by imaging (BASE-SLIM) using High Resolution 3D EPSI
Peter Adany1, In-Young Choi1,2,3, Sean Ellis1, and Phil Lee1,3

1Hoglund Brain Imaging Center, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States, 3Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, United States

B0-adjusted and sensitivity-encoded spectral localization by imaging (BASE-SLIM) provides non-Fourier based localization for arbitrarily shaped compartments. We have extended BASE-SLIM to 3D and compared the outcome of BASE-SLIM reconstruction with that of voxel averaged high resolution 1H MRSI.

2491
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B0 Drift Correction in Proton Chemical Shift Imaging
XIANFENG SHI1, Young-Hoon Sung1, Douglas Kondo1, and Perry F. Renshaw1

1Psychiatry, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

This study aims to improve 1H CSI data quality, by presenting a novel method for correction of B0 instability (0.9 Hz/min drift) due to gradient system heating produced by application of DTI and fMRI sequences. The method tracks magnetic field drift using three reference lines in the 1H CSI data, which allow misaligned spectral data to be corrected in post-processing. This novel method may be combined with any spectroscopic technique that employs water suppression. Both phantom and in vivo data are presented, to demonstrate improved SNR and spectrum quality, with minimal influence on metabolite data acquisition or added cost.

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Retrospective motion compensation for edited MRSI data
Kimberly Chan1,2,3 and Peter Barker2,3

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

A retrospective motion compensation method for edited MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) data of the human brain is presented. The algorithm identifies movement-affected data by comparing the residual water and lipid peaks at the same k-space point, and either phase corrects, replaces or removes motion-affected FIDs. The method was applied to in vivo GABA-edited MRSI data: relative to uncorrected spectra, the corrected spectra had significantly less subtraction artifacts.  The method was also demonstrated for correction of glutathione-edited MRSI data.

2493
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Spectroscopic imaging of macromolecule-suppressed J-difference editing of GABA at 3 Tesla
Kimberly Chan1,2,3 and Peter Barker2,3

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Johns Hopkins University School, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

In this study, the feasibility of macromolecule-suppressed MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of GABA in the human brain at 3T was investigated.  PRESS-localized MRSI was performed for both macromolecule (MM)) suppressed GABA and non-suppressed (GABA+) editing. GABA concentrations and MM fractions were assessed and compared.  Data quality metrics (B0 homogeneity, and GABA and water fit errors) were also calculated.  A significant linear correlation of GABA+ with GABA concentrations was found.  MM-suppressed GABA and GABA+ concentrations agreed with previously reported single-voxel values.  Data quality metrics were also similar to those of prior single-voxel acquisitions.

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Ultra high-field, high-resolution semi-LASER MRSI of the brain
Yan Li1, Artan Kaso2, Ralph Noeske3, Angela Jakary1, Rolf F Schulte3, Christopher P Hess1, Janine M Lupo1, and Peder E.Z. Larson1

1University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany

The purpose of this study was to implement and optimize multi-voxel semi-LASER MRSI in brain regions that are frequently used in clinical studies, such as deep gray structures and motor cortex, within a clinically feasible time.

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Superresolution MRSI: a desirable acquisition trajectory.
Claudiu Schirda1

1Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

The smoothly varying waveform and sampling that starts at k=0 and the innate property of rewinding periodically to k=0, makes the rosette trajectory achieve the same spatial resolution and spectral bandwidth as other trajectories (EPSI, SSI, CONCEPT) using less than twice gradient strength and slew rate. This makes it an ideal candidate for superresolution MRSI and ultra-high field SI acquisitions.

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Effects of Point Spread Function and Regularization Information on the MRSI with Compressed Sensing
Jung-Hsiang Chang1, Yi-Hsun Yang1, Tzu-Cheng Chao2,3, and Cheng-Wen Ko1

1Department of Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 3MOST AI Biomedical Research Center, Tainan, Taiwan

Compressed Sensing can be very useful in accelerating Phase-encoded Proton MRSI. The sampling functions and the reconstruction settings have been known as critical factors in recovering the data of the accelerated acquisition. The present work compared the choices of sampling functions and the regularization information in the reconstruction in a hope to optimize the framework of Compressed Sensing based MRSI. The results suggest that the spectral quality can be retained for as high as five-fold acceleration with an appropriate undersampling and reconstruction setting.

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Undersampling strategies for compressed sensing accelerated MR spectroscopic imaging
Nutandev Bikkamane Jayadev1, Christopher Lawhorn1, John Chang2, and Vikram Kodibagkar1

1SBHSE, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center, Glibert, AZ, United States

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) is an invaluable tool in cancer diagnosis due to its specificity but long scan times makes it less popular for routine clinical use. Clinical integration of accelerating methods such as compressed sensing (CS) can improve patient throughput. Two different undersampling strategies were implemented and statistical fidelity was tested to obtain a five-fold reduction is acquisition time; 1) a conventional variable density pseudorandom undersampling and 2) an a priori information based strategy that exploits anatomical scans. Statistical results from in vivo studies show the feasibility of using CS accelerated MRSI without loss of data fidelity. 

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Compensation of Spectral Line Broadening in Proton-Echo-Planar-Spectroscopic-Imaging (PEPSI) using Dynamic Expansion of K-Space and Parallel Imaging
Stefan Posse1 and Bruno Sa De La Rocque Guimaraes 1

1Neurology,Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, United States

This study introduces a novel MRSI approach using dynamically expanding k-space acquisition during spectral encoding to compensate B0 inhomogeneity related signal losses and spectral line broadening, taking advantage of the sparsity of the spectral signal in the time domain. 2D PEPSI with segmented increases in k-space to a maximum 6x6-fold expansion in kx and ky using spectral time domain and ky undersampling was implemented on a clinical scanner. The study characterizes signal gains and resulting spectral line narrowing in regions with B0 inhomogeneity in phantoms and in vivo. This approach complements emerging hardware solutions for improving higher-order shimming.


Other Nuclei MR

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Spectroscopy & Non-Proton MR

2499
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Spectral Editing of NAD+/NADH in 31P NMR spectra of Human Brain
Jimin Ren1,2, A Dean Sherry1,2,3, and Craig R Malloy1,2,4

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, United States, 4VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX, United States

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides (NAD+/NADH) play an essential role in cellular redox reactions and many biological processes. Altered NAD+/NADH levels and redox state may be associated with development of neurodegenerative diseases and psychotic disorders. 31P MRS is currently the only non-invasive technique to measure NAD+/NADH levels and redox state in human brain in vivo. However, the present technique suffers two major drawbacks: (1) the severe overlapping of the NAD+/NADH signals with the α-ATP resonance, and (2) the distorted baseline underneath these signals. Here we present a novel spectral editing method that allows resolution of NAD+/NADH from α-ATP at baseline. 

2500
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Fast Quantification of Creatine Kinase Reaction Rate in Mouse Skeletal Muscle Using 31P Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Kihwan Kim1, Charlie Wang 2, Yuning Gu2, Shuying Huang2, Bryan Clifford3, Zhi-Pei Liang4, and Xin Yu2

1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, cleveland, OH, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 4Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, OH, United States

We evaluated the accuracy and efficiency of a 31P magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for fast measurement of the creatine kinase (CK) rate constant in mouse skeletal muscle.  Our results showed consistent measurement of CK rate constant with less than 10% variations with only 6 signal averages, corresponding to 2 min acquisition.

2501
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Functional 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Human Visual Cortex using Repeated Short-Term Stimulation at 7T
Vanessa Franke1, Ferdinand Zimmermann1, Arthur W. Magill1, Mark E. Ladd1, Peter Bachert1, and Andreas Korzowski1

1German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

Functional 31P Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy allows the noninvasive observation of high-energy phosphate turnover in vivo, and might enable insight into the energy metabolism of activated brain areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible changes in 31P spectra of the human brain at B0 = 7T in response to repeated short-term visual stimulation. No significant changes in signal intensities and frequencies of 31P-containing brain metabolites were observed, which agrees with results from recent studies at ultra-high fields using long-term stimuli.  

2502
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Dynamic 31P-MRSI of Human Calf Muscles using Compressed Sensing and a Low Rank Reconstruction
Alejandro Santos Diaz1,2, Diana Harasym1,2, and Michael Noseworthy1,2,3

1School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Research Center, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3Electrical and Computing Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Dynamic 31P-MRSI experiments require temporal resolution on the order of seconds to concurrently assess metabolic change in different muscles. In this study we developed a pulse sequence using a flyback-EPSI readout combined with compressed sensing (CS) to achieve a 9 second temporal resolution and tested it in 11 healthy volunteers during an exercise-recovery challenge of the lower leg muscles. Our results showed that the sequence was capable of assessing PCr depletion/recovery and intracellular pH at rest and following exercise, of multiple muscle groups simultaneously, using a clinical 3T MR system.

2503
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Dependence of 31P MRS Redox Ratio on T1 Saturation
Shizhe Steve Li1, Jan Willem van der Veen1, Li An1, JoEllyn Stolinski1, Maria Ferraris-Araneta1, Christopher Johnson1, and Jun Shen1

1National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

31P measurement of the oxidized (NAD+) and reduce form (NADH) of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has been applied to in vivo assessment of the redox state of the brain. Since uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG) overlaps with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide peaks we examined the effect of changes in the relative intensities of the UDPG basis components on quantification of the redox ratio. We found that the fitted redox ratio is significantly dependent on the UDPG basis whose chemically distinct components are subject to different T1 saturation effect in vivo.

2504
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Human cardiac pH and Pi concentration during dobutamine stress measured by 7T 31P-MRS
Albrecht Ingo Schmid1,2, Andrew P Apps2, Ladislav Valkovic2,3, Elisabeth Tunnicliffe2, William T Clarke4, Mark A Peterzen2, Stefan Neubauer2, Oliver J Rider2, and Christopher T Rodgers2,5

1Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR), University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 4Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5The Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) in the reaction ATP + H20 ⇌ ADP + Pi (inorganic phosphate) is used to drive all cellular processes, including those involved in ventricular contraction and relaxation. When spectral quality is sufficient to quantify the Pi peak, it is possible to assess the ratio of Pi to phosphocreatine (Pi/PCr), which is an established measure of the muscle control of energy production. It is also possible to assess cardiac intracellular pH from the Pi to PCr frequency offset. Most human cardiac 31P-MRS studies report only the PCr/ATP ratio, and are typically unable to quantify cardiac Pi because of partially overlapping resonances from 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in blood. We aimed to use ultra-high (7T) field strength and a novel 31P STEAM sequence to 1) non-invasively measure myocardial Pi/PCr and pH at rest and 2) for the first time record these parameters during catecholamine stress.

2505
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NOE enhancement for 31P-MRS of skeletal and cardiac muscle at 7T
Chang-Hoon Choi1,2, Ladislav Valkovic2,3, William T. Clarke4, Albrecht I. Schmid2,5, N. Jon Shah1,6,7,8, and Christopher T. Rodgers2,9

1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-4, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 2Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research (OCMR), University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislave, Slovakia, 4Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom, 5High-Field MR Centre, Centre for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 6Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine-11, JARA, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich, Germany, 7JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen, Germany, 8Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 9The Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Phosphorus MR spectroscopy (31P-MRS) is a proven method for probing tissue energetics and membrane metabolism. Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) enhancement can considerably improve the quality of 31P spectra. This has been demonstrated in the brain and prostate at 7T, but NOE has not yet been applied elsewhere in the human body at 7T. In this study, we evaluated NOE enhancement for 31P-MRS in human skeletal muscle and in the heart in vivo at 7T. We observe significant enhancements (e.g. for PCr/γ-ATP: 25%/16% in muscle, 31%/11% in heart), within regulatory SAR limits and without increasing the scan duration. 

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Nutritional ketosis increases NAD+/NADH ratio in healthy human brain: an in vivo study by 31P-MRS
Lijing Xin1, Özlem Ipek1, Maurice Beaumont2, Maya Shevlyakova2, Nicolas Christinat3, Mojgan Masoodi3, Norman Greenberg4, Rolf Gruetter1,5, and Bernard Cuenoud4

1Center for Biomedical Imaging, École polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Clinical Development Unit, Nestlé Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Nestlé Institute of Health Sciences SA, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Nestlé Health Science, Epalinges, Switzerland, 5Department of radiology, University of Lausanne and Geneva, Lausanne and Geneva, Switzerland

Ketones represent an important alternative fuel for the brain under glucose hypo-metabolic conditions induced by neurological diseases or aging, however their metabolic consequences in healthy brain remain unclear. Here we report that ketones can increase the redox NAD+/NADH ratio in the resting brain of healthy young adults. As NAD is an important energetic and signaling metabolic modulator, these results provide mechanistic clues on how nutritional ketosis might contribute to the preservation of brain health.

2507
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Metabolic fate of glucose in atypical meningioma studied by 13C NMR isotopomer analysis
Kumar Pichumani1, Omkar B Ijare1, and David S Baskin1

1Neurosurgery, Houston Methodist Hospital and Research Institute, Houston, TX, United States

Meningiomas are tumors arising from meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and the spinal cord.  Majority of meningiomas (grade-1) are benign and grow slowly. However, atypical meningiomas (grade-2) exhibit increased cellular abnormalities, and grow at a faster rate than benign meningiomas. Moreover, atypical meningiomas prone to recurrence and show resistance to radiotherapy. Atypical meningiomas show higher 18F-FDG uptake in PET scans. No prior reports are available on investigating metabolic fate of glucose in atypical meningiomas. The goal of this study is to probe the metabolic fate of glucose using NMR based [U-13C]glucose isotopic tracing methods in patient-derived atypical meningioma cells.

2508
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An Optimized PRESS Sequence for the Detection of 13C4-Glutamate at 9.4 T
Brennen J. Dobberthien1, Anthony G. Tessier1,2, and Atiyah Yahya1,2

1Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 2Department of Medical Physics, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Glutamate (Glu) incorporates 13C label on its C4 carbon (13C4-Glu) following a 13C-labelled glucose (Glc) infusion, resulting in a ≈2.51ppm proton “satellite” peak that provides an indirect measure of 13C4-Glu.  Quantification of the satellite peak is complicated at short echo time (TE) due to overlap with the ≈2.49ppm N-acetylaspartate (NAA) peak. A PRESS, point resolved spectroscopy, (TE1, TE2) combination of (20ms, 106ms) was found to be suitable for resolving the ≈2.51ppm 13C4-Glu proton peak from that of NAA at 9.4T by exploiting differences in J-coupling evolution. The efficacy of the technique is verified on rat brain during a [U-13C6]-Glc infusion.

2509
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Cardiac mechanical function and metabolism during hyperpolarized 13C experiments
Gregory P Barton1, Erin B Macdonald1, Kara N Goss2,3, Marlowe W Eldridge3,4, and Sean B Fain1,4,5

1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 5Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

We investigated the relationship between contractile function and hyperpolarized (HP) [1-13C]pyruvate metabolism in a small animal model. We demonstrated significant functional changes in cardiac contractile function between pre- and post-infusion of [1-13C]pyruvate. The combined effect of infusion volume and pyruvate substrate likely explains most of the augmentation in myocardial mechanical function seen in these experiments. These data indicate the most appropriate time to image myocardial contractile function is soon as possible after HP 13C pyruvate infusion.

2510
Computer 37
Protocol for multi-site quantitative evaluation of 13C radio frequency coils
Galen D Reed1, Rolf F Schulte2, Jae Mo Park3, Craig R Malloy3, Rie B Hansen4, and Albert P Chen5

1GE Healthcare, Dallas, TX, United States, 2GE Healthcare, Munich, Germany, 3UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark, 5GE Healthcare, Toronto, ON, Canada

We present a protocol for measurement of SNR profile of 13C RF coils for clinical imaging systems. This protocol makes use of standard, vendor-provided pulse sequences as well as the natural abundance 13CH3 resonance of the dimethyl silicone (DMS) phantoms which are widely distributed. We also provide an open source code for processing and analysis. 

 


2511
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Enhanced sodium quantification accuracy in a 3T clinical 23Na MR stroke study
Nadia Karina Paschke1, Roberta Egoriti1,2, Manuel Winkler1,3, Eva Neumaier-Probst4, Sherif Mohamed4, Melina Samartzi5, Marc Fatar5, and Lothar Rudi Schad1

1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 2Biomedical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy, 3Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Allergology, University Medical Center and Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 4Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 5Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

Tissue sodium quantification from sodium magnetic resonance acquisitions is a promising biomarker in ischemic stroke diagnostics and can be incorporated in clinical magnetic resonance protocols. Since no gold standard of protocol design and post-processing exists yet, we investigated three research questions for enhanced sodium quantification in 20 stroke patients: Are transmission field corrections necessary? Should the relaxation behavior be included in the quantification? Should manual evaluations of region of interests be replaced by automatic whole brain segmentation analyses? Based on this study, we propose to include user-independent segmentation and relaxation correction in 23Na whole brain analysis, while omitting transmission corrections.

2512
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Combined 23Na/39K MRI for the quantification of Na+ and K+ concentrations in human skeletal muscle at 7 T
Lena V. Gast1, Max Müller1, Bernhard Hensel2, Michael Uder1, and Armin M. Nagel1,3

1Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 2Center for Medical Physics and Engineering, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 3Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

A non-invasive determination of Na+ and K+ concentrations in skeletal muscle tissue is desirable to gain insights into pathological processes connected to various diseases. In this work, the feasibility of combined quantitative 23Na/39K MRI at 7 T using a double-tuned 23Na/39K birdcage calf coil was examined. In phantom measurements, a 23Na/39K SNR ratio of 46.8 was found. Moreover, Na+ and K+ concentrations close to the real concentrations were determined. In skeletal muscle tissue, fast transverse relaxation of 39K leads to underestimation of Kconcentrations if no relaxation correction is applied.

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Whole-brain 23Na multi-parametric mapping at 7 Tesla
Lisa Leroi1, Jacques Stout1, Arthur Coste1, Ludovic de Rochefort2, Mathieu D. Santin3, Romain Valabrègue3, Franck Mauconduit4, Cécile Rabrait-Lerman1, Fawzi Boumezbeur1, and Alexandre Vignaud1

1CEA - Neurospin, Paris, France, 2CRMBM, UMR 7339, Aix-Marseille University, Paris, France, 3CENIR, ICM, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France, Paris, France, 4Siemens Healthineers, Saint-Denis, France

Quantifying physical properties of sodium could be of benefit to assess more specifically changes in cellular homeostasis accompanying neuroinflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. Here, we performed whole-brain Quantitative Imaging using Configuration States (QuICS) in vivo at 7 Tesla to assess simultaneously Total Sodium Concentration (TSC) and relaxation times (T1 and T2). An acquisition time of 20 minutes was sufficient for a 10 mm3 isotropic resolution. In the future, the use of non-Cartesian trajectories could further reduce the overall acquisition time, opening the way to the additional estimation of the trace apparent diffusion coefficient.

2514
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Optimizing Compressed Sensing for quantitative Sodium MRI of the human brain
Yasmin Blunck1,2, Scott C. Kolbe2,3, Bradford A. Moffat2,3, Roger J. Ordidge2,3, Jon O. Cleary2,3, and Leigh A. Johnston1,2

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, 2Melbourne Brain Centre Imaging Unit, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, 3Medicine & Radiology, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia

The clinical application of Sodium MRI is hampered due to relatively low image quality and associated long acquisition times (TA). Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at a reduction of TA, but has been found to encompass quantitative estimation bias when used in low SNR x-Nuclei imaging. This work analyses CS in human brain Sodium MRI from both angles, acquisition speed-up and quantification, and presents an optimized setup allowing an up to four-fold TA reduction with recommendations for quantitative assessments. The demonstrated global optima of CS weighting parameters and achievable reduction in TA greatly support the transition of Sodium MRI into clinical routine.


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Measurement of 23Na MRI point-spread function (PSF) using a 3D printing resolution phantom
Paul Polak1,2, Rolf Schulte3, and Michael Noseworthy1,2

1School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Research Centre, St. Joseph's Healthcare, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3GE Global Research, Munich, Germany

Acquisition of in vivo 23Na MRI suffers from many inherent technical challenges, including low signal, short T2 relaxation times, and the necessity of dedicated hardware for transmitting and receiving. Despite these issues, research remains attractive because of sodium’s essential role in cellular homeostasis, pH regulation and action potentials in neurons. Quantification of data acquisition and reconstruction techniques are essential in order to overcome 23Na MRI’s difficulties, and we present measurement of the point-spread functions of 3D radial pulse sequences in resolution phantoms with differing sodium concentrations.

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Comparison of Relaxometry-Weighted Sodium MRI and IDH Status in Cerebral Gliomas
Aliaksandra Shymanskaya1, Wieland A. Worthoff2, Karl-Josef Langen2,3,4, and N. Jon Shah1,2,3,5

1Forschungszentrum Juelich, INM-11, Juelich, Germany, 2Forschungszentrum Juelich, INM-4, Juelich, Germany, 3JARA - BRAIN - Translational Medicine, Aachen, Germany, 4Department of Nuclear Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany, 5Department of Neurology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany

Patients with cerebral gliomas were investigated using an enhanced SISTINA sequence to estimate sodium relaxation and its correlation to the IDH mutational status. Sodium MRI is used for the indirect assessment of sodium relaxation parameters through the relative change at two echo times in tumour and contralateral tissue. Sodium signals attributed to mostly restricted and non-restricted sodium are differentiated through the development of multiple quantum coherences. Changes in relaxation rates in total sodium correlate to the IDH mutational status on short time scale. This correlation could be caused by the change in sodium distribution in different compartments in diseased tissue. 

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Measurement of Intraneurite Sodium Concentration from NODDI-based Partial Volume Correction of in vivo 23Na MRI
Iris Asllani1,2, Guillaume Madelin3, Marco Bozzali1,4, and Mara Cercignani1,4

1Neuroscience, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, United Kingdom, 2Biomedical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, United States, 3Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 4Neuroimaging, Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy

 The sodium ion plays a crucial role in maintaining healthy brain function and metabolism. Changes in sodium concentration measured with 23Na MRI have been implicated in several diseases in the brain and other organs. However, due to SNR and scanning time requirements, 23Na MRI remains a low resolution technique hampered by partial volume effects. Here, we combined a partial volume correction (PVC) algorithm, previously used in Arterial Spin Labeling perfusion MRI, with Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) to extract sodium concentration values from intra-  and extra-neurite compartments in the brain in vivo using 23Na MRI at 3T. 

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Optimized 3D Dictionary-Learning Compressed-Sensing Reconstruction for Quantitative Sodium Imaging in the Skeletal Muscle
Matthias Utzschneider1,2, Sebastian Lachner1, Nicolas G.R. Behl3, Lena V. Gast1, Andreas Maier2,4, Michael Uder1, and Armin Nagel1

1Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 2Pattern Recognition Lab, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), Erlangen, Germany, 3Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Centre (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 4Erlangen Graduate School in Advanced Optical Technologies, Erlangen, Germany

Quantitative sodium MRI could be a sensitive tool for therapy monitoring in muscular diseases. However, sodium MRI suffers a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). 3D dictionary-learning compressed-sensing (3D-DLCS) enables SNR improvement and acceleration of sodium MRI, but it is dependent on parameterization. In this work a simulation based optimization method for 3D-DLCS is presented, which finds the most suitable parameters for 3D-DLCS in the context of sodium quantification. The method is applied in an in vivo study to quantify sodium in the skeletal muscle. The optimized 3D-DLCS yields a lower quantification error than the reference reconstruction method (Nonuniform FFT). 

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Ouabain Inhibition Reverses Sodium Fluxes in a Preclinical Model of Migraine: a 23Na MRI Study at 21.1 T
Nastaren Abad1,2, David Hike1,2, Jens T Rosenberg2, Michael G Harrington3, and Samuel C Grant1,2

1Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States, 2National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, United States, 3Neurosciences, Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, CA, United States

Increased sodium potassium ATPase(Na,K-ATPase) pump activity raises cerebrospinal fluid and brain sodium, resulting in the onset and progression of central sensitization [1-4]. With the goal of testing whether impaired Na,K-ATPase activity is implicit in the onset of migraine, this study makes use of ouabain to inhibit Na,K-ATPase activity and delineate sodium changes that may lie at the heart of migraine. At high spatial and temporal resolution, 23Na multislice CSI scans were acquired from a rodent migraine model, at 21.1 T following the onset or potential inhibition of central sensitization to identify localized sodium changes over 3-h after induction.

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Multi-layered radiofrequency coil design for X-nuclei Imaging
Tony Zhou1,2, Justin Lau1,2, Andrew Tyler1,2, Chris Randell3, Jack Miller1,2,4, and Damian Tyler1,2

1Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Oxford Centre for Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Pulse Teq Ltd, Woking, United Kingdom, 4Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

A novel multi-layered radiofrequency coil for X-nuclei imaging is presented which implements stacked layers for improved B1+ and SNR. The multi-layer design increased B1+ by 27% in 23Na phantom experiments and 19% in electromagnetic simulations compared to a single layer coil. Transmit-receive efficiency for a 13C multi-layer coil was double that of a quadrature coil, requiring half the power to achieve a 90° flip. An averaged SNR map from CSI indicated receive sensitivity gain of 33% from the quadrature to multi-layer design.

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Density Adapted Stack of Stars Sequence for 23Na using Dictionary Learning Compressed Sensing Reconstruction
Fabian J. Kratzer1, Sebastian Flassbeck1, Armin M. Nagel1,2, Peter Bachert1, Mark E. Ladd1, and Nicolas G. R. Behl1

1German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany

Sodium plays important roles in many cellular processes, which motivates imaging of the 23Na distribution. Short relaxation times and low in-vivo signal result in the need of sequences with short echo times and techniques to improve the SNR. Therefore, we present a stack of stars (SOS) sequence with density adapted readout gradients to increase SNR. We combine this sequence with an anisotropic dictionary learning compressed sensing reconstruction to further reduce noise in the images.

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Quantitative susceptibility mapping and sodium imaging based analysis of susceptibility and sodium concentrations in the basal ganglia
Till M. Schneider1, Nicolas Behl2, Martin Bendszus1, and Sina Straub2

1Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 2Division of Medical Physics, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany

23Na concentrations and iron deposition in cerebral gray matter have both shown to be increased in degenerative and inflammatory cerebral diseases. This study employs sodium imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping to assess differences in sodium concentrations and susceptibility within the basal ganglia in healthy volunteers at 7T. Results indicate a fundamentally different distribution of 23Na concentrations compared to the distribution of susceptibility within the nuclei of the basal ganglia and suggest that not only susceptibility but also 23Na concentrations may be physiologically distributed in a characteristic manner.  

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Using dynamic sodium imaging to assess furosemide action in the porcine kidney
James T Grist1, Esben Søvsø Szocska Hansen2, Rasmus Stilling Tougaard2, Frank Riemer3, Christoffer Laustsen4, and Ferdia A. Gallagher5

1University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2Aarhus Unviersity, Aarhus, Denmark, 3Unviersity of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark, 5University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The ability to image sodium is believed to be a powerful tool to understand physiological processes, however have yet to be effectivity translated to clinical realistic usage.  Through the use of an efficient k-space trajectory (3D cones) we have undertaken dynamic imaging of the renal sodium distribution pre and post- a furosemide injection. This work shows a decrease in the cortico-medullary sodium gradient over time, as well as being the first renal study on a clinical system with dynamic sodium imaging. 


MRS Clinical Application

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Spectroscopy & Non-Proton MR

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Cerebellar GABA+/Glx ratios in essential tremor patients are correlated with tremor severity
Sofie Tapper1,2, Nathanael Göransson3, Peter Lundberg1,2, Peter Zsigmond4, and Anders Tisell1,2

1Department of Radiation Physics, and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 2Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering and Department of Neurosurgery, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden, 4Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, and Department of Neurosurgery, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden

The aims of this study were to investigate whether GABA+ and Glx concentrations, and the relation between them, were altered in patients with severe essential tremor (ET) compared to healthy controls, and to investigate if the GABA and Glx concentrations were associated with the tremor severity. We observed an increasing GABA+/Glx ratio with tremor severity in the ET patients. Our conclusion was that this increasing cerebellar GABA+/Glx ratio mainly was driven by the decrease in Glx rather than an increase in GABA+, which suggests that an increasing tremor severity is partly due to a disturbance in the Glx concentration.

2525
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The Neurotransmitter NAAG in Different Phases of Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients
Patrik O Wyss1,2,3, Nikolai Pfender4, Roland Martin4, Andreas Lutterotti4, and Anke Henning2,3

1Department of Radiology, Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil, Switzerland, 2Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Max-Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen, Germany, 4Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Research, Department of Neurology, University Hospital and University Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

This study explores the alterations of N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA) and the neurotransmitter N-Acetyl aspartyl glutamate (NAAG) in the cerebral normal-appearing white tissue of multiple sclerosis patients with a relapsing-remitting course. A two-dimensional J-resolved single voxel spectroscopy sequence and two-dimensional prior-knowledge fitting is used to disentangle the resonance lines of NAA and NAAG.

2526
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High intrahepatic lipid content is associated with low choline status in humans-a 1H-MRS study at 3 Tesla
Pandichelvam Veeraiah1,2, Kay H M Roumans2, Joachim E Wildberger1, Patrick Schrauwen2, Lucas Lindeboom1,2, and Vera B Schrauwen-Hinderling1,2

1Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Mastricht, Netherlands, 2Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM school for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht, Netherlands

Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) has become a major threat to metabolic health. Animal studies have suggested that disturbances in choline metabolism may be linked to the development of NAFL. However, to date, human data on the link of choline and NAFL is scarce. The trimethylammonium (TMA) group of choline can be detected with 1H-MRS at 3.20 ppm. Here, we investigated the relationship between intrahepatic choline levels and hepatic lipid content on healthy overweight/obese subjects using 1H-MRS at 3 Tesla. Our results showed that high hepatic lipid content is associated with low choline content in the liver.

2527
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Association of hepatic histologic features with magnetic resonance spectroscopy derived hepatic fat and water T1 and T2 estimates in adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
Alexandra N Schlein1, Claude Sirlin1, Yingzhen Zhang1, Guilherme Cunha1, Rohit Loomba1, and Gavin Hamilton1

1Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

The purpose of this study is to assess possible associations between hepatic histologic features of NAFLD and the T1 and T2 of water and fat, measured by a multi TR, multi TE 1H  MRS STEAM sequence that acquires 32 spectra for a range of TRs and TEs in a single breath-hold. In evaluation of 51 adults Water T1 showed a positive association with fibrosis. Water T1 and T2 and Fat T1 and T2 all showed associations with steatosis grade; no other statistically significant associations were observed.  This may contribute to noninvasive methods of detection and monitoring of NALFD.

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J-edited Cerebral MR Spectroscopy in Patients with Hepatic Encephalopathy
Helge Jörn Zöllner1,2, Georg Oeltzschner3,4, Markus Butz1, Markus S. Jördens5, Nur-Deniz Füllenbach5, Dieter Häussinger5, Hans-Jörg Wittsack2, and Alfons Schnitzler1

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany, 3Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectiology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, Germany

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) associated with elevated brain ammonia levels. The detoxification of ammonia leads to regionally selective alterations in several brain metabolites. The present study investigates these neurotransmitter changes in HE patients in the GABAergic and glutamatergic system. Using MEGA-PRESS, MR spectroscopy was performed in cerebellum, thalamus, and motor cortex. Preliminary results unravel increased GABA levels accompanied by elevated glutamine and reduced myo-Inositol in the cerebellum, but an absence of GABA level changes in the two other regions. These initial findings may lead to further explanation of cognitive and motor deficits in HE, but need to be substantiated further.

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1 H MRS Analysis of Pancreas Metabolites altered by Cachexia
Raj Kumar Sharma1, Santosh K. Bharti1, Paul T. Winnard Jr1, Yelena Mironchik1, Marie-France Penet1,2, and Zaver M. Bhujwalla1,2,3

1Division of Cancer Imaging Research, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Cancer induced cachexia is a syndrome characterized by tissue wasting and weight loss. Cachexia occurs with the highest frequency and severity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).  To further understand this syndrome, we used 1H MRS to analyze pancreas metabolites in mice with and without cachexia-inducing PDAC xenografts. We detected significant weight loss in cachectic mice. 1H MR spectra identified significant differences in amino acids, BCAA, alanine, pyruvate, phosphocholine, niacinamide and NAD in cachectic mice that provide new insights into the morbidity and mortality associated with the syndrome that may lead to novel strategies to arrest this syndrome.

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Chemical deregulation in breast tissue of women at familial high risk of breast cancer correlates with the IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluator Tool using 2D COSY at 3 Tesla
Natali Naude1, Gorane Santamaria2, Graham Galloway3, Chris Foster4, Aaron Urquhart3, Thomas Gaass5, Saadallah Ramadan6, Scott Quadrelli7, Lisa Rich8, Ian Bennett7, Jessica Buck6, Peter Malycha3, and Carolyn Mountford3

1Queensland University of Technology/Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia, 2Princess Alexandra Hospital/Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia, 3Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, Australia, 4Translational Research Institute, Woolloongabba, Australia, 5Siemens, Brisbane, Australia, 6University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia, 7Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia, 8Translational Research Institute/Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

Evaluation of breast tissue of women with a high familial risk of developing breast cancer using in vivo 2D COSY as part of a standard 3T breast MRI showed statistically significant alterations in the type of double bonds in fatty acyl chains compared with controls. Further, when separating the familial cohort using the IBIS risk evaluatior tool into a group above and below 20% lifetime risk, statistically significant differences in both cholesterol and metabolites were recorded.

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Neurochemical profile of the human hippocampus at 3T after traumatic brain injury
Maria Yanez Lopez1 and David Sharp1

1Medicine, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

The aim of this work was to investigate the metabolic profile of the hippocampus in a clinical population (moderate/severe traumatic brain injury patients in the acute phase), using an MR Spectroscopy LASER sequence at 3T. With ongoing data acquisition, preliminary results show reduced levels of total choline (tCho), metabolite reflecting membrane turnover.

2532
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Whole-brain high resolution 3D MRSI for measuring 2HG and tumor metabolism in mutant IDH glioma patients
Bernhard Strasser1, Borjan Gagoski2,3, Bijaya Thapa4, Xianqi Li4, Wolfgang Bogner5, Julia Small6, Jorg Dietrich7, Daniel P. Cahill6, Tracy T. Batchelor7, and Ovidiu C. Andronesi4

1Department of Radiology, MGH, A.A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Boston, MA, United States, 2Fetal Neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Boston, MA, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 7Department Neurology, Division of Neuro-Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) detection using MRSI is a very promising, but challenging technique. Although high-resolution MRSI reduces the already small SNR of 2HG, it also reduces the spectral linewidth and provides more voxels for quantification. This study compares two high-resolution spiral MRSI sequences with a low-resolution MEGA-edited sequence, and one with a short echo time for 2HG detection in brain tumor patients. Three patients and three volunteers were measured with all four sequences. The two high-resolution sequences perform better with less false-positive 2HG detection in volunteers, and a more reliable 2HG quantification in IDH-mutated tumors.

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Comparison of MEGA-PRESS and Short Echo Time PRESS on Classification of IDH Mutation Using Machine Learning at 3T
Ayhan Gursan1, Gokce Hale Hatay1, Cengiz Yakicier2, M. Necmettin Pamir3,4, Koray Ozduman3,4, Alp Dincer3,5, and Esin Ozturk-Isik1

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey, 3Neuroradiology Research Center, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey, 5Department of Radiology, Acibadem Mehmet Ali Aydinlar University, Istanbul, Turkey

Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation is common in grade II and grade III gliomas, and results in better patient prognosis IDH mutant (IDH-mut) gliomas. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies indicated an increase in 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) and decrease in glutamate (Glu) and glutathione (GSH) as a result of IDH mutation. The goal of this study is to compare IDH mutation classification performances of short echo-time (TE) PRESS and MEGA-PRESS by using machine learning in 60 glioma patients. Highest average classification accuracy was 75% with coarse decision trees for short TE PRESS, and 74% with ensemble of bagged of trees for MEGA-PRESS.

2534
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Metabolic Markers of Disease Progression in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas
Stefan Bluml1,2, Brenda Kurland3, Marvin D Nelson1, Benita Tamrazi1, Rafael Ceschin4, Ian F Pollack5, and Ashok Panigrahy4

1Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles/USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Rudi Schulte Research Institute, Santa Barbara, CA, United States, 3Biostatistics, UPMC Children's Hopital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 4Radiology, UPMC Children's Hopital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 5Neurosurgery, UPMC Children's Hopital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are inoperable and highly resistant to chemo- and radiation therapy. DIPG carry the worst prognosis among pediatric brain tumors with progress in the development of therapies compromised by low patient numbers and unavailability of tissue samples to characterize disease status. In this work we present evidence, that non-invasive MR spectroscopy can provide robust early indicators that can assess the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of potential new therapeutic approach at an early stage and accelerate the completion of clinical trials in small cohorts of patients.

2535
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Evaluation of the elevated signal at 3.55 ppm in 1H MRS spectra of certain glioma patients
David Hundertmark1, Benjamin Bender1, and Uwe Klose1

1Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Germany, Tuebingen, Germany

In MR-spectroscopy of gliomas, sometimes an elevation of the signal at 3.55 ppm at an echo time of 135 ms is found, which can be interpreted as myo-inositol or as glycine. Due to coupling effects, the signal of inositol should be reduced at an echo time of 90 ms, while the glycine signal should be larger than at TE 135 ms. In measurements of glioma patients, which show an enhanced signal at 3.55 ppm at TE 135ms, we found a decreased signal at TE 90. Therefore, we saw no indication of elevated glycine concentration in gliomas.

2536
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Neurometabolic consequences of perinatal HIV infection and exposure are still observed in children at 11 years
Amy Graham1, Martha Holmes1, Francesca Little2, Els Dobbels3, Mark Cotton3, Barbara Laughton3, Andre van der Kouwe4,5, Ernesta Meintjes1,6, and Frances Robertson1,6

1Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 2Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa, 3Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa, 4A.A. Martinos Centre for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 6Cape Universities Body Imaging Center, University of Cape Town, Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa

HIV establishes reservoirs within the brain, causing damage despite individuals adhering to antiretroviral therapy. The long-term consequences of perinatal HIV infection and early treatment in children remain unclear. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out to assess the effects of HIV on neurodevelopment, at a metabolic level, comparing HIV-positive, HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed children at 11 years old. Absolute metabolite concentrations were compared between these groups, through linear regression analysis. Elevated choline levels within two regions of interest suggest putative inflammation in HIV-positive children. A reduction of N-acetyl-acetate in a white-matter region of HIV-positive and HEU children implies axonal damage.

2537
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MR Spectroscopic Changes in Infants Exposed to Prenatal Opioids: A Pilot Study
Caroline Rae1, Danielle Christmas2, Ian Wright3, John Feller2, Mohamed Abdel-Latif4, Sara Clews5, Janet Falconer2, and Julee Oei2

1Neuroscience Research Australia, Randwick, Australia, 2UNSW, Kensington, Australia, 3University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia, 4ANU, Canbera, Australia, 5ANU, Canberra, Australia

Proton spectra were obtained from the left caudate, left hippocampus and subventricular zone of the brains of one week old babies born to mothers who were opioid users. The study suggests that decreased brain volumes after prenatal opioid-exposure are associated with hippocampal spectral abnormalities with increased severity related to multiple opioid use.

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Altered biochemical profiles in fetuses with congenital heart disease
Subechhya Pradhan1,2,3, Kushal Kapse3, Gilbert Vezina1, Mary Donofrio4, Jessica Lynn Quistorff3, Catherine Lopez3, Nicole Simard3, and Catherine Limperopoulos1,2,3

1Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, United States, 2Pediatrics, George Washington Univeristy, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Developing Brain Research Laboratory, Children's National Health System, Washington, DC, United States, 4Fetal Heart Program, Children's National Health System, Washington, MD, United States

Brain injury is a major complication in infants with complex congenital heart disease (CHD). There is growing evidence that impaired brain development has its origins in the fetal period. We prospectively characterized in vivo fetal brain metabolic profiles in 307 fetuses (210 health fetuses and 97 with CHD).  Findings from measurements of metabolite concentrations of NAA, Cr, and Cho increased with advancing GA in healthy and CHD fetuses. In CHD fetuses, tNAA/tCh ratios were significantly lower while lactate concentrations were significantly higher compared to healthy fetuses, suggesting early-life disturbances in fetal brain biochemistry.

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Accelerated Five-Dimensional Echo-Planar Correlated Spectroscopic Imaging to assess Lipids and Metabolite differences between Type-2 Diabetic and Healthy Calf Muscle
Andres Saucedo1, Manoj Kumar Sarma1, Christine Darwin2, Sumit Kumar1, Kavya Umachandran1, Rajakumar Nagarajan3, and Michael Albert Thomas1

1Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Institute for Applied Life Sciences, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, MA, United States

Obesity-related diseases such as Type 2 Diabetes have become increasingly widespread. This condition can be characterized in part by changes in the fat composition of muscle, specifically in the relative concentrations of extra-myocellular (EMCL) and intra-myocellular (IMCL) lipids. Although 1D MRS techniques have been applied to assess skeletal muscle metabolite composition, they are hindered by lipid contamination from EMCL and spectral overlap which can complicate quantitation and differentiation from IMCL. 2D MRS improves spectral dispersion, allowing clear separation of both EMCL and IMCL and determination of the unsaturation index of muscle lipids. In this study, we apply a 5D (3D spatial + 2 spectral) echo-planer correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) technique to assess the lipid and metabolic differences within the calf muscle among three groups of subjects – diabetic, age-matched healthy, and young healthy controls.

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Metabolic abnormalities in cingulate gyrus in HIV infection by 3D rosette spectroscopic imaging
Victor E. Yushmanov1, Jullie W. Pan1, Claudiu V. Schirda1, Hoby P. Hetherington1, Jeffry R. Alger2, Peter B. Barker3, Todd B. Parrish4, Ned Sacktor3, Michal Povazan3, and James T. Becker1

1University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 2University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

The purpose of this study was to assess metabolic abnormalities in HIV infection by MRSI covering brain cortex and parts of striatum. Sixteen HIV-seropositive subjects (younger and older than 60) and age-matched 30 seronegative controls were evaluated using a fast rosette 3D MRSI sequence at 3T, segmentation and parcellation into 13 brain regions, and fGM regression statistics to evaluate abnormalities. MI/NAA, Cr/NAA, Ch/NAA and Ch/Cr increase in anterior and posterior cingulate as a function of HIV serostatus and age. Fast MRSI enables the detection of subtle metabolic abnormalities in HIV infection at clinically acceptable scan times (<10 min) at 3T. 

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Metabolite markers of glutamatergic activity and neuro-inflammation in the superior temporal gyrus in patients with schizophrenia.
Sai Krishna Merugumala1, M. A. Niznikiewicz2, E. Del Re2, K. Spencer2, H. Liao1, P. G. Nestor3, R. W. McCarley3, N. Bolo4, and A. P. Lin1

1Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Laboratory of Neuroscience, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, United States, 3Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 4Beth Isreal Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA, United States

Many studies have shown that the superior temporal gyrus undergoes many changes in schizophrenia.  Magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of the brain have also shown brain metabolite levels are altered in schizophrenia however the superior temporal gyrus has not been examined in detail.  The aim of this study was to compare brain metabolite levels in patients with schizophrenia and controls as well as examine their correlation with electrophysiology measures.

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The Potential Impact of Multiparametric MRS in the Early Detection of Neurodegeneration in Multiple Sclerosis
Assaf Tal1 and Ivan Kirov2

1Chemical and Biological Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, 2Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, United States

Clinical proton MRS conventionally measures metabolites' concentrations, but neglects to acquire their relaxation constants, despite the fact that these are known to vary in many pathologies. Using computer simulations and literature values for n-acetyl-aspartate, we show that incorporating this additional information can greatly facilitate the detection of neurodegeneration in early stage multiple sclerosis (MS), increasing the area under the corresponding receiver operating characteristic curves from 0.68 to 0.91. These results  strongly motivate the need for developing robust sequences for clinical multiparametric magnetic resonance spectroscopy .


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Mapping of Regional Distributions of Brain Metabolites in Healthy Young Adults using Three-dimensional Echoplanar Spectroscopic Imaging
Eric Petersen1, David Roalf1, Ruben Gur1, Raquel Gur1, Andrew Crow1, Ravinder Reddy2, Sumei Wang2, Suyash Mohan2, Andrew Maudsley3, and Sanjeev Chawla2

1Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Radiology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States

To determine the regional distributions of metabolites from different lobar regions of brain in a cohort of healthy individuals in late adolescence and early adulthood, a total of 19 subjects (mean age=22) underwent 3D-echoplanar spectroscopic imaging. The parametric maps of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (tCr), choline (tCho), myoinositol (mI) and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) were generated using sophisticated post-processing steps. These maps were normalized to MNI atlas.  Significant spatial variations in metabolite ratios of NAA/tCr, tCho/tCr, mI/tCr and Glx/tCr were observed across different lobar regions of brain. These findings will undergird future efforts to understand metabolite distributions in neurodevelopmental disorders.

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7T 1H-MRS of the anterior cingulate in patients with psychosis spectrum and mood symptoms
Eric Petersen1, Sanjeev Chawla2, Andrew Crow1, Theodore Satterthwaite1, Raquel E Gur1, Ruben C Gur1, Ravi Prakash Reddy Nanga2, Hari Hariharan2, Mark Elliott2, Ravinder Reddy2, and David R Roalf1

1Psychiatry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Data from 12 typically developing (TD), 10 clinical high risk for psychosis (CHR), 6 psychosis (PSY) and 4 mood disorder (MD) participants who underwent 1HMRS at 7T. Short TE single voxel spectra (SVS) were obtained using a custom-modified PRESS sequence from the anterior cingulate gyrus. Data quality was high and tissue contribution within the acquisition voxel was similar across diagnostic groups. NAA, Creatine, Choline, GSH and Glu were significantly lower in PSY as compared to TD. CHR showed an intermediate pattern for all brain neurometabolites, except GSH, which was elevated as compared to TD. MD patients, in general, showed higher concentrations of NAA, Cho, GSH and Glu as compared to TD.

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Metabolic Alterations in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study
Weina Wang1, Xiaorui Su1, Simin Zhang1, Qiang Yue2, and Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

Sleep-Related Hypermotor Epilepsy (SHE) is characterized by bizarre motor behavior during sleep. The aim of this present study was to investigate metabolic alterations in the bilateral DLPFC using 1H-MRS to understand the underlying pathophysiology of SHE. Thirty-nine subjects with SHE and 60 controls were studied. The left DLPFC NAA and mI concentrations of SHE patients were significantly lower than controls. There was an asymmetry of NAA in the control group. These findings may present executive function decline in SHE and further verify the left frontal lobe is more vulnerable in right-handed SHE patients.

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Longitudinal cerebral metabolic changes in delayed neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide intoxication using 1H MR spectroscopy.
Hui-ru Tsai1, Jung-Hsiang Chang1, Ping-Hong Lai2,3, Jie-Yuan Li4,5, and Cheng-Wen Ko1

1Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2Dept. of Radiology, Veterans General Hospital-Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 3School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Dept. of Neurology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 5School of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

In this study, we explored the metabolic changes in WM and GM of patients with and without DNS using 1H MRS longitudinally at onset, 1, 3, and 9 months after CO intoxication. Decreased tNAA/Cr and increased Cho/Cr were observed in WM of patients with DNS as literatures have reported. The longitudinal change of Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr in WM and GM of patients with DNS implies themselves that may provide valuable information for monitoring DNS development.

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Evidence for increasing hippocampal metabolite concentrations during healthy aging
Leo Sporn1,2, Erin L MacMillan3,4,5, Ruiyang Ge6, Kyle Greenway7, Cornelia Laule1,2,8, and Fidel Vila-Rodriguez6

1Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Philips Healthcare, Markham, ON, Canada, 4Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5Mechatronic Systems Engineering, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 6Psychiatry, Non-Invasive Neurostimulation Therapies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 7Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 8Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Previous magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies have concluded that hippocampal metabolite concentrations remain stable during healthy adult aging. However, these studies used short repetition times (TR ≤ 2s), which leads to heavy T1-weighting. We used a longer TR (4s) to reduce T1-weighting and found hippocampal metabolite concentrations increase with age for N-acetyl-aspartate, creatine, choline and myo-inositol. Our findings illustrate the importance of using sufficiently long TR in MRS to avoid T1-relaxation effects influencing the measurement of metabolite concentrations.

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Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Metabolite Concentrations in Children
Chidera Nwaroh1,2,3,4, Lauran Cole2,3,5,6, Adrianna Giuffre2,3,5,6, Helen Carlson2,6,7, Frank P MacMaster2,3,4,7,8,9,10, Adam Kirton2,3,6,7, and Ashley D Harris1,2,3,4

1Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Alberta Children's Hospital Research Institute (ACHRI), Calgary, AB, Canada, 3Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Calgary, AB, Canada, 4Child and Adolescent Imaging Research (CAIR) Program, Calgary, AB, Canada, 5Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 6Calgary Pediatric Stroke Program, Alberta Children's Hospital, Calgary, AB, Canada, 7Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 8Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 9The Mathison Centre for Mental Health Research and Education, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 10Strategic Clinical Network for Addictions and Mental Health, Calgary, AB, Canada

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of non-invasive brain stimulation that safely modulates brain activity. Several studies have shown that tDCS of the motor cortex facilitates motor learning and plasticity but there is little information on the underlying mechanisms. This analysis of metabolite changes in response to 1mA tDCS using typical PRESS and MEGA-PRESS is important in developing a complete understanding of the effects of stimulation. In this pediatric study, we did not detect the same GABA and glutamate changes in response to tDCS that have been seen in the adult literature. 


Flow in the Brain

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Neuro

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CSF Flow and Aging: An Early Marker of Pathology?
Arun Venkataraman1, Rashid Deane2, and Jianhui Zhong1

1Center for Advanced Brain Imaging and Neurophysiology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 2Neuroscience, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, United States

Phase Contrast-Magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) provides detailed information on flow of spins, and has been applied to blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow. In the field of CSF imaging, PC-MRI is mostly used as a clinical tool to look for frank CSF changes. However, subtle CSF changes are thought to occur in neurovascular pathologies, as well as neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. In addition, it has been shown that CSF flow may change during the aging process. In this abstract, we seek to select the optimal imaging parameters to investigate aging-related CSF changes.

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Visualization of irregular CSF flow by dynamic iMSDE SSFP using acceleration- selective motion - sensitized gradient (AS-MSG)
Tomohiko Horie1,2, Nao Kajihara1, Haruo Saito2, Shuhei Shibukawa1, Susumu Takano1, Natsuo Konta1, Makoto Obara3, Tetsuo Ogino3, Tetsu Niwa4, Kagayaki Kuroda5, and Mitsunori Matsumae6

1Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hospital, Isehara, Japan, 2Division of Diagnostic Image Analysis Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, 3Healthcare, Philips Electronics Japan Ltd., Shinagawa, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan, 5Course of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Japan, 6Department of Neurosurgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Japan

We reported a technique to visualize the irregular flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by using dynamic improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium steady-state free precession (dynamic iMSDE SSFP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of intracranial CSF visualization with dynamic SSFP using acceleration selective motion sensitized gradient (AS-MSG). The dynamic SSFP using AS-MSG distinguished acceleration flow in CSF from constant flow. This technique is suggested to contribute to the diagnosis of various diseases in the CSF space.

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Microgravity-induced changes in pituitary morphology, brain volumetry, and cerebral spinal fluid hydrodynamics: relationship to spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome
Larry A. Kramer1, Khader M. Hasan1, Michael B. Stenger2, Ashot Sargsyan2, and Brandon R. Macias2

1Diagnostic Imaging, UTSHC-Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 2NASA, Houston, TX, United States

A longitudinal study of astronauts with long duration exposure to microgravity showed intracranial volumetric expansion which did not return to baseline after a 1 year of  post-flight recovery. These findings were associated with increased cerebral spinal fluid pulsatility through the cerebral aqueduct suggesting diminished intracranial compliance. Additionally, there was development of pituitary gland deformity similar to that seen in idiopathic intracranial hypertension implicating the presence of elevated intracranial pressure during spaceflight. 

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Evaluation of Intracranial Pressure-Regulation by MRI-measured Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsation
Masatomo Uehara1, Tosiaki Miyati1, Naoki Ohno1, Riho Okamoto1, Moemi Tachimoto1, Mitsuhito Mase2, Hiroshi Furusho1, Satoshi Kobayashi1, and Toshifumi Gabata1

1Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya, Japan

We conducted this study to determine the cerebrospinal fluid pulsation in the supine and sitting positions using multiposture MRI. The stroke volume of the aqueduct is not affected by intracranial pressure change. Cerebrospinal fluid pulsation measurements to evaluate the intracranial pressure-regulation function should be taken at the boundary between cranial and spinal cavities rather than in the aqueduct.

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Low b-value diffusion weighted imaging to evaluate cerebrospinal fluid dynamics
Toshiaki Taoka1, Shinji Naganawa1, Hisashi Kawai1, Toshiki Nakane1, and Katsutoshi Murata2

1Radiology, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan, 2Siemens Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan

We evaluated the signal intensity of the CSF on low b-value (b=500 s/mm2) diffusion weighted images (DWI) in cases with ventricular dilatation versus controls by a scoring method. Although low b-value DWI cannot quantify the absolute flow speed, it may be possible to evaluate the distribution of altered CSF dynamics within the cranium in the cases of ventricular dilatation. We also evaluated the characteristic signal void findings adjacent to the septum pellucidum in the cases with ventricular dilatation, which was speculated to be due to a standing wave in a thinned septum pellucidum.

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Automated CSF Detection for Post-hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants Using 3D U-Net
Li Zhao1, Xue Feng2, Craig Meyer2, Kushal Kapse1, Matthew T. Whitehead1, Adre J. du Plessis3, and Catherine Limperopoulos1

1Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Childrens National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 3Fetal Medicine, Childrens National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States

Post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus is a prevalent and severe neurological complication in very premature infants.  Converging evidence suggests that increased ventricular size is an important and potentially modifiable risk factor for adverse neurological outcomes. MRI measures of CSF volume often rely on manual measurements to quantify ventricular size because automatic neonatal brain segmentation methods often fail in the setting of severe brain injury. In this pilot study, we proposed and validated a deep convolutional neural network method, 3D U-Net, to automatically identify the lateral ventricular system and the external cerebrospinal fluid regions. The proposed method showed superior accuracy in a preliminary cohort of 19 scans of very preterm infants compared to a conventional method. 

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Assessment of Hemodynamic and Hydrodynamic alternations in Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension by using MR-based Intracranial Pressure Method
JyhWen Chai1, Yi-Hsin Tsai2, Yi-Ying Wu1,3, Yi-Jhe Huang1, Hung-Chieh Chen1, and Clayton Chi-Chang Clayton Chen1,4

1Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Education, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 3Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Central Taiwan University of Sciences and Technology, Taichung City, Taiwan, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hung Kuang University, Taichung City, Taiwan

Epidural venous dilatation is commonly seen in patients with spontaneous intracranial hypotension, and its presence often indicates a distinctly altered cerebrospinal hemodynamic/CSF dynamic. With the MR-ICP technique, significant statistical differences were found in various hemodynamic and CSF dynamic parameters. The result suggests that EVD is a representative feature of hemodynamic/CSF-dynamic change in SIH, and also highlights the potential of MR-ICP as a reliable method of assessment for SIH.

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MRI assessment of glymphatic function in the non-human primate brain
Ian Tagge1, Steven Kohama2, Theodore Hobbs3, Jeffrey Pollock4, Thierno Madjou Bah5, Jeffrey Iliff5, and William Rooney1

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Division of Neuroscience, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, United States, 3Surgery, Oregon National Primate Research Center, Beaverton, OR, United States, 4Diagnostic Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 5Anesthesiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States

The astrocyte mediated exchange of cerebrospinal fluid and interstitial fluid comprise the glymphatic system, a physiology that facilitates waste removal in the brain parenchyma. Impaired solute and waste clearance may contribute to neurodegenerative conditions, and may also be associated with age. Here, we present preliminary measurements of glymphatic function in healthy adult and aged rhesus macaque brain via intrathecal injection and DCE-MRI. We demonstrate that kinetics of GBCA distribution in the CNS occur on timescales amenable to study using DCE-MRI techniques. Our preliminary results indicate that impairment in glymphatic physiology occurs with age in the rhesus macaque.

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Enhanced perivascular space contrast using T1-T2 fusion and adaptive spatial filtering
Farshid Sepehrband1, Giuseppe Barisano1,2,3, Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei3, Meng Law1,4, and Arthur W Toga1

1Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neuroscience graduate program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia

Imaging the perivascular space (PVS), also known as Virchow-Robin space, has shown to be of significant clinical value. Its role in glymphatic system1 and reported pathological changes of the PVS in neurological disorders2–10 highlight the need for methodological development specific to this compartment. Here we propose a fusion framework that enhances PVS contrast, allowing robust clinical rating. The Enhanced PVS Contrast (EPC) was achieved by combining T1- and T2-weighted images that were adaptively filtered to remove non-structural high frequency spatial noise.

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Assessment of Cerebral Hemodynamics Change of Hypertension using Multi-TI Arterial Spin-Labeling
Qiuju Fan1, Zhen Yang1, Nan Yu1, Qi Yang1, Yong Yu1, Yue Li1, and Shaoyu Wang2

1Shaanxi University of Chinese Medicine, Xianyang, China, 2MR senior scientific marketing specialist, Siemens Healthineers, Xianyang, China

In our study, we evaluate the diagnostic value of mTI-ASL as a noninvasive method  to detect subtle hemodynamic abnormalities in hypertension at different stage. 

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Study of the cerebral blood flow metabolism in patients with Parkinson’s disease using arterial spin labeling MRI
Hong-Ying Zhang1 and Weiqiang Dou2

1Radiology, Northen Jiangsu people's hospital, Yangzhou, China, 2GE Healthcare, MR Research, Beijing, China

There are still debates on the alterations of subcortical metabolism in Parkinson’s disease. We performed 3D pseudo-continuous pulse ASL on PD and control groups. The absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF) values and relative CBF (rCBF) in subcortical regions were automatically extracted and calculated. We found widespread decreased absolute CBF in PD patients. However, the subcortical rCBF increased significantly. We conclude that widespread blood hypoperfusion in PD brain is absolute, and hyperperfusion in the subcortical brain regions is only relative to the whole brain level of patients themselves.

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Using Perfusion Weighted Imaging to Aid in Drawing Prominent Veins on Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping
Miller Fawaz1, Min-Gyu Park2, Luo Yu3, and E. Mark Haacke1

1The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea, Republic of, 3Radiology Department, Shanghai Fourth People's Hospital, Shanghai, China

Current literature references Asymmetrically Prominent Cortical Veins as a valid marker, but identification is user dependent. We aim to quantify APCV using PWI, greatly reducing the reliance on observer input. This method is a stepping stone for automatic APCV segmentation and has the potential to play a role in establishing a reliable identifier for ischemic penumbra from SWI data.

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Correlation between internal carotid artery flow and circle of Willis anatomy
Te-Chang Wu1 and Jeon Hor Chen2

1Department of Radiology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan, 22. Department of Radiology, E-DA Hospital, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan

Measurement of proximal cerebral inflow volume and individual cerebral angio-architecture are crucial for patient-specific analysis of hemodynamic effects of cerebrovascular disease. However, the detail of bilateral ICA flow in individuals of complete but asymmetric COW is lacking. This retrospective study included total 210 healthy adult for delineation of the relationship between detailed COW variations and bilateral ICA flow volume in healthy adults.  Furthermore, the correlation of ICA diameter to ICA flow in the setting of circle of Willis variants was also proposed.

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Perivascular spaces in healthy young subjects
Giuseppe Barisano1,2,3, Farshid Sepehrband1, Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei3, Meng Law1,3,4, and Arthur W. Toga1

1Laboratory of Neuroimaging, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Keck Hospital of University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Alfred Health, Melbourne, Australia

Enlargement of perivascular spaces has been associated with a number of diseases. However, morphological features of perivascular spaces in healthy subjects and their clinical role are still not completely understood. We analyzed on MRI perivascular spaces in a large sample of healthy young subjects. Our results showed a high inter-subjects variability of perivascular spaces. Twins presented similar amount of perivascular spaces. Perivascular spaces in basal ganglia were significantly correlated with subjects’ height, brain volume, and brainstem volume. These findings are relevant for all future studies investigating the role of perivascular spaces.

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Computational assessment of enlarged perivascular spaces on brain magnetic resonance images in Vascular Dementia patients.
Martha Singh1, Anuja Pradhan2, Mustafa Salimeen2, Habib Tafawa2, Xianjun Li2, Miaomiao Wang2, Congcong Liu2, Guanyu Yang3, Qu Qiumin4, and Jian Yang2,5

1Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, 2The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, 3Xi’an AccuRad Network and technology Co. Ltd, Xi'an, China, 4Department of neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an, China, Xi'an, China

Enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) are common in Vascular Dementia (VaD) patients, associated with aging, inflammation, etc. Many studies address EPVS as it is related to count and volume but very few on the density using 3T MRI. Our aim in this study is to describe an effective and user-friendly computational method to aid in the perivascular spaces segmentation to yield EPVS count, volume and density in VaD patients. EPVS count, volume and density are significantly greater than in the control group (P<0.05). The results suggest that computational assessment of EPVS can further aid in an early diagnostic of VaD.

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Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Imaging Reveals Region-Specific Blood-Brain Barrier Damage in Bipolar Depression
Lyn Kamintsky1, Kathleen A Cairns2, Ronel Veksler3, Chris Bowen1, Steven D Beyea1, Alon Friedman1, and Cynthia Calkin1

1Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2Nova Scotia Health Authority, Halifax, NS, Canada, 3Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel

This study addresses the need for mechanism-based understanding and diagnosis of bipolar depression. Using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI we identified extensive blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in 28% of bipolar patients (and zero controls). All bipolar patients with extensive BBB leakage also had insulin resistance and worse metabolic, psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. We found depression to be associated with region-specific BBB leakage, with the nucleus accumbens best predicting depression severity. Our findings highlight BBB damage as a mechanism contributing to the dysfunction of depression-associated brain regions, and suggest that insulin resistance increases the risk of extensive BBB leakage.

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Chronic anemic patients have impaired cerebral oxygen delivery using Pseudo Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling MRI
Yaqiong Chai1,2, Adam Michael Bush3, Chau Vu2, Natasha Lepore1, Thomas Coates4, and John Wood5

1Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 4Hemotology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, los angeles, CA, United States

We quantified and compared cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen delivery in patients with thalassemia intermedia and other chronic anemic patients and healthy controls, using arterial spin labeling MRI. Anemic patients exhibited elevated CBF globally and in grey matter (GM). While global and GM O2 delivery was preserved in anemic patients, white matter (WM) O2 delivery was 20% lower in this cohort compared to healthy controls. Age was the strongest predictor for both CBF and O2 delivery, but the mechanisms of decreased WM O2 delivery needs further study, given the inadequate neovascularization in response to chronic hypoxia and other factors.

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Sodium T2* Heterogeneity of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Healthy Brains and Neurological Disorders
Yongxian Qian1, Tiejun Zhao2, Kathik Lakshmanan1, Timothy Shepherd1, Yulin Ge1, Yvonne W. Lui1, and Fernando E. Boada1

1Radiology, New York University, New York, NY, United States, 2Siemens Healthineers USA, New York, NY, United States

The literature reports a wide variance in CSF T2* values (46-64ms). This variance may suggest T2* heterogeneity of CSF. Here we explore the possibility of CSF T2* heterogeneity among healthy and neurologically-disordered brains.

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The influence of draining veins on apparent grey matter volume changes caused by hypercapnia
Julia Huck1, Christopher J. Steele2,3, Anna-Thekla Jäger3, Audrey P. Fan4, Sophia Grahl3, Christine L. Tardif5,6, Uta Schneider3, Arno Villringer3, Pierre-Louis Bazin3,7, and Claudine J. Gauthier1,8

1Physics, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Psychology, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 4Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 6Montreal Neurological Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada, 7Social and Behavioural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 8Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada

Past studies have shown that T1-weighted measures of grey matter volume (GMV) can be biased by differences in blood volume. Here, we investigate the vascular compartments associated with this bias by quantifying the spatial relationship between t-values for the apparent GMV increase observed during hypercapnia and the location of draining veins. Draining veins were identified using the VENAT atlas. Overall, the results of this analysis demonstrate that while proximity to veins is related to the presence of higher t-values (larger apparent GMV change during hypercapnia), large veins themselves are unlikely to be the main cause of this bias; suggesting that smaller veins or arteries may have a larger role in the observed bias.

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Hyperoxia Challenge in Healthy and Anemic Subjects using BOLD MRI
Chau Vu1, Julie Coloigner2, and John C. Wood3

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2CIBORG lab, Division of Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Division of Cardiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

This study explores the brain’s response to 100% oxygen inhalation in anemic subjects using BOLD MRI. Hyperoxic challenge has previously been used to identify brain regions with increased oxygen extraction fraction from inadequate perfusion.  After controlling for changes in peripheral oxygen saturation, hyperoxic BOLD response was not significantly different between sickle cell disease patients, non-sickle anemic patients and healthy controls. Therefore, our results suggest that chronically anemic patients do not have increased oxygen extraction fraction from inadequate resting oxygen delivery under resting conditions.

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Imaging Cerebellum Venous Oxygenation: a T2-based approach
SHENGWEN DENG1, Dengrong Jiang2, Juan Antonio Vasquez, 1, Hanzhang Lu2, and Peter T Fox1

1Research Imaging Institute, University of Texas Health at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, United States, 2Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

Cerebellum has been used for normalization in fMRI and blood flow studies, and yet little for its oxygen metabolism. This abstract aims to explore T2-Relaxation-Under-Phase-Contrast (TRUPC) MRI to reliably image cerebellar venous oxygenation. We try to explore the regional small vein Yv and it adjacent sinus signals.   

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Extracranial space in healthy infants: an age-related study based on MRI anatomical images
XIAOHU WANG1, LEI ZHANG2, ZHUANQIN REN2, XIAOCHENG WEI3, and QING FAN2

1Baoji Center Hospital, baoji, China, 2Baoji Center Hospital, Baoji, China, 3GE Healthcare, Beijing, China

To date, there is no consensus exists on diagnostic criteria for pathological external hydrocephalus in infants and young children. In this study, extracerebral space of 212 healthy subjects were measured on different anatomical slices and their age correlation were analyzed. The results demonstrated that extra cerebral space measured both on axial and coronal plane features similar age-related change. The results of this study may be a valuable reference in diagnosis of external hydrocephalus.

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Quantitative Measurement of Glymphatic Flow in Man with Contrast-Enhanced MRI
Christopher G Filippi1,2, Jared M Steinklein1,2, Leah E Waldman1,2, Xiangzhi Zhou1,2, George Pinder3, and Richard Watts4,5

1Radiology, Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY, United States, 2Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States, 4Department of Psychology, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 5Department Radiology, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, United States

Impairment in glial lymphatic "glymphatic" flow is hypothesized to be an etiologic factor in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We report a quantitative study of glymphatic flow in man, combining intrathecal administration of gadobutrol (macrocylic gadolinium-based contrast agent) with serial T1-mapping to produce contrast concentration maps up to 3 days post-injection. This demonstrates proof-of-concept feasibility and offers data on the pharmacokinetics of glymhatic flow.

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Could Diffusion MRI monitor the brain glymphatic system? A proof-of-concept study using an aquaporin-4 channel inhibitor pharmacological challenge
Clement S. Debacker1, Tomokazu Tsurugizawa 1, Boucif Djemai1, Luisa Ciobanu1, and Denis Le Bihan1

1NeuroSpin, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

Dysfunction of the Glymphatic System (GS), which clears brain tissue from waste, has been proposed as a mechanism to several brain pathologies, including the Alzheimer’s disease. GS has been investigated with preclinical imaging through the invasive intracisternal injection of Gadolinium. In this study, we have show, using a pharmacological mouse brain model, that diffusion MRI, through the Sindex approach could reveal noninvasively changes in brain cortex tissue following injection of an Aquaporin 4 channel inhibitor known to interfere with the GS via the inhibition of astrocyte swelling.

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Intra-Voxel Incoherent Motion imaging as a potential marker of parenchymal glymphatic flow
Swati Rane1, Elaine Peskind2,3, Rebecca Hendrickson2,3, Murray Raskind2,3, and Jalal B Andre1

1Radiology, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Northwest Network Mental Illness Research, Education, and Clinical Center, VA Puget Sound, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington Medical Center, Seattle, WA, United States

We tested the applicability of IVIM to detect increased glymphatic flow using the pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*). Using known effects of prazosin, to increase interstitial fluid volume and glymphatic flow, we showed that D* increased significantly in 6 individuals before and 9-12 weeks after prazosin. This increase was greater than conventional diffusion. It was also larger than the inter-scan variability of D*, measured in 3 individuals 10 weeks apart.


Parkinson's Disease

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Neuro

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MRI Evidence for the Ascending Spread Hypothesis of Parkinson’s Disease
Jamie C Blair1, Matthew J Barrett2, James Patrie3, and T Jason Druzgal1

1Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2Neurology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 3Public Health Services, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States

Ascending spread models of Parkinson’s disease neurodegeneration remain controversial despite being the dominant model of disease progression in the literature. This study conducted an in vivo evaluation of the ascending spread hypothesis for PD in early and late-stage Parkinson’s disease using measurements of regional grey matter density (GMD) obtained from T1-weighted MRI. Results of this study provide in vivo evidence that regions implicated in stages three and four of the ascending spread model are degenerating ahead of regions implicated in stages five and six. These results further support the proposed ascending pattern of pathological spread in PD.

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Cortical thinning pattern according to the differential nigrosome involvement in patients with Parkinson’s disease
Eung Yeop Kim1,2, Na-Young Shin2, Uicheul Yoon3, and Young Hee Sung4

1Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Radiology, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, College ofHealth and Medical Science, Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongbuk, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Neurology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea, Republic of

The dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra pars compacta form five clusters (nigrosomes 1-5 [N1-N5]), and N1 has been considered to be the most affected, followed by N2, N4, N3, and N5 in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Recently, N4 was defined on 3T MRI and found to be involved in late-stage PD compared to N1, suggesting sequential involvement from N1 to N4. We found wider cortical thinning in patients with N4 loss compared to those with N1 loss, similar to the cortical thinning propagation pattern seen with PD progression, which supports the sequential progression hypothesis.

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Olfactory bulb atrophy and smell deficits in H&Y stage-1 Parkinson’s disease
Rachel S Stanford1, Lauren Spreen1, Thyagarajan Subramanian2, Qing X Yang1, and Jianli Wang1

1Radiology, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Neurology, Penn State University, Hershey, PA, United States

The olfactory bulb (OB) is highly affected by Lewy bodies, the hallmark pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD). Hyposmia has been reported to occur in the majority of early-stage PD patients. We investigated whether there is olfactory bulb atrophy in early-stage PD patients. Our data demonstrated significantly reduced olfactory bulb volumes as well as lower psychophysical smell test scores in H&Y stage-1 PD patients compared to healthy controls.

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Meta-analysis of the diagnostic effect size of neuromelanin MRI in Parkinson’s disease
Abdul Halim Sapuan1, Saadnah Naidu1, Stefan Schwarz1, Yue Xing1, and Dorothee P Auer1

1Department of Radiological Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The clinical diagnosis and monitoring of Parkinson’s disease (PD) remain challenging which prompted substantial research efforts to develop pathophysiological meaningful biomarkers. Depigmentation of the substantia nigra (SN), pars compacta, is a pathological hallmark of PD that can be detected by neuromelanin-sensitive MRI (NM-MRI). We undertook a meta-analysis on the pooled diagnostic accuracy of NM-MRI in 14 case-control studies including 755 subjects (427 PD). We show a consistent decrease of SN NM signal in PD vs controls independent of the acquisition and analysis methods with a pooled standardized mean difference of SMD=1.06, 95% CI, 0.84, 1.28, p<0.00001. In conclusion, this meta-analysis supports NM-MRI metrics as a diagnostic biomarker of PD.

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Utility of Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping & Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in the Diagnosis of Early Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease
Septian Hartono1, Samantha Tan2, Ann Chu Ning1, Soo Lee Lim3, Tong San Koh2,4, Ming-Ching Wen1, Huihua Li3, Fiona Setiawan1, Samuel Ng1, Nicole Chia1, Saifeng Liu5, Mark Haacke6, Eng King Tan1,2, Louis Tan1,2, and Ling Ling Chan2,3

1National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore, 2Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore, Singapore, 3Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore, 4National Cancer Centre Singapore, Singapore, Singapore, 5MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 6Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised by dopaminergic neuronal loss and iron overload in the nigrostriatum. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) allow quantification of alterations in tissue microstructure based on water diffusion and iron deposition respectively. Our case-control study in PD using DKI revealed greater cellular loss in the lateral SN and complex microstructural degradation in the putamen. QSM showed spatially variant iron deposition (Δχ) in the grey nuclei congruent with histochemical reports, and multivariate analysis showed that putaminal and lateral nigral Δχ significantly predicted UPDRS. Significant correlations between Δχ and DKI indices were found in the putamen.

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Longitudinal Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow Calculated by Arterial Spin Labeling MRI in Parkinson’s Disease
Dilek Betul Arslan1, Sevim Cengiz1, Kardelen Eryurek2, Ozan Genc1, Ani Kicik2, Emel Erdogdu2,3, Zeynep Tufekcioglu4, Basar Bilgic4, Hasmet Hanagasi4, Aziz Mufit Ulug1, Ibrahim Hakan Gurvit4, Tamer Demiralp2,5, and Esin Ozturk-Isik1

1Biomedical Engineering Institute, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, 2Hulusi Behcet Life Sciences Research Center, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey, 3Institute of Psychology and Cognition Research, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany, 4Department of Neurology, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey, 5Department of Physiology, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

The aim of this study is to monitor perfusion changes over one and a half years in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were created for baseline and follow-up scans by fitting a kinetic curve model for each pixel of arterial spin labeling MR images. The CBF maps were registered to MNI152 brain atlas, and perfusion changes were assessed at 119 distinct brain regions. The CBF of PD-MCI patients decreased at occipital fusiform gyrus, right occipital fusiform gyrus, anterior part of left supramarginal gyrus, and anterior part of right middle temporal gyrus over time.

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Studying the effect of medication status on resting state network metrics in Parkinson’s disease
Saadnah Naidu1,2, Yue Lily Xing1,2, and Dorothee Auer2,3

1Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 3Nottingham NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Current drug therapies for Parkinson’s disease (PD) offer symptom control without the capability for disease modification. Furthermore, unpredictable on/off fluctuations and dyskinesias present challenges in titrating appropriate doses. Our study aims to utilise resting state functional MRI (fMRI) to determine the effect of PD medication, as preliminary step to future work to address these limitations. 

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Prognosis of body function in Parkinson’s disease using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging
Chih-Chien Tsai1, Po-Yuan Chen2, Sung-han Lin2, Shu-Hang Ng3, Yao-Liang Chen4, Chin-Song Lu5, Jur-Shan Cheng6, Yi-Hsin Weng5, Wey-Yil Lin7, Yi-Ming Wu3, and Jiun-Jie Wang2

1Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 3Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan, 4Department of Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan, 5Neuroscience Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan, 6Clinical Informatics and Medical Statistics Research Center, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 7Department of Neurology, Landseed Hospital, TaoYuan, Taiwan

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by resting tremor, bradykinesia, restricted mobility, and postural instability. PD has a progressive course and is associated with increased mortality, with physical disability and non-motor symptoms exerting a significant negative impact on quality of life. Robust early prediction of clinical outcomes in Parkinson’s disease would be paramount for implementing appropriate management interventions. The predictive power varied according to the clinical measures used and was highest in the prediction of UPDRS. This finding was further confirmed by using bootstrap approach and leave-one-out cross-validation analysis.

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Analysis of changes in brain structure in patients with Parkinson's disease and their correlation with the Hoehn-Yahr stage using the MPRAGE sequence
Chunyan Zhang1, Ruichen Zhao1, Jinxia Zhu2, Tobias Kober3, Chen Chen1, Hong Lu4, Hongcan Zhu4, Bing Xue4, Hong Liang4, and Jingliang Cheng1

1Department of MRI, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China, 2MR Collaboration, Siemens Healthcare, Ltd., Beijing, China, 3Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

In this study, the volume changes of brain structure in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients were analyzed. We found extensive structural brain changes in PD patients, and most of these changes were correlated with the Hoehn-Yahr stage. The results showed that volume changes in some brain regions may be a potential imaging marker for early diagnosis of PD, and the MPRAGE sequence may be a suitable and quick method to provide a reference for clinicians to diagnose PD.

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Arteriovenous Structure and Blood Flow Abnormalities in Parkinson’s Disease
Chunyan Zhang1, Bo Wu2, Xiao Wang1, Chen Chen1, Ruichen Zhao1, Hong Lu3, Hongcan Zhu3, Bing Xue3, Hong Liang3, Sean Sethi4, E. Mark Haacke2,4, and Jingliang Cheng1

1Department of MRI, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China, 2Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Department of Neurology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China, 4Magnetic Resonance Innovation INC, Detroit, MI, United States

Few researchers have paid attention to the vascular supply and venous outflow in Parkinson’s disease (PD). In this work, we evaluated arterial inflow and venous outflow and looked for the presence of abnormal venous structure. We found that there was a significant correlation of reduced arterial flow with reduced internal jugular vein (IJV) flow. We also found there were a large number of PD patients with no or little flow in the left IJV compared to healthy control group. These results suggest that abnormal flow could be one factor in the development of or progression of PD in some patients. 

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Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of Mutant α-Synuclein transgenic Marmoset using Multiparametric MRI
Mai Mizumura1, Fumiko Seki2,3, Junichi Hata2, Yawara Haga1, Marin Nishio3, Hideyuki Okano2, and Akira Furukawa4

1Center for Brain Science, RIKEN, Wako, Japan, 2Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 3Central Institute for Experimental Animals, Kanagawa, Japan, 4Tokyo Metropolitan University Graduate School, Tokyo, Japan

In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of the brain in a genetically modified marmoset model of Parkinson’s disease. Various contrast images were acquired using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the whole brain underwent explorative investigation with each contrast. For each image, statistical evaluation was performed using SPM. Diffusion tensor MRI showed significance differences in the thalamus, while magnetization transfer ratio images showed a significant difference in the nigral striatum. The findings suggest that the marmoset is useful as a model animal to study human diseases.

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Differentiating Parkinson’s disease patients from healthy controls through high iron content deposition in the substantia nigra
Kiarash Ghassaban1, Naying He2, Sean Kumar Sethi3, Pei Huang4, Shengdi Chen4, Fuhua Yan2, and Ewart Mark Haacke3

1Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, shanghai, China, 3Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 4Department of Neurology and Institute of Neurology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

In this work, 25 Parkinson’s disease patients and 24 healthy controls (HC) were scanned in order to quantify brain iron content in eight major deep gray matter structures. In addition to comparing global iron deposition, a novel threshold-based method was used to assess regional high iron (RII) in these nuclei. Among all the structures, the substantia nigra (SN) was the only one showing significantly higher iron content in PD patients compared to that of the HC cohort with the regional analysis revealing more prominent results. There are two populations of PD patients, those that do not change iron content in SN and those that do. For the abnormally high SN iron content group, there was a significantly higher UPDRS-III than the group showing normal iron content.

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Classification of Parkinson’s disease based on multi-parametric data derived from MR Fingerprinting measurements
Thomas Amthor1, Peter Koken1, Mariya Doneva1, Vera Catharina Keil2, Stilyana Peteva Bakoeva2, Alina Jurcoane2,3, Wolfgang Block2, Ullrich Wüllner4,5, Burkhard Mädler6, and Elke Hattingen2,3

1Philips Research Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 2Department of Radiology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 3Institute for Neuroradiology, University Hospital Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt, Germany, 4Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 5German Centre for neurodegenerative disease research (DZNE), Bonn, Germany, 6Philips Healthcare, Bonn, Germany

We investigated the potential of multi-parametric MR Fingerprinting measurements for the classification of Parkinson’s disease. For each measured quantity (T1, T2, proton density) and each segmented brain region, several statistical parameters were determined and used to train a Random Forest classification algorithm. An AUC of 0.92 was achieved for distinguishing Parkinson patients from healthy control subjects.

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Free-Water Imaging Improves the Evaluation of White and Gray-Matter in Early Parkinson’s Disease
Christina Andica1, Koji Kamagata1, Taku Hatano2, Yuki Takenaka1,3, Asami Saito1, Mana Kuramochi1,3, Wataru Uchida1,3, Akifumi Hagiwara1,4, Takashi Ogawa2, Haruka Takeshige-Amano2, Masaaki Hori1, Nobutaka Hattori2, and Shigeki Aoki1

1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Neurology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

We applied bi-tensor diffusion model to evaluate the microstructural changes of white (WM) and gray matter (GM) in patients with early Parkinson’s disease (PDs). Our results demonstrated that the bi-tensor diffusion model could be used to disentangle neuroinflammation and axonal degeneration in early PDs with more precise estimations of localized microstructural changes compared to the single-tensor model. Our findings also suggest that microstructural changes in early PD may be preceded by neuroinflammation and followed by axonal degeneration, with WM changes preceding GM changes. Finally, the bi-tensor model also enabled to show possible compensatory mechanisms in PD occurring in the cerebellum. 

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Linked alterations in microstructural morphology of white matter in patients with Parkinson’s disease: A multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study
Koji Kamagata1,2, Kouhei Kamiya3, Yuya Saito4, Taku Hatano5, Christina Andica1, Tomoko Maekawa1,3, Shohei Fujita1,3, Asami Saito6, Takashi Ogawa5, Genko Oyama5, Haruka Takeshige-Amano5, Yasushi Shimo5, Akifumi Hagiwara1,3, Masaaki Hori1, Nobutaka Hattori5, and Shigeki Aoki1

1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Psychiatry, Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, The University of Melbourne & Melbourne Health, Parkville, Australia, 3Department of Radiology, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Radiological Sciences, Tokyo Metropolitan University Graduate School of Human Health Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 6Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan

To identify relationships between Parkinson’s disease (PD) severity and microstructural changes in white matter (WM), we applied a multimodal data-fusion method known as linked independent component analysis (LICA) to a set of diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) and myelin-sensitive imaging data. LICA explained data variance with high sensitivity to PD severity, revealing widespread coordinated decreases in intracellular volume fraction, fractional anisotropy, and myelin volume fraction with increases in radial diffusivity. Our results show coordinated microstructural alterations in WM with disease severity and PD progression.

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Atlas based Diffusion Abnormalities in Substantia Nigra in Parkinson's Disease
Apoorva Safai1, Shweta Prasad2,3, Jitender Saini4, Pramod Pal2, and Madhura Ingalhalikar1

1Symbiosis Centre for Medical Image Analysis, Symbiosis International University, Pune, India, 2Department of Neurology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India, 33Department of Clinical Neurosciences, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Pune, India, 44Department of Neuroimaging & Interventional Radiology, National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences, Bangalore, India

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by neuronal loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN).  This study aims to gain deeper insights into the abnormalities in SN by evaluating the diffusion metrics of the SN in a large cohort of patients with PD. To precisely delineate the SN, neuromelanin sensitive MRI images were obtained from a set of healthy controls and were used to create a probabilistic atlas of the SN. Using this atlas, we observed significantly higher radial and mean diffusivity of bilateral SN in patients with PD suggesting microstructural abnormalities that could potentially serve as bio-markers for PD.

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Acupuncture Relieve Pain in Parkinson’s Disease Through Modulating Pain Matrix
Sung-han Lin1, Shao-Wen Yu2, Yu‐Chieh Huang3, Yih-Ru Wu4, and Jiun-Jie Wang1

1Medical Imaging and Radiology Science, Chang Gung University, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 2Department of acupuncture, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 3Medical Imaging and Intervention, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, TaoYuan, Taiwan, 4Neurology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, TaoYuan, Taiwan

Patients with Parkinson’s Disease may suffer from different pain for years, including aching and burning from muscles, skeleton, or even throughout their body. In the current study, we provide that acupuncture could relieve such specific pain in PD patients through modulating regions related to the pain matrix in brain, especially correlated with primary somatosensory cortex and middle temporal pole. This could be an effective and safe analgesic tool that would relieve patients’ suffering.

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Analysis of Structural Connectivity using Certain Nuclei as Seeds in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease
Haining Wei1, Zhangxuan Hu1, Yuhui Xiong1, Le He1, Yan Tong2, Yu Ma3, Hua Guo1, and Xuesong Li1,4

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, 2Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Neuromodulation Center, Tsinghua University YuQuan Hospital, Beijing, China, 4School of Computer Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China

In this study, we aim to evaluate the relationships between fiber connectivity starting from specific nucleus regions to the whole brain and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS)-III scores in patients with Parkinson's disease. The results showed that the structural connectivity to the whole brain starting from bilateral internal global pallidus and caudate nucleus has significant negative correlations with the UPDRS-III scores. In the contrary, no significant correlations was found for the network starting from the putamen and external global pallidus. The strong negative correlation implies that these specific nuclei may play significant roles in the severity of Parkinson's disease. This finding is of great importance for further clinical research.

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Temporal Atrophy Predicts the Deterioration of Cognition in Multiple Domains: a Longitudinal Clinical Study in Parkinson’s Disease
Cheng Zhou1, Xiaojun Guan1, Tao Guo1, and Minming Zhang1

1Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, HangZhou, China

To specify the critical structural alterations of cognitive deterioration in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and explored the underlying mechanism of structural changes. We combined cross-sectional and longitudinal VBM analyses to explore the structural topologies between PD patient who convert to mild cognitive impairment (PD converter). The relationships between dopamine transporter (DAT), CSF proteins and structural alterations were assessed. PD converters showed progressive temporal atrophy associated with multiple cognitive domains. DAT results were significantly associated with temporal atrophy. In conclusion, temporal lobe is a crucial node in modulating cognitive status in multi-domains. Dopamine deficiency may contribute to cognition-related temporal atrophy.

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Functional Brain Connectome and Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early Stage Parkinson Disease
Xueling Suo1, Du Lei1, Nannan Li2, Wenbin Li1, Lan Cheng2, Meiyun Wang3, Rong Peng2, and Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Neurology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 3Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital & the People’s Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

To use graph theory approaches and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to explore the brain functional network in patients with early stage Parkinson's disease (PD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The whole-brain functional network was constructed by thresholding the Pearson correlation matrices of 90 brain regions. The results showed a less small-worldization characterized by decreased global integration and decreased local segregation in PD patients relative to healthy controls (HC). On the basis of these between-group difference in global and nodal properties, PD patients with MCI showed the lowest properties values, followed by PD patients with normal cognition and HC.

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Altered cerebellar functional connectivity in Parkinson’s disease
Jason Langley1, Daniel E Huddleston2, and Xiaoping Hu3

1Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by asymmetrical onset of motor symptoms such as bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremor. Mounting evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays a major role in the pathophysiology of PD. Prior imaging studies have found altered cerebellar activation during motor execution and motor learning, suggesting that altered activation in the cerebellum may reflect Parkinsonian-related impairment. Here, we use resting-state function MRI (fMRI) to ascertain connectivity changes in the cerebellum from Parkinson's disease found reduced connectivity in lobule V of the cerebellum as well as reduced connectivity between dentate nucleus and the cerebellar cortex.

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Disruption of cortical-basal ganglia motor network affects cognitive function in Parkinson’s disease: a high angular resolution diffusion imaging study
Chenfei Ye1, Zehong Yan1, Tao Wu2, and Ting Ma3

1Electronics and Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology at Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China, 2Department of Neurobiology, Neurology and Geriatrics, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 3Harbin Institute of Technology at Shenzhen, Shenzhen, China

Whether clinical phenotype in Parkinson's disease (PD) is affected by cortical-basal ganglia motor circuit (CBG) dysfunction remains to be investigated. In this study, we utilized a high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) technique to investigate association between white matter structural connectivity within CBG and cognitive function related to PD. We found that the structural connectivity between the M1 cortical area and other regions within the CBG circuit decreased for those PD patients with severe cognitive symptoms, indicating that the less effective information processing between cortical and subcortical regions in CBG network could lead to cognitive deficits in PD patients.

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Influence of Analytic Techniques on Comparing Diffusion Derived Measurements in Early Stage Parkinson’s Disease
Virendra R Mishra1, Karthik R Sreenivasan1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Zhengshi Yang1, Dietmar Cordes1, and Ryan R Walsh2

1Imaging Research, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 2Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States

Using a well-characterized multi-site diffusion MRI (dMRI) dataset of early Parkinson’s disease (PD), this study suggests that DTI-TK and TBSS perform at the same accuracy of detection if skeletonwise analysis are conducted. However, DTI-TK is more sensitive than TBSS. Further, results from voxelwise or ROI-based analysis should be reported with caution as this study found a significant smoothing effect to detect differences in scalar dMRI-derived measures. Overall, our findings suggest that the conclusions for the hypothesis being tested are strongly dependent upon the choice of analytic techniques as different analysis techniques can lead to different conclusions.  

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Towards identification of neuroanatomical correlates of neuropsychological scores in Parkinson’s disease patients, with and without, memory impairment
Virendra R Mishra1, Karthik R Sreenivasan1, Ece Bayram2, Sarah J Banks3, Jason Longhurst2, Zhengshi Yang1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Dietmar Cordes1, Aaron Ritter2, Jessica Caldwell2, and Brent Bluett4

1Imaging Research, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 2Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 3University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 4Department of Neurology and Neurosciences Stanford Movement Disorders Center (SMDC), Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

With a well-characterized dataset of Parkinson’s disease (PD) participants, with and without memory impairment, this study shows that there is a distinct structural network organization between PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and without MCI(PD-nMCI). This study further shows that while there are no discernible differences in scalar diffusion-MRI derived measures, fractional anisotropy in PD-nMCI is negatively associated with trail making test-A. Our study demonstrates the feasibility towards identifying neuroanatomical correlates of neuropsychological scores that will not only aid in our understanding of the underlying neural correlates of cognitive impairment in PD, as well as differentiating PD-MCI and PD-nMCI in an objective and reproducible manner.

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Altered Claustral Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Karthik Sreenivasan1, Ece Bayram1, Sarah Banks2, Jason Longhurst1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Zhengshi Yang1, Dietmar Cordes1, Aaron Ritter1, Jessica Caldwell1, Brent Bluett3, and Virendra Mishra1

1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 2University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Studies have shown α-synuclein pathology in the claustrum of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients and its correlation with the onset of cognitive dysfunction in PD. In this study we use resting state fMRI to examine claustral functional connectivity network changes in PD patients with mild cognitive impairment. Our results show increased claustral-cortical connectivity in the PD-MCI group, which may indicate additional effort is required in the PD-MCI group to maintain network integration. The increased load of claustrum is somewhat mitigated by medication in PD patients with cognitive impairment.


Treasure Chest of Neuro Gems

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Neuro

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Investigation of brain plasticity during prolonged Braille learning in sighted subjects: a longitudinal diffusion MRI (dMRI) study
Malwina Molendowska1, Bartosz Kossowski1, Jacek Matuszewski1, Łukasz Bola1,2, Marcin Szwed2, Katarzyna Jednoróg3, and Artur Marchewka1

1Laboratory of Brain Imaging, Neurobiology Center, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland, 2Department of Psychology, Jagiellonian University, Cracow, Poland, 3Laboratory of Psychophysiology, Nencki Institute of Experimental Biology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland

Diffusion MRI can be used to evaluate the brain plasticity processes that occur during new skills acquisition. Commonly, one of the tasks used to investigate neuroplasticity of both blind and sighted subjects is Braille reading. In this work, we analyze DTI metrics based on 5 time points data and investigate the dynamics of the brain reorganization processes. In particular, our preliminary results depict neuronal brain changes within main WM tracts associated with somatosensory area development.  

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Increased Intracortical R1 in the Motor Cortex of Exercising Older Adults
Christopher Dennis Rowley1,2, Ralf Deichmann3, Tobias Engeroff4, Elke Hattingen5, Rainer Hellweg6, Ulrich Pilatus5, Eszter Füzéki4, Sina Gerten4, Lutz Vogt4, Winfried Banzer4, Johannes Pantel7, Johannes Fleckenstein4, Silke Matura7,8, and Nicholas A Bock9

1Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Neuroscience, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 3Brain Imaging Center Frankfurt/M., Frankfurt, Germany, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Institute of Sports Sciences, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 5Institute of Neuroradiology, Goethe University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 6Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 7Institute of General Practice, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 8Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 9Department of Psychology, Neuroscience and Behaviour, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada

Exercise is known to be beneficial for brain health and performance; however, it is not known if changes in cortical microstructure underlie this effect. To investigate this, R1 maps acquired on cognitively healthy older adults (n=24, 65-90 years old) were analyzed before and after a 12-week exercise intervention. R1 prolongation indicating increased myelin levels were significant in the right (p=0.033) and trending in the left (p=0.052) leg motor regions with respect to a control group (n=22). ΔR1 correlated with aerobic cycling performance improvements (left: p=0.012, right: p=0.011). This study demonstrates that exercise promotes myelination in cortical motor regions.

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Investigating premanifest synucleinopathy: structural connectome of brainstem nuclei in REM sleep behavior disorder
Maria Guadalupe Garcia Gomar1,2, Laura Lewis1,2, Lawrence Wald1,2, Bruce Rosen1,2, Aleksandar Videnovic2,3, and Marta Bianciardi1,2

1Radiology, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States

REM-sleep-behavior-disorder (RBD) is characterized by the absence of muscle-atonia during REM-sleep. RBD is strongly associated with presymptomatic-manifestations of neurodegenerative-synucleinopathies. Thus, it allows the investigation of early/premanifest neurodegenerative-stages when treatment can be most effective in delaying the development of full-blown-disease. Changes in brainstem-nuclei-connectivity are expected in RBD/premanifest-synucleinopathy based on animal- and ex-vivo-human-studies. Yet, their investigation in living-humans is understudied. Through high-spatial-resolution 7Tesla-MRI and a recently-developed probabilistic-brainstem-nuclei-atlas, we built a brainstem-based structural-connectome in living RBD-patients and age-matched controls. Interestingly, in RBD-patients we detected structural-connectivity-changes within the brainstem, with the striatum and cerebellum in line with the pathophysiology of RBD in animal-models.

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Changes in GABA associated with a sham-controlled transcranial direct current stimulation language intervention for primary progressive aphasia.
Ashley D Harris1,2, Zeyi Wang3, Bronte Ficek4, Kim Webster4,5, Richard AE Edden6,7, and Kyrana Tsapkini4

1Department of Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Children’s Hospital Research Institute and Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 3Department of Biostatistics, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 6Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 7F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

Primary Progressive Aphasia is a neurodegenerative disorder primarily affecting language. We applied GABA-edited MRS to examine GABA changes with anodal tDCS to augment language-therapy for patients with PPA. With tDCS targeting the left inferior frontal gyus, we see a decrease in IFG GABA following the intervention. No changes were observed in the sham group. While all patients showed improvements with language therapy, those receiving tDCS showed greater improvements that were maintained at 2 months follow-up. This work supports the use of tDCS to augment language therapy in PPA.

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Structural MRI abnormalities and the immune system are correlated with neuroinflammation in Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a retrospective study on a large and well-defined patient cohort.
Francesca Inglese1, Ilse Kant2, Ece Ercan3, Mark van Buchem1, Margreet Steup-Beekman4, Tom Huizinga4, Cesar Magro-Checa4, Itamar Ronen1, and Jeroen de Bresser1

1Department of Radiology, LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, UMCU, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Department of Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Department of Rheumatology, LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands

Neuropsychiatric Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (NP-SLE) is associated with cerebral abnormalities, but their relation to the inflammatory and ischemic clinical phenotypes is unknown. We performed a retrospective structural brain study within a large, clinically well-defined patient cohort of NP-SLE patients (inflammatory and ischemic) and non-NP-SLE patients. Patients with inflammatory, but not ischemic, NP-SLE showed lower grey matter and white matter volumes, and higher White Matter Hyperintensity volumes compared to non-NP-SLE patients. Brain abnormalities were also associated with the complement system. In conclusion, only inflammatory NP-SLE showed more severe structural brain abnormalities, and these were associated with a specific complement component.

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Elucidating the influence of healthy aging on white matter microstructure: A comparison of different diffusion MRI models
Salman Shahid1, Qixiang Lin1, Antoine Hone-Blanchet1, Allan Levey1, James Lah1, Bruce Crosson1,2, and Deqiang Qiu2,3

1Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Joint Department of BioMedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States

To understand microstructural changes associated with healthy aging, multi-shell diffusion-weighted images were acquired in a group of 71 cognitively normal volunteers (31-young, 40-old). Signal representation and tissue specific models were used to assess relationship between age and WM microstructural changes. TBSS was performed for group-comparison. Results showed that FA and NODDI-based indices exhibited highest degree of sensitivity with overlap in much wider regions. The results also showed regional differences among FA and ODI. The influence of DKI was more regionalized and complemented by FA. The study demonstrated the sensitivity of higher-order models to the age-related changes in tissue microstructure. 

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MRI Detection of Amyloid Related Imaging Abnormalities (ARIA) in a Non-Human Primate Model of Sporadic Cerebral Amyloid Angiography at 7-Tesla
Dina Ramadane1,2, Thomas Genovese1, Lori Hill3, Charles Kingsley4, Lawrence Williams3, Thomas Wisniewski1, Henrieta Scholtzova1, and Youssef Zaim Wadghiri1,2

1Department of Radiology, Bernard & Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging & Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation & Research (CAI2R), New York, NY, United States, 2Preclinical Imaging Laboratory, Division of Advanced Research Technologies NYU Langone Health & NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States, 4The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, United States

Here we describe a non-invasive brain imaging method studying the pathogenesis and long-term effects of ARIA (amyloid-related imaging abnormalities) in an aged squirrel monkey (Saimiri Boliviensis), a non-human primate model of naturally occurring cerebral amyloid angiopathy. We investigated both ARIA-E, characterized by vasogenic edema, and ARIA-H, characterized by MRI evidence of hemosiderin deposits as potential biomarkers to use in a MRI methodology to monitor newly developed AD treatments. 

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Dynamics of white matter tract covariance across lifespan assessed with diffusion spectrum imaging
Yi-Xi Peng1, Chang-Le Chen2, Yung-Chin Hsu3, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng2,4,5

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Institute of Medical Device and Imaging, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Acroviz Technology, Inc., Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Molecular Imaging Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

In this study, we calculated tract covariance to describe the phenomenon of white matter differentiation and de-differentiation across lifespan, using diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) and whole brain tract-based automatic analysis (TBAA) techniques. Differentiation was found to be highest in the 2nd decade and de-differentiation started to emerge at 3rd decade and peaked at 6th decade.

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Investigation of hypoxia after brain injury using a hypoxia-binding T1 contrast agent GdDO3NI
Babak Moghadas1, Vimala N Bharadwaj1, Sarah E. Stabenfeldt1, and Vikram D Kodibagkar1

1School of Biological and Health Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, United States

In this study we have used the hypoxia-targeted MR contrast agent GdDO3NI, (a nitroimidazole-based T1 MRI contrast agent) to image the development of hypoxia in the rodent brain after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Our results indicate a statistically significant ~ 50% signal enhancement over baseline in the injury region using GdDO3NI compared to baseline values (~ 0%) observed with non-specific Gadoteridol (as control) at 3hours post injection. This study further demonstrates the utility of GdDO3NI in imaging tissue hypoxia and applicability to traumatic brain injury.

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Pituitary R2 values at 3T to assess risk of iron-mediated hypogonadal hypogonadism.
Andrew L Cheng1, Thomas D Coates1, and John C Wood2

1Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Pediatrics and Radiology, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Pituitary R2 at 1.5 Tesla has been validated as a sensitive marker of pituitary siderosis and risk of clinical hypogonadism. We cross-validated pituitary R2 measurements at 3T and 1.5T in 26 patients with iron overload syndromes. Pituitary R2 scaled linearly across field strength with a relative enhancement of 42%, consistent with previous liver R2 cross-field validations.  When 3T pituitary values were transformed into equivalent 1.5T R2 values, the resulting Z-score estimates were unbiased with native 1.5T R2 estimates. Thus it is not necessary to acquire normative R2 data at 3 Tesla in order to interpret 3T pituitary R2 values.

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Thalamus in chronic low back pain: vertex-based morphometry and connectivity-based thalamic white-matter studies
Huiling Peng1, Jason Craggs2, Kelly Boland2, and Carmen Cirstea2

1Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO, United States

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is now considered a central nervous system disease. Thalamus is a key relay station for processing and transmission of nociceptive information to the cerebral cortex. We used vertex-based morphometry and connectivity-based diffusion tractography to test the hypothesis that the CLBP is associated with altered thalamic shape and altered white matter integrity of the thalamic projections to cortical regions in frontal and parietal lobes. Compare to controls, CLBP exhibited significant surface depression in left thalamus and lower fractional anisotropy in left thalamic projections to the posterior parietal cortex. This may represent a degenerative pain-related process.

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HIV alters brain activation during semantic memory processing demands
Joanna Poweska1, Anna Rita Egbert2, Marta Sobańska1, Agnieszka Pluta1,3, Tomasz Wolak3, Łukasz Okruszek1, Natalia Gawron1, Bogna Szymańska-Kotwica4, Ewa Firląg-Burkacka4, Andrzej Horban4, Przemysław Bieńkowski5, Halina Sienkiewicz-Jarosz6, Anna Ścińska-Bieńkowska6, Robert Bornstein7, Stephen Rao8, and Emilia Łojek1

1University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Institute of Physiology and Pathology of Hearing, World Hearing Center, Kajetany, Nadarzyn, Poland, 4The Central Hospital for Infectious Diseases, Warsaw, Poland, 5Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland, 6The Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland, 7The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States, 8The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, United States

Memory and executive dysfunctions burden HIV patients even in the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) era. The neurobiological correlates of these cognitive symptoms remain unclear limiting development of targeted treatment options. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising route to estimate neural signature of HIV-related neurocognitive decline. We examined brain activity in HIV+/HAART+ vs. healthy individuals during execution of semantic memory task. Results show that famous names induce lower activation in left caudate, right thalamus and left middle occipital gyrus in HIV+ vs. healthy group, despite lack of behavioral differences. Such hypoactivation suggests brain functional reorganization in HIV+/HAART+ patients.

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A Method for Evaluating Whole Brain Health of the Aging Brain: Assessment of Multiple MRI Detectable Brain Changes using the Brain Atrophy and Lesion Index (BALI)
Lukas A. Grajauskas1, Tory Frizzell2, Hui Guo3, Caressa Liu2, Ryan C.N. D'Arcy2, and Xiaowei Song3

1Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, Canada, 2Faculty of Applied Science, Simon Fraser University, Surrey, BC, Canada, 3ImageTech Laboratory, Surrey Memorial Hospital, Fraser Health Authority, Surrey, BC, Canada

As our population ages, there is a need for better methods of assessing neurodegeneration. However, current methods are based on a diagnostic model and assess changes in isolation, failing to account for the interconnected nature of the brain and the heterogeneity of the aging process. To address this, we introduced the Brain Atrophy and Lesion Index (BALI) an MRI based tool for the assessment of structural neurodegeneration across the whole brain. Here, we compare results from eight datasets to which BALI was applied (n=3295), and present a literature review to understand consensus regarding the brain changes assessed by the BALI.

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Plastic Changes of the Language-related Brain Regions for Children with Non-syndrome Cleft of Lip with or without Palate (NSCL/P)
Bo Rao1, Hua Cheng1, Yang Fan2, Wenjing Zhang3, Xuhong Liao4, Renji Chen3, and Yun Peng1

1Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, beijing, China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, beijing, China, 3Beijing Stomatological Hospital, Capital Medical University, beijing, China, 4Beijing Normal University, beijing, China

Using multimode MRI technique, this study attempt to find structural and functional alterations of brain regions for children with non-syndrome cleft of lip with or without palate (NSCL/P). Compared with control group, both structural and functional changes were detected in distributed cortical regions for NSCL/P group, which mainly located on the dorsal stream of language pathways. Besides, significant correlations were found between ALFF values and Chinese language clear degree scales for NSCL/P children. 

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A multiparametric study of prion disease
Eleni Demetriou1, Mohamed Tachrount2,3, Matthew Ellis4, Jackie Linehan5, Sebastian Brandner4, Karin Shmueli6, Mark Farrow7, and Xavier Golay1

1Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 2Brain repair and rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 3University of Cardiff, Brain research imaging centre, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 4Neurodegenerative diseases, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 5MRC prion unit, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom, 6Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College of London, London, United Kingdom, 7MRC Prion unit, Institute of Neurology, London, United Kingdom

In this work, we hypothesize that the metabolic changes occurring in the brain of prion-infected mice due to conformational changes of prion protein can be mapped using CEST MRI following previous in vivo work. Our previous findings include reduced Nuclear Overhauser Effect mediated by exchange-relayed signals in thalamus and cortex of prion-infected mice possibly related to up normal prion protein folding. Here we extend our studies by including a rich multipower acquisition scheme for targeting exchange processes falling at different regimes. For understanding the origin of CEST signal alternations T1, T2, and MT maps are included as well as histological findings. 

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MR neuroimaging and pons proton spectroscopy in type 1 narcolepsy
Stefania Evangelisti1, Claudia Testa2, Laura Ludovica Gramegna1,3, Fabio Pizza3,4, David Neil Manners1, Elena Antelmi3,4, Lia Talozzi1, Claudio Bianchini1, Giuseppe Plazzi3,4, Raffaele Lodi1,3, and Caterina Tonon1,3

1Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, Functional MR Unit, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 3IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Bologna, Italy, 4Department of Biomedical and NeuroMotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy

Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) is a rare and life-long disease, characterized by central hypersomnia and cataplexy typically triggered by emotions. NT1 is linked to a selective loss of hypothalamic hypocretin neurons. To characterise neurodegeneration, we combined pons 1H-MRS and whole brain structural analysis in a large and homogenous sample of adult NT1 patients. 1H-MRS showed evidence of pontine neuronal dysfunction, consistent with its key role in REM sleep regulation. Grey matter loss was detected in brain regions implicated in the disease pathophysiology, including frontal-prefrontal cortices, putamen nuclei, thalami, hypothalamus, amygdalae, cerebellum, and widespread subtle tissue microstructural alterations were also found.

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Ex-vivo MR investigation of microstructures in globus pallidus in QSM: a histological validation study
Jinhee Jang1, Yoonho Nam1, Tae-Ryong Riew2, Sung Won Jung2, Sang Hyun Kim2,3, and In-Beom Kim 2,3

1Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Catholic Institute for Applied Anatomy, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Linear paramagnetic structures were frequently seen in globus pallidus (GP), and interesting calcific densities are overlapping on these paramagnetic structures. This study aimed to explore the microstructural findings of GP using ex-vivo MRI scan and histologic validation. We found that the source of paramagnetism were mineral deposition of perforating vessels in GP. Those mineral depositions were paramagnetic on MR images, and calcific density on CT scan. Histologic study showed simultaneous deposition of iron and calcium along the arterial wall. High resolution MRI might have potential to demonstrate vascular degeneration and mineral deposition, which might be associated with aging and metabolic brain diseases.

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The change of cerebral cortex in children with Tourette syndrome
Lei Kong1, Yue Liu1, Shao Meng Cao2, Lv Bin 2, and Yun Peng1

1Beijing Children's Hospital, Beijing, China, 2China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, Beijing, China

 Tourette syndrome (TS) is a developmental neuropsychiatric disorder and is characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated microstructural changes of cortical thickness , cortical sulcus, cortical curvature, and LGI in TS children by using sagittal three-dimensional T1-weighted image (3DT1WI) Magnetization. The TS children had the significant differences in cortical thickness, cortical sulcus, cortical curvature, and LGI compared with controls.

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Altered cortical thickness relevance in the early blind, late blind during the critical developmental time
Ankeeta Ankeeta1, S Senthil Kumaran2, N R Jagannathan2, and Rohit Saxena3

1Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 2NMR and MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 3Rajendra Prasad Centre of Opthalmology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

Visual impairment induces structural and functional modification in the visual cortex. There is significant modification observed between early blind subjects with thicker V1 compared to sighted controls, however late blind subjects with showed no significant differences in the V1 in age group of 6-12 years but there is differences observed between 13-19 years age range. Hence implicating the role of age of blindness onset may induce significant possessions on the expansion of cortical thickness of the V1.

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Gradient profiles of myelin and microstructure metrics across the developing brain
Erika P Raven1, Maxime Chamberland1, Sila Genc1,2,3, Kate Duffy1, Chantal Tax1, Greg Parker1, Maxime Descoteaux4, and Derek K Jones1

1Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2Developmental Imaging, Murdoch Children’s Research Institute, Parkville, Australia, 3Department of Paediatrics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia, 4University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada

Myelinogenesis follows a protracted sequence, with distinct pathways being myelinated at various times throughout development. To test this with MRI, we used magnetization transfer and diffusion metrics with tractography to investigate along-tract profiles of myelin and microstructure metrics in children and adolescents. Profiles demonstrated sensitivity to along-tract metrics, with midline regions having increased myelin and restricted diffusion indices indicative of maturation. 

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Altered brain structure associated with cognitive changes of end-stage renal disease patients without dialysis and with maintenance hemodialysis
Xueying Ma1, Dun Ding1, Peng Li1, Pan Zhang1, Shaohui Ma1, and Ming Zhang1

1Medical Imaging department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China

The theory of kidney-brain axis has provided more information for the interpretation of brain damage in ESRD patients. However, the factor of dialysis was ignored in this theoretical system. We analyzed the cortical structural changes and cognitive changes from different dimensions and also analyzed their relationship in ESRD patients with and without hemodialysis. We found that both the patients with dialysis and the patients without dialysis showed decreased cortical thickness when compared with healthy people, while the patients without dialysis presented with a more extensive decreased cortical thickness when compared with patients with maintenance hemodialysis. The brain structural changes were correlated with the cognitive changes. Our results suggested that the hemodialysis might be a protective factor for the brain, but the protective effect of hemodialysis was limited.

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Chemotherapy-induced gray matter abnormalities in cancer survivals: a voxel-wise neuroimaging meta-analysis.
Running Niu1, Mingying Du1, Lu Lu2, and Peng Zhou1

1Sichuan Cancer Hospital & Institute, Sichuan Cancer Center, School of Medicine, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China, 2Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

The present meta-analysis investigated the grey matter abnormalities in non-CNS cancer survivals treated with chemotherapy using Anisotropic Effect Size Signed Differential Mapping (AES-SDM) according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guides. Compared with controls, the non-CNS cancer survivals treated with chemotherapy exhibit widespread grey matter abnormalities in brain, especially in prefrontal-temporal pathway, which was significantly affected by the time length since chemotherapy. This pattern of grey matter volume changes might improve our understanding of the pathophysiological nature of chemotherapy related cognitive dysfunctions.

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Quantitative R2 mapping reveals information of myelin content in rat brain at 7T
Ping-Huei Tsai1,2, Tsai-Jou Su1, Hua-Shan Liu3, Fei-Ting Hsu4, Yu-Chieh Kao5, Chia-Feng Lu6, Hsiao-Wen Chung7, and Cheng-Yu Chen5

1Department of Medical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 3School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Biological Science and Technology, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 5Research Center of Translational Imaging, School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 7Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan

Information of myelin content can reflect the microstructural difference between brain white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM), and particularly facilitating in detection of WM abnormalities during disease progression. This study aims to optimize a quantitative R2 mapping method of rat brain at 7T MRI and to evaluate the relationship between the measured R2 values and myelin content in discrepant brain tissues. Our findings demonstrated that quantitative R2 measurements could be an alternative to provide information of myelin content in rat brain at 7T, which may have potential to assess microstructural changes of brain WM and GM in demyelinating diseases.

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White Matter Tract Abnormalities are Associated with Cognitive Dysfunction in CADASIL
Shiyu Ban1, Jingjing Su2, Mengxing Wang1, Shuai Xu1, and Xiaoxia Du*1

1Shanghai Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Department of Physics, School of Physics and Materials Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China, 2Shanghai Ninth People’s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China

This study was to investigate the white matter microstructural abnormalities and the relationship between white matter alterations and cognitive impairment in patients with cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Patients with CADASIL showed significant extensive reductions in fractional anisotropy (FA), and increases in axial diffusivity (AD), radial diffusivity (RD), mean diffusivity (MD) compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, these white matter microstructural alterations were significantly correlated with Cognitive scores, and Stroke scale scores. It indicated that damage of white matter play an important role in cognition impairment in CADASIL

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Preoperative brain MRI features and postoperative delirium
Ilse M.J. Kant1,2, Jeroen de Bresser3, Simone J.T. van Montfort1, Myriam Jaarsma-Coes3, Theo Witkamp2, Henri J.M.M. Mutsaerts2, Claudia Spies4, Jeroen Hendrikse2, and Arjen Slooter1

1Department of Intensive Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Operative Intensive Care Medicine, Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany

Postoperative delirium is associated with impaired cognitive outcome, longer hospital stay and an increased risk of dementia. To date, the pathophysiology of delirium remains largely unknown. Therefore, we studied the association of preoperative brain MRI features and the occurrence of postoperative delirium in a large group of older patients. We measured preoperative brain volumes, white matter hyperintensity shape, cerebral infarcts and cerebral perfusion. Preoperative cortical brain infarct volume was associated with postoperative delirium. Other preoperative brain MRI features were not significantly associated with postoperative delirium. Patients with a larger burden of cortical infarcts may have a decreased brain reserve, increasing the risk of postoperative delirium.


Neuroanatomy: Seeing Is Believing

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 9:15 - 10:15
 Neuro

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Development of a Standardized Normative Pediatric Spinal Cord structural template: Demonstration of an automatic estimation of Spinal Cord Cross Sectional Area measurements (SCCSA).
Shiva Shahrampour1, Benjamin De Leener2, Devon Middelton3, Kavya Jonnavithula4, Mahdi Alizadeh5, Hiba F Pediyakkal6, Laura Krisa7, Adam Flanders8, Scott Faro9, Julien Cohen-Adad2, and Feroze Mohamed7

1Bioengineering, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, NeuroPoly Lab, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Radiology, Thomas Jeffesron University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4School of Biological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States, 5Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 6Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States, 7Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 8Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 9School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins, Baltimore, MD, United States

Template-based analysis of MRI data of the spinal cord lay the foundation for standardization and reproducibility , improves patient diagnosis and helps the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases.

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Automated MP2RAGE-based Brain Volumetry for Pediatric Patients: A Clinical Usability Study
Maxence Serru1, Benedicte Marechal2,3, Tobias Kober2, Leo Ribier4, Catherine Sembely Taveau1, Jean Philippe Cottier5, Dominique Sirinelli1, and Baptiste MOREL1

1Pediatric Radiology, CHRU of Tours, Tours, France, 2Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthineers, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Pediatric Radiology, CHRU of Tours, Tours, Switzerland, 5Neuroradiology, CHRU of Tours, Tours, France

Antenatal and mostly post-natal periods are crucial for brain development, characterized by volume increase, brain maturation, neuronal proliferation, neural migration, and myelination. Head circumference is a reliable clinical assessment of brain volume, correlated with neurodevelopmental outcomes (psychomotor and cognitive development). Particularly in young children, it is a fast and inexpensive tool for brain growth follow-up. Complementarily, brain MRI is becoming more frequently used as a first-line examination for suspected brain development abnormality. In this work, we evaluate the potential of an automated MP2RAGE-based brain volumetry method to objectively support radiologists to better assess brain physiological and pathological cerebral growth.  

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Sex differences in structural variability of brain regions in development and young adults
Natalie Forde1, Grace Jacobs1, Erin Dickie1, Aristotle Voineskos1,2, and Stephanie Ameis1,2

1CAMH, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Increased variability of brain metrics is suggested to relate to increased vulnerability for psychiatric disorders. 

Here we investigate sex differences in variability of brain structure (global and subcortical volume, regional cortical thickness and surface area) in young adults (n=1,032, 22-35 years, Human Connectome Project [HCP]) and through development (n=1,347, 8-21 years, Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort [PNC]).

Both volume and surface area were observed to be  generally more variable in males compared to females in both development and adulthood. This increased variability may relate to the elevated vulnerability for psychiatric disorders seen in males compared to females. 


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Brain Microstructure Changes in Healthy Aging Revealed by Quantitative Multi-parametric MRI
Qixiang Lin1, Salman Shahid1, Antoine Hone-Blanchet1, Allan Levey1, James Lah1, Bruce Crosson1,2, and Deqiang Qiu2,3

1Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, School of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3Joint Department of BioMedical Engineering, Emory University and Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States

This study aims to reveal the alterations of biologically relevant measurements in healthy aging using multi-parametric quantitative MRI. Multi-parametric quantitative MRI scans of the whole brain were performed in 20 healthy elderly and 21 young adults. Whole-brain voxel-wise analysis showed increased quantitative T1 value in the right hippocampus and right insula, and widespread increases in the subcortical and cortical area of R2*, suggesting microstructural alteration associated with healthy aging in these regions. Quantitative multi-parametric measurements might provide sensitive neuroimaging biomarkers for the microstructure changes during normal aging and related neurodegeneration diseases.

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Development and evaluation of a 0.5mm isotropic resolution structural template of the older adult brain
Mohammad Rakeen Niaz1, Abdur Raquib Ridwan1, Xiaoxiao Qi1, David A. Bennett2, and Konstantinos Arfanakis1,2

1Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University, Chicago, IL, United States

Human brain structural MRI templates with low spatial resolution lack important fine details due to partial volume effects. The purpose of this work was twofold: a) to introduce a novel approach for high-resolution template construction based on principles of super-resolution, and b) using this technique, to develop a high-resolution structural template of the older adult brain based on MRI data from 222 non-demented older adults.

2629
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Longitudinal tensor-based morphometry in healthy aging
Laura D Reyes1,2, Neda Sadeghi2, François M Lalonde3, and Carlo Pierpaoli2

1Henry M. Jackson Foundation, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2NIBIB, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3NIMH, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

Previous studies of healthy elderly populations combined a longitudinal design with tensor-based morphometry (TBM) and found significant gray matter (GM) atrophy over short time periods. We examined a separate healthy elderly population using a different method to determine if previous results are biologically driven, and investigated the relationship between GM and cognition. We also detected significant GM atrophy, but did not find a link between GM, age, and cognition. Our longitudinal TBM approach is sensitive to subtle, short-term GM changes, but further investigation is necessary to examine the effect of different methodological approaches on the relationship between GM and cognition.

2630
Computer 157
A knowledge-based linear registration for brain MRI morphology
Xinyuan Zhang1,2, Yanqiu Feng1, Qianjin Feng1, and Susumu Mori2,3

1Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Medical Image Processing, School of Biomedical Engineering, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

Linear registration is an essential first step for image registration. However, linear registration often fails when the brain shapes, locations, orientations of the target and template images are severely different. To solve this problem, we proposed a knowledge-based approach, in which a large number of MR images were prepared as intermediate images, which were semi-automatically registered to the template a priori to ensure accurate registration. A new target image was first registered to all intermediate images and best intermediate image was selected based on a goodness-of-fit metric. The final transformation was then calculated by combining the pre-determined intermediate-to-target transformation.

2631
Computer 158
Evaluating lifespan tissue structure: Comparing CSD signal fraction and VBM grey matter density
Jamie C Blair1, Benjamin T Newman1, Lisa A Post2, and T Jason Druzgal1

1Radiology and Medical Imaging, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States

Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD), a recently developed diffusion MRI analysis technique, can be used to obtain whole-brain signal fractions from grey-matter-like, white-matter-like, and CSF-like tissue. This study evaluates the CSF compartment present in grey matter (GM-CSF) over the lifespan, and compares it to grey matter density (GMD), obtained through Voxel Based Morphometry. Results of this study reveal a complimentary relationship between GM-CSF and GMD across the lifespan, but not amongst a younger cohort. Results suggest further research is necessary to understand differences between these techniques, and how they may relate to tissue structure.

2632
Computer 159
Characterizing age-related microstructural changes in locus coeruleus and substantia nigra
Jason Langley1, Justino J. Flores2, Sana Hussain3, Ilana J. Bennett2, and Xiaoping Hu3

1Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States, 2Department of Psychology, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States

Characterization of age-related alterations in composition and morphology of locus coeruleus and substantia nigra pars compacta will aid in the development of new biomarkers and may provide insight in the development of novel interventions to arrest progression of Alzheimer's disease or Parkinson's disease. Imaging these structures with diffusion-weighted images is difficult due to their small stature (locus coeruleus is 1.5 mm in diameter and 15 mm long) and location in the brain stem. In this abstract, we utilize a high resolution diffusion-weighted protocol to examine age-related microstructural changes in locus coeruleus and substantia nigra pars compacta.

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Microstructural Changes in Human Substantia Nigra with Aging as Revealed by Non-Gaussian Diffusion MRI
Zheng Zhong1,2, Muge Karaman1,2, Kaibao Sun1, and Xiaohong Joe Zhou1,2,3

1Center for MR Research, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Radiology and Neurology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

Aging is considered a major factor in the development of neurodegenerative disease. The aging process can result in brain tissue microstructural alterations, particularly in regions relevant to neurodegeneration, such as the substantia nigra (SN). In this study, we employed a non-Gaussian diffusion model – the continuous-time random-walk (CTRW) model – together with a high-resolution diffusion acquisition technique to investigate the possible microstructural changes in the SN in normal aging. Two CTRW model parameters have exhibited significant differences in the SN between young and elderly healthy human subjects.

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The visualization of the morphology change within depigmented substantia nigra using high field postmortem MRI
Hansol Lee1, Sun-Yong Baek2, Eun-Joo Kim3, Gi Yeong Huh4, Jae-Hyeok Lee5, and HyungJoon Cho1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Anatomy, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea, Republic of, 3Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Forensic Medicine, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea, Republic of, 5Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, Korea, Republic of

 The purpose of this study was to determine the alteration of the morphology in the substantia nigra using MRI with histopathological validation for the patients of atypical Parkinsonism. MR experiments for formalin fixed autopsied brains were operated using a 7T imaging system. Specific visualization of ferric iron and neuromelanin from MR relaxometry was used to identify the neuromelanin distribution within the normal brain and the brain of Perry syndrome. The loss of neuromelanin pigment within the substantia nigra of Perry syndrome was consistently confirmed both from MR relaxometry and from the directly captured picture during the cryo-section.

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Simultaneous imaging of neuromelanin and nigrosome 1 in substantia nigra using 3D multi-echo gradient echo acquisition with magnetization transfer preparation
Yoonho Nam1, Na-Young Shin1, and Eung Yeop Kim2

1Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea., Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Radiology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, Korea, Republic of

Recently, neuromelanin and nigrosome 1 imaging techniques have been developed to assess the substantia nigra in Parkinsons’s disease. Typically, the neuromlanin contrast is maximized by magnetization transfer pulses and the nigrosome 1 contrast is maximized by susceptibility weighting for the surrounding iron-rich regions, respectively. Since the contrast mechanisms of the two images are different, the separated scans are required to obtain the two contrasts. In this study, we investigate the potential utility of a 3D multi-echo gradient echo acquisition for simultaneous imaging of neuromelanin and nigrosome 1 in the substantia nigra.

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Visualization of the Substantia Nigra Pars Compacta: comparison between DANTE T1-SPACE and T1-SPACE
Sonoko Oshima1, Yasutaka Fushimi1, Tomohisa Okada2, Akira Yamamoto3, Satoshi Nakajima1, Gosuke Okubo1, Hikaru Fukutomi1, Yusuke Yokota1, John Grinstead4, Sinyeob Ahn5, and Kaori Togashi1

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 3Integrated Clinical Education Center, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan, Kyoto, Japan, 4Siemens Healthineers, Portland, OR, United States, 5Siemens Healthineers, San Francisco, CA, United States

Neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance techniques have been used for depicting neuromelanin-rich structures such as the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). We compared visualization of the SNpc between delay alternating with nutation for tailored excitation-prepared T1-weighted variable flip angle turbo spin echo (DANTE T1-SPACE) and T1-SPACE without DANTE pulse (T1-SPACE) in 8 healthy volunteers. DANTE T1-SPACE provided better delineation of the SNpc and showed higher contrast than T1-SPACE. DANTE T1-SPACE may be a viable tool for evaluating the SNpc.

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Assessment of inter-fractional positional accuracy of anterior visual pathway in a frameless stereotactic radiosurgery using an MR-simulator
Jing Yuan1, Yihang Zhou1, Oilei Wong1, Winky WK Fung2, Franky KF Cheng2, Kin Yin Cheung1, George Chiu2, and Siu Ki Yu1

1Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Happy Valley, Hong Kong, 2Department of radiotherapy, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Happy Valley, Hong Kong

In hypofractionized stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) might associate with the local radiation injury to anterior visual pathway (AVP), while the irradiated dose to AVP is much influenced by its positional variation. We for the first time assessed the inter-fractional AVP positional variation in a hypofractionized frameless SRS setting on 13 volunteers using a 1.5T MR-simulator. The results suggested that sub-millimeter AVP positional accuracy could be achieved in the frameless SRS after brain alignment. However, the dose uncertainty in the most anterior optical nerves should be concerned (1.2±2.6 mm positional variability) in a sharp dose gradient of SRS.

2638
Computer 165
Visualizing and Characterizing the Habenula with Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Naying He1, Sean Kumar Sethi2, Chencheng Zhang3, Yan Li1, Yongsheng Chen4, Bomin Sun3, Fuhua Yan1, and Ewart Mark Haacke2

1Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, shanghai, China, 2Magnetic Resonance Innovations, Inc., Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 3Department of Functional Neurosurgery, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, 4Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

The habenulae are a small pair of nuclei which serve as a hub between the limbic forebrain and midbrain monoameric neurons. It is a target for the treatment of major depressive disorder using deep brain stimulation, which requires precise pre-treatment mapping. We visualized and characterized the habenula using multiple MRI contrasts and maps to quantify its properties and delineate the structure between lateral and medial side. Axially, we observed elevated iron in the posterior aspect, which we believe to be the lateral habenula. Quantitatively, we also noted similarities of the lateral habenula specifically to white matter.

2639
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Localization of the habenula and stimulating electrodes in pre/post-DBS surgery using MRI
Yan Li1, Naying He1, Ewart Mark Haacke2, and Fuhua Yan1

1Department of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China, 2Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

Deep brain stimulation of the lateral habenula is a common approach to treat refractory depression and other psychiatric diseases. It is very important to know the exact position of the habenula before positioning the electrodes. We conducted phantom experiments using a clinical DBS wire to determine the characteristics of the artifacts stemming from the electrodes and also scanned 6 pre/post-DBS patients on a 1.5T scanner. Both T2W TSE and high resolution GRE imaging clearly visualized the electrodes through the geometric distortion artifacts. 3D T1 MPRAGE, T2W TSE and 3D GRE provided a rapid protocol for scanning patients pre/post-DBS treatment.

2640
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An anatomical atlas for segmentation of thalamic nuclei from conventional 3T MRI
Manojkumar Saranathan1, Jennifer Becker1, and Stephen Z Rapcsak2

1Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Neurology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

Thalamic nuclei are typically invisible on conventional T1 and T2 MRI. We propose here an anatomical atlas based on 7T White matter nulled MP-RAGE data which can be used for a variety of applications including targeting the VIM nucleus for neurosurgical applications and thalamic nuclear volumetry for tracking disease progression using conventional MRI sequences like MP-RAGE or FLAIR.

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Biological brain age prediction using structural MRI: Insights from dimensionality reduction techniques
Arna Ghosh1,2, Alba Xifra-Porxas2,3, Georgios D. Mitsis4, and Marie-Hélène Boudrias2,5

1Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada, 2Montréal Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Rehabilitation (CRIR), Montréal, QC, Canada, 3Graduate Program in Biological and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada, 4Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada, 5School of Physical and Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada

The human brain changes with age and these age-related changes have been used as biomarkers for several brain-related disorders. Therefore, being able to accurately predict the biological age of the brain from T1-weighted MR images yields significant potential for clinical applications. The present study evaluates regression models coupled with dimensionality reduction techniques for biological brain age prediction and concludes that Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) enhances prediction performance of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) models. The proposed analysis also reveals brain areas that are strongly anti-correlated with age, in agreement with previous aging studies.


2642
Computer 169
Volumetric analysis of selected brain regions for multi-parametric diagnostic investigation of atrophic brain diseases - Comparison of different volumetric analysis methods
Svea Seehafer1, Olav Jansen1, and Thomas Lindner1

1Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein Campus Kiel, Kiel, Germany

In this study three freeware tools for volumetric image post-processing were compared. The study population was subdivided by age decades. Our results show no major deviations between the selected analytical methods.

2643
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A Time-Averaged MRI Brain Template for the Infant Rhesus Macaque
Jason Moody1, Steve Kecskemeti2, Douglas Dean III2, Jonathan Oler3, Do Tromp3, Andrew Alexander4, and Ned Kalin3

1Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Department of Medical Physics, Department of Psychiatry, Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Anatomical templates are extremely prevalent in human brain imaging research, but comparatively rare in non-human primate MRI studies, particularly for the early-developing brain. Utilizing a custom T1-weighted imaging sequence (MPnRAGE), we have constructed a finely-sampled (0.469 mm isotropic), T1-weighted, time-averaged, population template of the infant rhesus macaque brain, generated from 35 rhesus monkeys, scanned at five different time points throughout their first year of life (including 4 scans within the first 6 months). This time-averaged template of the early-developing rhesus macaque brain provides an invaluable anatomical framework for characterizing and assessing early brain development in non-human primates.

2644
Computer 171
A novel ex vivo MR imaging template of the Japanese quail to study stress-selected lines.
David André Barrière1, Raïssa Yebga Hot1, Marine Siwiaszczyk2, Justine Beaujoin1, Ivy Uszynski1, Scott Love2, Baptiste Mulot3, Ludovic Calandreau2, Élodie Chaillou2, and Cyril Poupon1

1Neurospin, CEA, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2PRC, INRA CNRS IFCE, Nouzilly, France, 3Zooparc Beauval & Beauval Nature, Saint-Aignan, France

In neuroscience, birds are becoming interesting animal models to study learning and memory but also response to stress. Nevertheless, bird’s brain organization and physiology suffers from a lack of neuroimaging tools to perform non-invasive and longitudinal investigations. In this study, we proposed a novel brain template of the Japanese quail (Coturnix Japonica), built from twenty animals dedicated to voxel-based morphometry approach. Using these tools we investigate differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) between two divergent lines of quails selected from their response to fear. Our results report structural differences between the both quail lineages within cognitives, motivational and motor systems.

2645
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High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Juvenile Minke Whale Brain at 7T
Gaurav Verma1, Alan Seifert1, Bridget A. Wicinski2, Kuang-Han Huang1, John W. Rutland1, Rebecca Emily Feldman1, Bradley Neil Delman3, Patrick R. Hof2, and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational & Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Neuroscience, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

The brain of a 15-foot juvenile brain that washed ashore in the Bronx, New York City was scanned using a 7T whole-body MRI scanner. After fixation in PBS solution and vacuum removal of air pockets, the specimen was scanned using a battery of high-resolution anatomical MRI sequences, including T1-weighted MP2RAGE, 3D MERGE, Proton Density weighted imaging, T2-weighted FLAIR imaging and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. Post-processing included brain masking to alleviate bright background from the PBS solution in most imaging modalities. Anatomical imaging from three high resolution datasets is presented along with a 3D reconstruction generated by volumetric projection of data segmented using the FreeSurfer 6 algorithm.

2646
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A high-resolution MRI template for adult Beagle dog
Xueru Liu1,2, Rui Tian2,3,4, Zhentao Zuo1,2,4, Hui Zhao3,5, Liang Wu2,3, Yan Zhuo1,2,4, Yongqing Zhang2,3,4, and Lin Chen1,2,4

1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 3State Key Laboratory of Molecular Developmental Biology, Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 4CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 5Key Laboratory of Regenerative Biology, South China Institute for Stem Cell, Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, China

High-resolution T1w and T2w templates from 10 male adult purebred beagles were created in this study. According to the tissue probability map, descriptive statistics of brain tissue volumes and brain sizes exhibit our template with smaller variance. Significant correlation between brain size from dorsal to ventral and gray matter volume was found. This high-resolution purebred canine brain template lays the foundation for further studies aimed at in-vivo analysis of the development of canine brain anatomy and function.

2647
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An MRI-Derived Neuroanatomical Atlas of the Fischer 344 Rat Brain
Dana Goerzen1, Caitlin Fowler2, Gabriel A. Devenyi3,4, Jurgen Germann3, Dan Madularu3,5, Mallar Chakravarty2,3,4, and Jamie Near2,3,4

1Dept. of Neuroscience, McGill, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, McGill, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Centre d'Imagerie Cérébrale, McGill, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Dept. of Psychiatry, McGill, Montreal, QC, Canada, 5Center for Translational NeuroImaging, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, United States

Neuroscientific research involving preclinical rodent models often requires the ability to precisely identify anatomical brain regions. This project reports the development of a high-resolution MRI atlas of the Fischer 344 adult rat. The atlas is composed of 98 manually delineated structures through 256 coronal slices. The atlas was developed using 41 adult Fischer 344 rats to generate a co-registered average brain. The template was segmented by intensity contrast in conjunction with the Paxinos and Watson paper atlas. This atlas is intended to be a resource for researchers working with Fischer 344 rats and is provided open-access in MINC2.0 and NIfTI.

2648
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High resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging based atlas of the C57BL/6J adult mouse brain: a tool for examining mouse brain structures
Tanzil Mahmud Arefin1, Choong Heon Lee1, Orlando Aristizábal1,2, Youssef Zaim Wadghiri3,4, Daniel Turnbull1,2, and Jiangyang Zhang1

1Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Bernard & Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY, United States, 4Preclinical Imaging Center, New york, NY, United States

Mouse models have been widely used in the neuroscience research to evaluate brain development, micro-structural and functional phenotypes in response to gene mutations and neurological diseases which require a baseline for comparison, such as an atlas. Where existing atlases vary in contrast mechanisms, number of structures and resolution, very few reports detailed neuroanatomical parcellations based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. This study was therefore aimed to develop high resolution diffusion MR-based mouse brain atlas database with thorough labels for cortical and subcortical structures compatible with the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas (AMBA) which will be freely available to the research community.


Neurovascular 1

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

2649
Computer 1
High resolution MRI in Diagnosis of Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis
Chao Zhang1, Xinyi Wang2, and Weiqiang Dou3

1Taishan Medical University, Tai'an, China, 2Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China, 3MR Research, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China

This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of CUBE MRI for high resolution imaging in the detection of intraluminal thrombi in acute stroke patients. The T1-weighted CUBE images showed dark blood signal in arteries and high signal or iso-signal filling in the lumen. In our study, the sensitivity of T1 weighted CUBE in the detection of intraluminal thrombi reached 100% and the corresponding area under curve(AUC) value was higher than SWI. We therefore demonstrated that the T1-weighted CUBE MRI can effectively help to diagnosis the intraluminal thrombi.

2650
Computer 2
Functional and Microstructural Changes in the Brain After Carotid Endarterectomy
Marc D Lindley1, Adam Bernstein1, Andrew McKinnon2, Chidi Ugonna1, Denise Bruck3, Kevin Johnson3, Maria Altbach3, Lee Ryan2, Gloria Guzman3, Nan-kuei Chen1, Ying-hui Chou2, Theodore Trouard1, and Craig Weinkauf4

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 3Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 4Vascular Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) for clinically asymptomatic patients has been shown effective in reducing stroke risk. The impact that CEA has on functional connectivity or microstructure in the brain has not been studied. 14 clinically asymptomatic underwent resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI), diffusion MRI (dMRI), and neurocognitive testing pre-operatively and 4-6 months post-operatively.  Functional correlation analysis on rs-fMRI was performed by analyzing the average within network correlations. Apparent fiber density calculations were performed to assess the microstructural changes before and after surgery.  RS-fMRI and dMRI analysis showed changes before and after CEA.

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Deep Learning Augmented Cerebral Blood Flow Measurement Using Arterial Spin Labeling Technique in Moyamoya Disease Before and After Direct Bypass Surgery
David Yen-Ting Chen1,2, Yosuke Ishii1,3, Jia Guo4, Audrey Peiwen Fan1, and Greg Zaharchuk1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States, 2Medical Imaging, Shuan-Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, 3Neurosurgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan, 4Bioengineering, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA, United States

We used single-delayed (SD) pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), multi-delay (MD) ASL and a new, synthesized (Synth) ASL to longitudinally monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after direct bypass surgery in Moyamoya disease. The Synth-ASL was generated from a deep convolutional neural network, previously trained on a simultaneous [15O]-water PET/MRI dataset to generate a PET-like CBF map from MRI inputs. The Synth-ASL demonstrated a more homogenous CBF change across the brain and significantly greater CBF increase globally and regionally than SD-ASL and MD-ASL after surgery. Synth-ASL reduces bias in long arterial delay and measurement noise, and may enable robust CBF imaging follow-up in cerebrovascular patients.

2652
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HIV-Associated Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Measured by Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping
Kyle Douglass Murray1, Arun Venkataraman1, Pascal Spincemaille2, Lu Wang1, Yi Wang2, Madalina Tivarus1, Xing Qui1, Jianhui Zhong1, and Giovanni Schifitto1

1University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 2Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States

HIV-infected older individuals are at increased risk of developing cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can be used to asses tissue susceptibility, which can be a measure of CSVD. CSVD tends to occur more frequently in HIV-positive individuals. Limited information in the literature is available on HIV-associated changes in brain tissue susceptibility. In this abstract, we seek to discover relationships between HIV and QSM measures. Brain segmentation and region-based statistics were performed to discover region-based links between HIV and QSM measures and cardiovascular risk factors.

2653
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A multi-site round robin assessment of ASL using a perfusion phantom
Aaron Oliver-Taylor1, Thomas Hampshire1, Henk-Jan Mutsaerts2,3,4, Patricia Clement5, Esther Warnert6, Joost P.A. Kuijer2, Koen Baas3, Jan Petr7,8, Jeroen C.W. Siero4,9, José P Marques10, Stefan Sunaert11, Ronald J.H. Borra12, Matthias J.P. van Osch13, Xavier Golay1,14, and Eric Achten5

1Gold Standard Phantoms Limited, London, United Kingdom, 2Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location VU Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Location Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 5Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 6Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 7Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden, Germany, 8Kate Gleason College of Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, United States, 9Spinoza Centre for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 10Donders Institute For Brain Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 11Dept. of Imaging & Pathology, Translational MRI, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium, 12Medical Imaging Center (MIC), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Groningen, Netherlands, 13C.J. Gorter Center for high field MRI, Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 14Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

Arterial Spin Labelling shows great promise for perfusion measurements; however, despite numerous volunteer reproducibility studies, comparisons have not been made using a phantom to establish differences due to the acquisition hardware and pulse sequences.  We present data from a multi-site study using a perfusion phantom, targeting 3T MRI systems from a single vendor running the same software version.

2654
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Test-retest Reproducibility and associations with cognitive impairment of 3D PCASL in Elderly Subjects at Risk of Small Vessel Disease
Kay Jann1, Xingfeng Shao1, Samantha J Ma1, Giuseppe Barisano1, Marlene Casey1, Lina M D'Orazio2, John M Ringman2, and Danny JJ Wang1

1USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Keck School of Medicine at USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurology, Keck School of Medicine at USC, Los Angeles, CA, United States

We assessed the reproducibility 3D pCASL in an elderly cohort with risk for small vessel disease and its associations with clinical assessments and vascular risk factors. We found a high test-retest reproducibility of regional CBF and an association of subcortical MCA perfusion territories of the lenticulostriate arteries with cognition and vascular risks. Hence, 3D pCASL perfusion in MCA perfusion territory might be a potential imaging marker to identify early small vessel changes related to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia.

2655
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The value of high-resolution magnetic resonance vascular wall imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of central nervous system vasculitis
Shuai Han1, Xinyi Wang2, and Weiqiang Dou3

1Taishan Medical University, Jinan, China, 2Qianfoshan Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, China, 3GE Healthcare, MR Research, Beijing, China

Three-dimensional (3D) CUBE MRI for high-resolution vascular wall imaging can reveal the morphological characteristics of vessel wall. To investigate its feasibility in the diagnosis of central nervous system vasculitis, we applied the contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted CUBE imaging in the patients with vasculitis. We found significant alterations of the vessel wall imaging in signal-to-noise-ratio and contrast-to-noise-ratio before and after clinical treatment. With these, we can demonstrate that 3D CUBE MRI can effectively help to diagnose the central nervous system vasculitis and evaluate the treatment effect.

2656
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A test-retest multi-site reproducibility study of 4D flow MRI on neurovascular system
Yang Fan1, Xiaocheng Wei1, Long Qian1, Jing Wang2, and Bing Wu1

1GE Healthcare China, Beijing, China, 2Center for Medical Device Evaluation, NMPA, Beijing, China

4D flow MRI shows great potential in neurovascular disorders such as stenosis, atherosclerotic disease, aneurysms, and vascular malformations. Its widespread application in neurovascular system requires evidence of good test-retest multi-center reproducibility. The purpose of this study is to assess the multi-center reproducibility and test-retest reliability of 4D flow MRI in measurements of cerebral blood flow/velocity in main intracranial vessels. As a result, high multi-center reproducibility and test-retest reliability was shown for 4D flow MRI in the measurements of blood flow and peak velocity of main intracranial vessels for healthy volunteers.

2657
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Evaluation of image quality of pituitary dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI using TWIST and IT-TWIST.
Yusuke Yokota1, Yasutaka Fushimi1, Tomohisa Okada2, Hikaru Fukutomi1, Akira Yamamoto1, Satoshi Nakajima1, Gosuke Okubo1, Sonoko Oshima1, Koji Fujimoto2, and Kaori Togashi1

1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

To compare the image quality of pituitary dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI using TWIST and iterative reconstruction TWIST (IT-TWIST). IT-TWIST images were created from the identical rawdata of TWIST. ROI analyses were conducted to evaluate enhancement slope in PS, PL, bilateral cavernous sinus (CS) in enhancement slope map. Four ROIs were applied to temporal SD map as an indicator of temporal noise to evaluate image noise. Enhancement slope of all ROIs but PS was significantly higher in IT-TWIST than that in TWIST. Temporal noise in IT-TWIST was significantly less than that in TWIST in all ROIs.

2658
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Imaging the Cerebral Vasculature Using Ferumoxytol Enhanced Susceptibility Weighted Imaging and Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping at 3T
Yongsheng Chen1,2, Yulin Ge3, Saifeng Liu2, Jiani Hu1,2, and E. Mark Haacke1,2

1Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 3Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

Imaging the major arteries in the brain is straightforward using MR angiography either with or without a contrast agent. However, imaging vessels at the 250μm level is challenging and imaging vessels at the 50μm to 100μm level is essentially impossible even with high field systems. One potential approach to bring them to life is using an iron-based contrast agent to enhance SWI. In this work, we extend the use of Ferumoxytol to image the small cerebral arteries and veins to 3T and show that within a reasonable scanning time, one can obtain superb images of the vasculature of the brain.

2659
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Comparison of the BOLD-evoked response to hypercapnic challenge in mice anesthetized under isoflurane and dexmedetomidine.
Gabriel Desrosiers-Grégoire1, Daniel Gallino2, Gabriel Devenyi2,3, and M. Mallar Chakravarty2,4,5

1Integrated Program in Neuroscience, Mcgill university, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Department of Psychiatry, Mcgill university, Montreal, QC, Canada, 5Biological & Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

Small animal functional magnetic resonance imaging has great potential in a range of basic neuroscientific applications. To maintain stable experimental conditions, animals are usually anesthetized during acquisition. However, anesthesia regimes influence neural activity through their influence on neurovascular coupling. To investigate these mechanisms, we compared the BOLD response following hypercapnia in mice anesthetized under isoflurane or dexmedetomidine. We found that the impact of hypercapnia is much more potent in animals anesthetized under dexmedetomidine, but that FC is much stronger under isoflurane, suggesting that this response does not predict a more pronounced reduction in FC as a consequence of anesthesia.

2660
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Synthetic MR Angiography: A Feasibility Study of MR Angiography based on 3D Synthetic MRI
Shohei Fujita1, Akifumi Hagiwara1,2, Masaaki Hori1, Otsuka Yujiro1,3, Fukunaga Issei1, Nao Takano1, Christina Andica1, Tomoko Maekawa1,2, Ryusuke Irie1,2, Koji Kamagata1, Akihiko Wada1, Michimasa Suzuki1, and Shigeki Aoki1

1Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 3Milliman Inc., Tokyo, Japan

Quantitative synthetic MRI allows creation of various contrast-weighted image that can be used in clinical settings from a single acquisition. However, clinically widely used MRA was unable to obtain using synthetic MRI. We demonstrate an arithmetic approach to produce MRA-like images from the 5 raw images of 3D-QALAS. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations were performed to compare image qualities of synthetic MRA with TOF-MRA. Proximal segments of intracranial arteries were clearly visualized on synthetic MRA, with comparable quality to that of TOF-MRA. Synthetic MRA may function as a screening tool to detect lesions of major intracranial arteries, without additional scanning time.

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Assessment of cerebral pulsatility using high temporal-resolution MRI
Kevin J Ray1, Alastair Webb2, and Peter Jezzard1

1Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Stroke Prevention Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

High frequency resting state BOLD MRI (rs-fMRI, TR=0.43s) detects effects of blood flow pulsatility on the cerebrovasculature, but no systematic comparison of analysis methods has been performed. In ten healthy subjects, we compared three pulsatility quantification methods (iterative GLM, mean-squared coherence (MSC), number of standard deviations (nSD)), with or without external physiological measurements. MSC detected the greatest proportion of voxels with significant pulsatility, but iGLM analysis was the most specific method, identified greater normalised pulsatility magnitude in arteries, and was the only approach that produced similar estimates of pulsatility magnitude and extent independently of external physiological data.

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High-resolution Brain 3D-TOF MRA of Critical Fine Branches from Major Trunks Using Deep Learning Reconstruction and High-gradient Magnetic Field
Miho Gomyo1,2, Kazuhiro Tsuchiya1,2, Yoshioka Tatsuya3, Sanae Takahashi3, Shichirou Katase1, Arisa Ohara1, Isao Miyazaki3, Haruhiko Machida1, and Kenichi Yokoyama1

1Radiology, Korin University Faculty of Medicine, Mitaka, Japan, 2Radiology, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama Medical University, Kawagoe, Japan, 3Radiology, Korin University Hospital, Mitaka, Japan

Problem

Using a 3-T MRI scanner with a high gradient magnetic field (100mT/m), we evaluated the depiction of the intracranial fine branches on high-resolution 3D-TOF MRA (HR-TOF). We also assessed whether depiction can be improved by deep learning reconstruction (DLR). 

Methods

Ten healthy volunteers were imaged by HR-TOF with DLR, and the sharpness of origin and the overall depiction of branches were assessed.

Results

SNR, the sharpness of the origin and the overall depiction of branches were superior in HR-TOF with DLR. 

Conclusion

HR-TOF can well depict fine branches from major trunks. By performing DLR processing, depiction can be improved.


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Optimization of a new accelerated time-of-flight Brain MR angiography using spiral data acquisition: Spiral MRA
Yutaka Hamatani1, Kayoko Abe2, Yasuhiro Goto1, Masami Yoneyama3, Isao Shiina1, Kazuo Kodaira1, Yoshihiro Ikeda1, Mamoru Takeyama1, Isao Tanaka1, and Shuji Sakai2

1Department of Radiological Services, Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan, 3Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

Spiral MRA is a new accelerated time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) with spiral data acquisition, which acquires MR data by traveling through k-space with spirals. Acquisition window (AW) is a new parameter, which indicates the degree of under-sampling related to image quality and acquisition time. In this study, suitable flip angle (FA) and AW for Spiral MRA was evaluated by a 5-point scale and signal profile analysis. In conclusion, the suitable FA was 25° to demonstrate each artery and suppress the background signals. AW should be set to 10 or less to avoid vessel blurring.

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A new accelerated time-of-flight Brain MR angiography (Spiral MRA) with a combination technique of spiral acquisition and fat suppression: ProSet
Kayoko Abe1, Kazufumi Suzuki1, Masami Yoneyama2, and Shuji Sakai1

1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, Japan, 2Philips Electronics Japan, Ltd., Tokyo, Japan

Spiral MRA is a new accelerated time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF-MRA), the k space is filled with data in a spiral trajectory on the frequency and phase encoding directions. In this study, the effect of TONE and ProSet on Spiral MRA was evaluated by comparing image quality between Spiral MRA and conventional TOF-MRA. As the result, TONE was rarely effective on Spiral MRA, and Spiral MRA with ProSet provided high quality images, and reduced the acquisition time by approximately 70%, compared to conventional TOF-MRA with ProSet. In conclusion, Spiral MRA with ProSet is a useful, accelerated technique without image quality deterioration.

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Dual Coil Continuous ASL of the human brain at 9.4 T
Markus Schreiyäck1, Jonas Bause1, Klaus Scheffler1,2, and Rolf Pohmann1

1Magnetic Resonance Center, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 2Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is expected to profit highly from ultra high magnetic fields because of the high SNR and the long longitudinal relaxation time. Here we show first images from dual coil continuous ASL measurements in the human brain at 9.4 T. A separate transmit channel was established to feed two small labeling coils placed at the neck. A power limiter was used to ensure subject safety. First images show strong perfusion contrast and high SNR.

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Measure Cerebral Microstructure Alterations in SVD and BVD Using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging and Investigate the Correlation with Cognitive Impairment
Wenjing Lan1, Shuang Xu1, Yang Liu1, Kaiyu Wang2, and Lizhi Xie2

1The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, China, 2GE Healthcare, China, Beijing, China

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is one of the most popular diffusion MRI methods in the study of ageing. Diffusion kurtosis imaging, which is a recent novel extension of DTI to provide additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissues, was applied throughout the study. We investigated diffusional alternations arising from brain small vessel disease, and compared results with age and educational level-matched big vessel disease and healthy controls.  We also investigated the correlation between these diseases and cognitive impairment.

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Super selective arterial spin labeling technique in the assessment of blood supply from external carotid artery in Moyamoya Disease: comparison with digital subtraction angiography
Jing Yuan1, Jianxun Qu2, and Yaou Liu1

1Radiology Department, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 2MR Research, GE Healthcare, China, Beijing, China

Super selective arterial spin labeling (ssASL) is a MR territory perfusion technique based on arterial spin labeling. The efficacy of this technique to demonstrate the blood supply of external carotid artery (ECA) into the brain has not been studied. This study demonstrated ssASL was in good agreement with DSA, the gold standard for cerebral vessels, in the evaluation of preoperative ECA collaterals, superficial temporal artery  to middle cerebral artery bypass and synangiosis-induced vessels in Moyamoya disease.

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Correlation of cerebrovascular reserve assessed by acetazolamide-stress SPECT with collaterals on arterial spin-labeling MRI in patients with carotid occlusive disease
Hyunkoo Kang1 and Yoone Kim1

1Seoul Veterans Hospital, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

We evaluated the correlation between cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) on acetazolamide (ACZ) -stress SPECT brain scans and collaterals on ASL MRI in ICA stenosis. 86 patients with ICA stenosis (>70%) were enrolled in this study. On ASL, late-arriving flow appears as serpiginous high ASL signal within cortical vessels, which has been termed arterial transit artifact (ATA). 82/86 ICA stenosis patients underwent SPECT imagings with Tc-99m-ECD in the resting and after ACZ challenge. Significant positive relationship was observed between normal CVR group and ATA showing group in ICA stenosis patients on ASL brain perfusion (p=0.035, chi-square test).

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MRI Evaluation of Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Pei-Hsin Wu1, Ana E Rodríguez-Soto1, Erin K Englund1, Michael C Langham1, John A Detre2, Richard J Schwab3, Andrew Wiemken3, and Felix W Wehrli1

1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a chronic disorder caused by intermittent obstruction of the upper airways during sleep. OSA patients are prone to cardiovascular disease and stroke. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an index to assess the degree of impairment of cerebrovascular regulation. Here, a breath-hold index (BHI) was introduced as a surrogate for CVR to evaluate subjects with OSA and their controls. Preliminary results from an ongoing study found BHI to be significantly elevated in OSA for both BOLD based regional, and global CBF. The results agree with a recent MRI-based CVR study using an exogenously administered hypercapnia stimulus. 

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Changes to Blood-Brain Barrier Water Permeability After CPAP Treatment in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Xiang He1, Kenneth Wengler2, Karl Spuhler2, Muhammed Amin3, and Chuan Huang1

1Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States

In patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), intermittent ischemia and re-oxygenation leads to disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. In this study changes in BBB water permeability parameters, water extraction fraction (Ew) and water permeability surface area product (PSw), in patients with OSA before and after 8-weeks of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment were investigated using the recently developed Intrinsic Diffusivity Encoding of Arterial Labeled Spins (IDEALS) technique. Compared to healthy controls, OSA patients exhibited lower CBF, PSw and Ew before CPAP. After 8-weeks of CPAP, patients showed increased CBF, PSw and Ew demonstrating the improvement of BBB integrity.

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4D Flow MRI Analysis of Cerebral Blood Flow Before and After The Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass Surgery for Atherosclerotic Disease
Tetsuro Sekine1, Erika Orita1, Yasuo Murai2, Ryo Takagi3, Yasuo Amano3, Takahiro Ando1, Kotomi Iwata1, Masashi Ogawa1, Makoto Obara4, and Shin-ichiro Kumita1

1Radiology, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan, 2Neurosurgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan, 3Radiology, Nihon University, Tokyo, Japan, 4Philips Electronics Japan Ltd, Tokyo, Japan

The purpose of this study was to clarify the change in the hemodynamics after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass surgery using 4D Flow MRI. We enrolled 20 patients who underwent 4D Flow MRI preoperatively and 3 weeks after the surgery. The blood flow volume (BFV) of ipsilateral STA and ipsilateral ICA significantly increased after the surgery (0.53±0.22 vs. 1.78±0.54 ml/sec (p< 0.001); 2.37±5.09 vs. 1.82±3.42 ml/sec (p=0.03)). While, no significant difference was observed in total-BFV (p = 0.24). It may indicate that ipsilateral STA and intracranial native artery supply blood flow complementarily after surgery.

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Validation of zTE MRA in the characterization of cerebrovascular diseases: a feasibility study
Song'an Shang1, Jing Ye1, Weiqiang Dou2, Jianxun Qu2, Xianfu Luo1, and Jingtao Wu1

1Department of Radiology, Northern Jiangsu People’s Hospital, Yangzhou, China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, China

In this study, we aimed to investigate the feasibility of zero echo time magnetic resonance angiography (zTE-MRA) in the characterization of cerebrovascular diseases. Comparing with the time of flight (TOF) MRA, zTE-MRA showed more robust performance in depicting cerebrovascular diseases with dramatically reduced acoustic noise, higher signal homogeneity, less venous signal/artifact and higher inter-modality agreement and correlation with computed tomography angiography (CTA). We therefore demonstrated that zTE MRA could be a promising technique and further applied routinely in the clinic for patients with cerebrovascular diseases.

2673
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Estimating hemodynamic response functions using motor task and resting-state EEG-fMRI data acquired during wakefulness with eyes open
Prokopis C. Prokopiou1, Alba Xifra-Porxas2, Michalis Kassinopoulos2, Marie-Helene Boudrias3, and Georgios D. Mitsis4

1Integrated Program in Neuroscience, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Graduate Program in Bioengineering and Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3School of Physical And Occupational Therapy, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Department of Bioengineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada

In this work, we quantify the fMRI hemodynamic response function (HRF) using task-based (motor) and resting-state EEG-fMRI. We developed a methodology that does not require any assumptions regarding the HRF shape or the relative contribution of different EEG spectral bands to obtain region-specific estimates of the HRF. During the motor task, the EEG β-band was found to have a more pronounced contribution to BOLD variations compared to other bands, and the HRF was mainly negative due to β-band desynchronization and post-movement β-rebound. During resting-state, the contribution of different EEG bands and the HRF estimates varied between subjects, possibly due to low SNR and differences in the subjects’ brain state.


Psychoradiology: Depression, Bipolar Disorder, Anxiety & More

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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Cortical structure mediates the effect of childhood maltreatment on depression relapse during longitudinal follow-up
Harald Kugel1, Nils Opel2, Ronny Redlich2, Katharina Dohm2, Dario Zaremba2, Janik Goltermann2, Jonathan Repple Repple2, Claas Kaehler2,3, Dominik Grotegerd2, Elisabeth J. J. Leehr2, Joscha Böhnlein2, Katharina Förster2, Susanne Meinert2, Verena Enneking2, Lisa Sindermann2, Fanny Dzvonyar2, Daniel Emden2, Ramona Leenings2, Nils Winter2, Tim Hahn2, Walter Heindel1, Ulrike Buhlmann4, Bernhard T. Baune5, Volker Arolt2, and Udo Dannlowski2

1Institute of Clinical Radiology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 3Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 4Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Childhood maltreatment is a strong risk factor for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD) and associated with unfavorable course of the disease. Both, maltreatment and MDD have been independently associated with structural alterations in partly overlapping brain regions suggesting that brain structural changes could mediate the adverse influence of maltreatment on clinical outcome in MDD. In this study the relationship between childhood trauma, brain structural alterations and adverse disease course was investigated in a longitudinal design. Our results suggest that cortical surface area reductions might mediate the prospective association between early life stress and future depression relapse. 

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Evidence for an association between low-grade peripheral inflammation and brain structural alterations in major depression
Harald Kugel1, Nils Opel2, Micah Cearns3, Scott Clark3, Catherine Toben3, Dominik Grotegerd2, Walter Heindel1, Anja Teuber4, Heike Minnerup4, Matthias Nauck5, Klaus Berger4, Udo Dannlowski2, and Bernhard T. Baune6

1Institute of Clinical Radiology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 3Discipline of Psychiatry, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 4Institute of Epidemiology and Social Medicine, University of Münster, Münster, Germany, 5Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, 6Department of Psychiatry, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Preliminary research suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with structural alterations of brain regions relevant for emotion regulation and associated with low-grade peripheral inflammation as indicated by high sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) serum levels. This association between structural brain alterations and low-grade inflammation as potentially interrelated biological correlates of MDD was investigated. In MDD patients, but not healthy controls, prefrontal gray matter volume reductions were significantly associated with higher hsCRP levels.

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Abnormal functional connectivity of ACC sub-regions in patients with major depressive disorders
Xiaolong Peng1, Xiaoping Wu2, Pan Lin3, Ruxue Gong4, Rui Yang5, and Wenzhen Zhu1

1Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, 2Department of Radiology, the Affiliated Xi'an Central Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, 3Key Laboratory of Cognitive Science, College of Biomedical Engineering, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan, China, 4Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 5Department of Psychiatry, the Affiliated Xi'an Central Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mental disorder characterized by cognitive and affective deficits. Prior works indicated that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is related to high-level cognitive and emotion process, which is also thought to be pivotal to depression. Here, we examined the resting FC of ACC sub-regions in fist-episode MDD patients. The current results revealed reduced ACC sub-regional FC with IPL and SPL while increased FC was found in dmPFC. Additionally, FC with IPL also negatively correlated with symptom severity (HDRS), indicating that depression may disrupt the normal interactions within the DMN. These findings on alteration of ACC sub-regional FC may contribute to the comprehension in pathophysiology of MDD.

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Structural MRI at 7T reveals amygdala nuclei and hippocampal subfield volumetric association with Major Depressive Disorder symptom severity
Stephanie S. G. Brown1, John W. Rutland1, Gaurav Verma1, Rebecca Feldman1, Judy Alper1, Molly Schneider1, Bradley N. Delman1, James Murrough1, and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

Subcortical volumetric changes in MDD have been purported to underlie the symptoms of MDD, however, the evidence to date remains inconsistent. Here, we investigated the relationship between structural limbic brain measurements and MDD symptomology through high-resolution segmentation of the amygdala and hippocampus. We report the novel finding that MDD severity is consistently negatively associated with amygdala nuclei, linking volumetric reductions with worsening depressive symptoms. 

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Anomalous functional connectivity in subregional amygdala networks in major depressive disorder
Shi Tang1, Hailong Li1, Lu Lu1, Lianqing Zhang1, Xuan Bu1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Yingxue Gao1, Xinyu Hu1, Yanlin Wang1, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi Magnetic Resonance Research Center (HMRRC), Chengdu, China

The LB, CM, SF and Astr are four main subregions of the amygdala. In this study, we use seed-based functional connectivity method to determine amygdala network dysfunction in MDD. Compared with HC, patients with major depressive disorder showed hypoconncetivity in AStr/LB- OFC circuits, in CM /SF-brainstem/cerebellum circuits and in AStr/CM/SF-thalamus/striatum circuits. These dysfunction in amygdala networks may modulate different emotional and cognitive function in derpession.

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Abnormal Blood-Brain Barrier Water Permeability in Major Depressive Disorder
Kenneth Wengler1, Kwan Chen2, Turhan Canli3, Christine DeLorenzo4, Mark E Schweitzer2, and Xiang He2

1Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 4Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption may be the key mechanism leading to neuronal dysfunction and neuroinflammation in major depressive disorder (MDD). Active pathways account for a large portion of trans-membrane water exchange, providing a link between BBB water permeability and metabolism. In this study alterations in BBB water permeability parameters, water extraction fraction (Ew) and water permeability surface area product (PSw), in patients with MDD were investigated using the recently developed Intrinsic Diffusivity Encoding of Arterial Labeled Spins (IDEALS) technique. Compared to healthy subjects, MDD patients exhibited significantly lower PSw and Ew with no differences in cerebral blood flow.

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Investigation of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease induced Depression using Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging - A preliminary Region-specific Study
Kun Li1, Dongtao Liu2, Qiao Bu1, Xiuqin Jia3, Rui Jia1, Xiaojiao Pei1, Yuchang Yan1, Xiang Feng4, Qinglei Shi4, Zhenyu Pan1, and Tao Jiang3

1Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (Jingxi Campus), Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 2Department of Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital (Jingxi Campus), Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 3Department of Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 4MR Scientific Marketing, Siemens Healthcare, Beijing, China

This abstract presents a preliminary study of cerebral small vessel disease induced depression using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI). Different DKI-derived parameters in specific brain structures were compared between depression and non-depression groups, as well as between anxiety and non-anxiety groups. The correlation between DTI- and DKI-derived parameters and clinical scores were also investigated.

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7 Tesla Phase Sensitive Imaging of Brain Regions with Metabolic Alterations in Major Depressive Disorder
Angela Jakary1, Audrey Yin1,2, Scott Mackin3, Stuart Eisendrath3, Janine Lupo1, and Yan Li1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2UCSF, San Franciwsco, CA, United States, 3Psychiatry, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States

Ultra high-field phase sensitive imaging can help elucidate subtle changes in brain iron content. Recent research implicates brain iron deposition in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Our previous work involving MDD patients detected symptom-related metabolic alterations in deep brain structures and anterior cingulate cortex. In our current analysis, we apply 7T phase sensitive imaging in these same brain regions to evaluate the role of iron accumulation in neurocognitive and depressive symptoms in this vulnerable population.

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Relationship Between Gray Matter Volume Reductions and TPH1 Polymorphisms in Depressive Disorder Patients with Suicidal Attempts
Geon-Ho Jahng1, Jin Kyung Park2, Seong Jong Yun1, Chang-Woo Ryu1, Wook Jin1, and Dal Mo Yang1

1Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Psychiatry, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

To investigate relationship between gray matter volume (GMV) changes and TPH1 polymorphisms in depressive disorder (DD) patients with suicidal attempts (SA), 13 DD-SA patients and 20 healthy controls were scanned three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted image to obtain GMV in the brain. In addition, TPH1 rs1800532 and rs1799913 polymorphisms were obtained. The patients showed significant GMV reduction. The right precentral and postcentral gyri GMV values of AA and CA genotypes patients were significantly decreased compared to those of CC genotype subjects, indicating that both GMV reductions and TPH1 A allele may be involved in the pathogenesis of DD-SA patients.

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Alterations of White Matter Tracts in Suicidal and Non-suicidal Brain with Major Depressive Disorder
Kaili Liang1,2, Xuan Bu1, Lianqing Zhang1, Yanli Wang1, Xinyu Hu1, Lu Lu1, Hailong Li1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Shi Tang1, Yingxue Gao1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi Magnetic Resonance Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

We investigated the white matter alterations at the individual level in MDD patients with and without suicide attempts using Automated Fiber Quantification (AFQ) approach. The three major left hemispheric white matter tracts including arcuate, CST and ATR suggested to play an important role in suicidal brain, which implies deficits of dominant hemisphere specialization with cognitive processes such as reading, writing and speaking. Our study contributes to revealing neurobiological mechanism of suicide attempts.

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Study of gender differences in major depressive disorder by using resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging
Lihua Qiu1,2, Lan Mei2, Jingping Mou2, Xinyu Hu1, and Qiyong Gong1

1Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2The Second People’s Hospital of Yibin, Yibin, China

Sex differences are observed in epidemiological and clinical symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD); yet, little is known about about the gender difference of brain function in MDD. In this work, variance analysis were used to assess the sex differences of amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) alterations in male, female MDD patients and matched controls. We found the gender differences of ALFF in bilateral caudate nucleus and posterior cingulate gyrus. Our findings suggest that sex specific functional alterations existed in MDD, and these alterations may associated with the clinical symptoms.

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Structural brain abnormalities in MDD patients with suicide: A DARTEL-enhanced voxel-based morphometry study
Huiru Li1, Huawei Zhang1, Li Yin2, Zhiyun Jia1, and Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

We performed a VBM analysis with DARTEL to analysis the different structure in healthy controls, MDD patients with or without suicidal actors. The result shows suicidal patients had reduced GMV than patient controls in precuneus/cuneus, anterior cingulate cortex and orbital frontal gyrus. Particularly, we found suicidal ideators have reduced GMV in middle frontal gyrus compared to suicidal attempters. Negative correlation was found between clinical characters and volume of some regions. The dysfunction of self-awareness, emotional processing and impulsivity control function caused by the abnormalities of these brain regions may be associated suicidal behavior.

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Hippocampus-related regional and network functional deficits in first-episode drug-naïve major depressive disorder: a resting-state functional MRI study
Xiaoxiao Hu1, Xinyu Hu1, Hailong Li1, Lianqing Zhang1, Lu Lu1, Xuan Bu1, Shi Tang1, Yingxue Gao1, Yanlin Wang1, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, Chengdu, China

Previous neuroimaging studies have suggested that major depressive disorder (MDD) may be correlated with changes in regional- or network-level brain function. The purposes of the present study were to investigate changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and functional connectivity (FC) in bilateral hippocampus by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in first-episode drug-naive major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Our findings demonstrate that the hippocampus and dACC contribute to the underlying pathophysiology of MDD at an early-stage.

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The Importance of Identifying Functional Val158Met Polymorphism in Catechol-O- Methyltransferase (COMT) when Assessing MRI-based Volumetric Measurements in Major Depressive Disorder
Mario Serrano-Sosa1, Kruthika Sampathgiri2, Christine DeLorenzo2, Ramin Parsey2, and Chuan Huang2,3

1Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 2Psychiatry, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Stony Brook Radiology, Stony Brook, NY, United States

Using voxel-based morphology we investigated the relationship between COMT gene polymorphism and volumetric abnormalities in major depressive disorder patients and healthy controls. A significant difference in the right hippocampus (p=0.015) was found between the interaction of diagnosis and genotype, which suggests that COMT polymorphism must be considered during any volumetric analysis for depression.

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Differences in Brain Microstructural Alterations between Bipolar and Major Depression Revealed by Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging
Daisuke Sawamura1, Khin Khin Tha2, Naoki Hashimoto3, Hisashi Narita3, Shin Nakagawa3, and Hiroki Shirato4

1Hokkaido University Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Sapporo, Japan, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan, 3Hokkaido University Hospital, Sapporo, Japan, 4Department of Radiation Medicine, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan

This prospective study evaluated if bipolar and major depression patients had microstructural brain alterations detectable on DKI. The results showed significant alterations in these patients, of which some clusters correlated with clinical symptoms. Mean kurtosis also differed significantly between the two groups. 

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Studying disease-related brain alterations in bipolar disorder with combined analysis of DKI and VBM
Kouhei Kamiya1,2, Naohiro Okada3, Kingo Sawada3, Kentaro Morita3, Susumu Morita3, Shintaro Kawakami3, Yuichi Suzuki4, Shiori Amemiya1, Harushi Mori1, Akira Kunimatsu1, Koji Kamagata2, Masaaki Hori2, Shigeki Aoki2, Kiyoto Kasai3, and Osamu Abe1

1Department of Radiology, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Neuropsychiatry, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Radiology, the University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo, Japan

Brain abnormalities in bipolar disorder were investigated with diffusion kurtosis imaging and voxel-based morphometry, using a framework for data-driven feature extraction from multivariate data. The result showed two components capturing effect of diagnosis, and these were driven by diffusion kurtosis measures in the white matter including the prefrontal-striatal-thalamic pathways, cerebellum, and medial temporal lobes. Our results indicate diffusion kurtosis imaging can provide unique information that is sensitive to the abnormalities in bipolar disorder, and that interrelationship among different measures is a promising avenue to study neuronal circuits relevant to the disease.

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Altered white matter microstructure correlates with cognitive functions in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder
Tianjia Zhu1,2, Chenying Zhao2,3, Minhui Ouyang2, Ruchir Arvind4, Johanna Saxena4, Sherin Kurian4, Kirti Saxena4, and Hao Huang2,5

1Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 4Baylor College of Medicine-Texas Children’s Hospital, Houston, TX, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Cognitive impairments and white matter (WM) microstructural alterations have been found in subjects with bipolar disorder (BD). However, the relationship between WM microstructural alterations and impulsivity, a prominent cognitive trait, in children/adolescents with BD is not known. In this study, diffusion MRI and cognitive assessments were obtained from 19 children/adolescents diagnosed with BD and 23 age-matched healthy controls. We found increased radial diffusivity(RD), reflecting disrupted myelin, in major WM tracts such as corpus callosum. Significant correlation between RD in WM tracts regulating impulsivity and response time to affective words was found, suggesting the association between WM myelin disruption and impulsivity.

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Individual Prediction of Symptomatic Converters in Youth Offspring of Bipolar Parents Using Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Wenjing Zhang1, Maxwell Tallman2, Li Yao1, Su Lui1, Qiyong Gong1, and Melissa DelBello2

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States

Whether the neurochemicals are associated with the vulnerability of bipolar disorder has not been studied before, findings of which may extend our understanding of neurobiological factors associated with the pathogenesis. In this study, a cohort of bipolar offsprings were enrolled and later divided into two symptomatic (converters) and healthy bipolar offspring (non-converters). Baseline MRS data was obtained and examined in predicting the disorder conversion. The measures of mI, Cr and Cho in the left VLPFC achieved the highest prediction accuracy, which indicated that some specific neurochemicals are associated with the vulnerability of bipolar disorder.

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Altered functional connectivity and spectroscopic metabolites related to treatment response in adolescents with bipolar disorder
Siyi Li1, Wenjing Zhang1, Bo Tao1, and Su Lui1

1Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

The reason for the inconsistency of bipolar disorder (BD) patients’ brain functional status and metabolic levels of treatment response is still not clear. This task-based fMRI study was carried out to figure out the relationship between medication treatment and brain status in function and metabolites. By analyzing functional connectivity and correlating metabolic markers in treatment response and no response BD patients, we found medication can affect the brain functional status and metabolic level in BD patients, and precentral gyrus is a key region during BD illness course.

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Exploring White Matter Functional Networks at Rest in Boys with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Using Clustering Analysis and Tractography
Xuan Bu1, Yingxue Gao1, Hailong Li1, Yanlin Wang1, Lianqing Zhang1, Xinyu Hu1, Shi Tang1, Lu Lu1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Lanting Guo2, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi MR Research Center, Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Mental Health Center, Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Chile

In current study, we identified nine white matter functional networks and their relations to structural white matter fibers identified by DTI. Sensorimotor network and dorsal attention network, which show good spatial correspondence with specific anatomical tracts, present higher amplitude in ADHD. Our results uncover the altered intrinsic functional organization of white matter in ADHD, and indicate that changes in neural activity are encoded in BOLD variations within white matter.

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Stronger small-worldizition of structural networks in drug-naïve children and adolescents with ADHD:A graph theory analysis
Lu Lu1, Shi Tang1, Lianqing Zhang 1, Xinyu Hu1, Xuan Bu1, Hailong Li1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Yingxue Gao1, Yanlin Wang1, John Adrian Sweeney1,2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, United States

Structural connectomes of patients with ADHD showed a shift toward “stronger small-worldization” which provided a structural basis for higher rates of information transfer in this disorder. These global network alterations, together with increased connectivity within and among DMN and task-positive networks including FPN, DAN and VAN, could lead to disruptions of attention and goal-oriented behavior that are the primary clinical hallmarks of ADHD. 

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Association of explicit memory dysfunction with regional brain volume alterations in patients with generalized anxiety disorder
Chung Man Moon1,2 and Gwang Woo Jeong2

1National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) causes emotional dysregulations and/or cognitive deficits, including excessive anger, impairments of explicit and implicit memories and poor attention. A DARTEL-based voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study for assessing the relationship between morphometric abnormalities and explicit memory dysfunction in patients with GAD has not yet been reported. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate the regional gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations over the whole brain in patients with GAD, as well as the correlation between the brain structural abnormality and explicit memory dysfunction. Our findings would be helpful to understand the association between the brain structure abnormality and the functional deficit in the explicit memory in GAD.

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Brain regional connectome-wide search identified a resting-state functional connectivity locus within precunes associated with rumination symptom severity in mood and anxiety disorders
Masaya Misaki1, Aki Tsuchiyagaito1,2, Obada A Zoubi1,3, Martin Paulus1, and Jerzy Bodurka1,4

1Laureate Institute for Brain Research, Tulsa, OK, United States, 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK, United States, 4Stephenson School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, United States

We identified a precise locus within the precuneus that has resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) associated with rumination symptom severity for mood and anxiety (MA) disorder patients. We devised brain regional connectome-wide association analysis, which used multivariate distance matrix regression for searching voxels with connectivity correlated with the Ruminative Responses Scale (RRS) within the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. The analysis identified voxels in the precuneus having rsFC significantly associated with RRS. Functional connectivity between the precuneus and bilateral temporoparietal junction (TPJ) had a significant positive correlation with RRS in MA patients but not in the healthy participants.

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Age-related alteration in topological efficiency of structural network in children with autism aged 2-7 years
Minhui Ouyang1, Hua Cheng2, Di Hu2, Limei Song1, Yun Peng2, and Hao Huang1,3

1Department of Radiology, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 3Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Relatively flat white matter (WM) microstructural changes have been found in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-7 years yet faster WM microstructural maturation in typically developing (TD) children were observed. In this study, we further investigated the WM structural networks in children with ASD and TD children using diffusion MRI tractography and graph-theory-based analysis. Higher global and local topological efficiencies were found in the ASD. Similar to age-related WM microstructural maturation pattern, the global, local and nodal efficiencies established with structural network increase significantly faster in TD children than those in children with ASD. 

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Functional and Structural Abnormality in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorder Combined VBM and FC Analysis
Yaqi Wang1 and Jun Chen1

1Department of Radiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China

We combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis to identify functional and structural characteristics in patients with alcohol use disorder using high resolution T1-weighted structure images and functional MRI. AUD group showed significantly decreased gray matter volume mainly in the default mode network, and decreased FC in the default mode network and executive control network when compared with the HC group. Combining VBM and FC provides a new perspective on the pathophysiological and clinical manifestations in AUD patients.


Segmentation & Processing

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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Along-tract statistics of NODDI diffusion metrics to enhance MR tractography quantitative analysis in healthy controls and in patients with glioma
Valentina Pieri1, Francesco Sanvito1, Sara Cirillo1, Marco Riva2,3, Andrea Falini1, and Antonella Castellano1

1Neuroradiology Unit and CERMAC, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University and IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy, 2Department of Medical Biotechnology and Translational Medicine, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy, 3Unit of Oncological Neurosurgery, Humanitas Research Hospital, Rozzano (MI), Italy

Along-tract statistical extraction of quantitative diffusion metrics is crucial to unravel the variability of these parameters within white matter fiber bundles. Here for the first time we extracted NODDI-derived microstructural diffusion estimates along the main eloquent fiber tracts in fifteen healthy subjects and in a pilot cohort of glioma patients. We constructed a robust reference database of normative along-tract microstructural values to describe the anatomical variability of NODDI metrics within tracts and to localize and quantify differences in pathological cases. Normal and pathological conditions can be statistically compared between-groups, as well as at the single-subject level. 

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Evaluation of Compressed SENSE in Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping
Katsuhiro Inoue1, Shiho Isoshima1, Maki Umino2, Tsunehiro Yamahata1, Shinichi Takase1, Makoto Obara3, Hajime Sakuma2, and Masayuki Maeda4

1Department of Radiology, Mie University Hospital, Tsu, Mie, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Mie, Japan, 3MR Clinical Science, Philips Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 4Department of Advanced Diagnostic Imaging, Mie University School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan

Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is reportedly useful for the early diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease. However, the imaging time for QSM is very long because of the additional acquisition of 3D FFE; compressed SENSE (C-SENSE) could resolve this problem. The susceptibility values of the putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, and nucleus ruber in seven healthy volunteers were measured as well as evaluated using SENSE and C-SENSE QSM. The results suggest that good reproducibility and validity for C-SENSE QSM can be obtained when high factors are used. C-SENSE QSM can reduce acquisition time, and is therefore expected to be widely used in the clinical setting.

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A Surface-Constrained Dynamic Elasticity Model for Deformable Registration of Infant Brain MRI
Sahar Ahmad1, Zhengwang Wu1, Gang Li1, Li Wang1, Weili Lin1, Pew-Thian Yap1, and Dinggang Shen1

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

Spatial registration of infant brain images is challenging owing to significant changes in image appearance in association with rapid growth in the first year of life. In this abstract, we introduce a volumetric registration method that is constrained by cortical correspondences for consistent cortical and sub-cortical alignment.

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Robust, Atlas-Free, Automatic Segmentation of Brain MRI in Health and Disease
Govind Nair1, Kartiga Selvaganesan1, Emily Whitehead1, Paba M DeAlwis1, Mathew K Schindler1, Bryan Smith1, Avindra Nath1, Steven Jacobson1, Daniel S Reich1, Ziad Saad2, Souheil Inati3, and Sara Inati1

1NINDS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2NIMH, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Inati Analytics, Potomac, MD, United States

An atlas-free, brain-segmentation algorithm that uses derivative-based features and logistic regression classifier was optimized and tested on images of healthy volunteers and individuals clinically diagnosed with a variety of neuroimmunological diseases.The algorithm was trained to classify gray and white matter, CSF, globus pallidus, white matter lesions, and “other” tissue classes from all the images routinely acquired at our center. The algorithm achieved highly accurate brain segmentations and outperformed widely used techniques for brain segmentation and lesion detection. The algorithm has been found to be versatile in brain segmentation using images acquired at other collaborator sites.

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Effect of fitting models and its error analysis in GRE based MWI
Junghyeob Kim1, Hongpyo Lee1, and Dong-Hyun Kim1

1Electrical & Electronic Engineering, Yonsei university, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

The MWF fitting through the GRE sequence was performed in various models to determine which model is effective. Models such as magnitude 2-, 3-pool, complex 2-, and 3-pool modeling were used.

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Deep learning-based diffusion method alleviates spurious group differences due to head motion
Ting Gong1, Hongjian He1, Zhiwei Li2, Zhichao Lin2, Feng Yu2, and Jianhui Zhong1,3

1Center for Brain Imaging Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Biomedical Engineering and Instrumental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 2Department of Instrument Science & Technology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China, 3Department of Imaging Sciences, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States

Head motion occurring during the acquisition of diffusion-weighted (DW) images will cause deterioration in quality of diffusion model reconstruction, which could lead to spurious group differences of DW measures when there is difference in head motion for different groups. We have previously developed a method for robust diffusion kurtosis mapping of motion-contaminated data. In this study, we applied it in a group level, and the results demonstrated its ability in ameliorating spurious group differences due to head motion. The method can be applied to data with different motion level thus improving the utilization and statistic power of some valuable but motion-corrupted DW data.

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ExploreASL: a collaborative effort to process and explore multi-center ASL data
Henk Jan Mutsaerts1, Jan Petr2, Paul Groot1, Silvia Ingala1, Andrew Robertson3, Lena Vaclavu1, Inge Groote4, Hugo Kuijf5, Owen O'Daly6, Fernando Zelaya6, Pieter Vandemaele7, Alle Meije Wink1, Ilse Kant5, Matthan Caan1, Catherine Morgan8, Jeroen de Bresser5, Elisabeth Lysvik4, Anouk Schrantee1, Zahra Shirzadi9, Joost Kuijer1, Udunna Anazodo10, Edo Richard1, Reinoud Bokkers11, Liesbeth Reneman1, Mario Masellis9, Eric Achten7, Matthias Günther12, Bradley MacIntosh9, Xavier Golay13, Jeroen Hendrikse5, Michael Chapell14, Matthias van Osch15, David Thomas13, Enrico De Vita16, Atle Bjornerud4, Aart Nederveen1, Iris Asllani17, and Frederik Barkhof1

1Amsterdam University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden, Germany, 3Schlegel-UW Research Institute for Aging, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, 4University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway, 5University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 6Institute of Psychology, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom, 7Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium, 8University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand, 9Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 10Lawson Health Research Institute, London, ON, Canada, 11University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands, 12Mevis Fraunhofer, Bremen, Germany, 13University College London, London, United Kingdom, 14Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 15Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 16Kings College London, London, United Kingdom, 17Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, United States

Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has undergone significant development since its inception; yet, standardized images processing procedures remain elusive. We present ExploreASL, a robust open source ASL image processing pipeline for clinical studies. Initiated through the European COST action ASL network, this joint effort provides integration and analysis of both single- and multi-center datasets across different operating systems. ExploreASL is optimized for both native- and standard-space analyses, and provides visual and automatic quality control on all intermediate and final images, allowing exploration of  ASL datasets from multiple perspectives.

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Artificial Observer and Cost Function for Image Registration, MARLINA: Mean Absolute Regional LINear correlation Algorithm
Roman Fleysher1, Lazar Fleysher2, Asif Suri1, Molly Zimmerman3, Mark Jenkinson4, Craig A Branch1, and Michael L Lipton1

1Department of Radiology, Gruss Magnetic Resonance Research Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Psychology, Fordham University, Bronx, NY, United States, 4Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Upon visual inspection of intra-subject rigid body registrations in large studies, we have observed higher than desired rate of unsatisfactory alignments. To address misregistartions, we designed a battery of 13 candidate transformations, one of which was selected as best  during visual inspection. Tediousness of the inspections stimulated development of artificial observer to aid and subsequently to replace the human inspector. Here, we describe artificial observer MARLINA, characterize its ability to identify the best rigid body transformation as compared to human inspectors and propose it as a future cost function. 

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A novel DWI-based thalamus segmentation method using Constrained Spherical Deconvolution
Charles Iglehart1, Adam Bernstein2, Martin Monti3,4, Joshua A. Cain3, and Manojkumar Saranathan1,5

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 3Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Department of Neurosurgery Brain Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

Existing methods to segment the thalamus via diffusion weighted MRI are inhibited by several factors. The largely gray matter composition of the thalamus makes the local diffusion activity indistinct and some of the more successful DWI-based methods require time consuming and computationally expensive cortical parcellation for thalamus masking. This study addresses these limitations by using multi-tissue constrained spherical deconvolution to isolate desired diffusion activity and a novel template based technique for thalamus masking. Segmentation outputs are evaluated and we conclude with a discussion of the method’s advantages over existing techniques.

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A comparison of structural and diffusion-based MRI thalamus segmentation methods
Charles Iglehart1, Martin Monti2,3, Joshua A. Cain2, and Manojkumar Saranathan1,4

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Department of Psychology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurosurgery Brain Research Center, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Department of Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

Automatic thalamus segmentation is a field of study with rapidly evolving applications. Both structural and diffusion weighted MRI can be used to drive parcellations of thalamus nuclei. In this study we present a comparison of leading structural and DWI-based segmentation techniques as implemented on a common set of subject datasets. Results for each are compared, both against an established anatomical atlas and each other. Spatial consistency of nuclei are examined in common template space. Finally, strengths and weaknesses of both techniques are discussed.

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Comparison of Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery from MPRAGE and MP2RAGE
Jing Zhang1, Danny HC Kim2, Dan Rettmann3, and Bruce Bjornson2

1Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children’s Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN, United States

In this work, we obtained phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) signal from MPRAGE and MP2RAGE sequences. Both PSIR images have better image contrast than magnitude images. The PSIR from MPRAGE requires shorter acquisition time, however, PSIR from MP2RAGE provides better contrast and has no $$$B_1$$$ field inhomogeneity effect. Selection of which PSIR technique to use may depend on study aims.

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Phase-Sensitive Inversion Recovery and T1 Mapping with Motion Correction
Jing Zhang1, Danny HC Kim2, Dan Rettmann3, and Bruce Bjornson2

1Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare Canada, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Division of Neurology, Department of Pediatrics, BC Children’s Hospital and University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN, United States

In this work, we propose a novel motion corrected Phase Sensitive Inversion Recovery (PSIR) method with integrated T1 mapping derived from MP2RAGE acquisition. Motion correction is achieved using PROMO (PROspective MOtion correction), as well as Optimal Weighted Average (OWA) combination of multichannel data. This proposed method will be useful in obtaining high quality T1 images for children and other subjects who are prone to move during scans.

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Towards Validating Structural Connectivity in the Human Language System: an Intraoperative Cortico-Cortical Stimulation Experiment
Patryk Filipiak1, Fabien Almairac2, Théodore Papadopoulo1, Denys Fontaine2, Lydiane Mondot2, Stéphan Chanelet2, Maxime Descoteaux3, Rachid Deriche1, Maureen Clerc1, and Demian Wassermann1,4

1INRIA Sophia Antipolis-Méditerranée, Université Côte d'Azur, Valbonne, France, 2Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Nice, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France, 3Sherbrooke Connectivity Imaging Lab (SCIL), University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada, 4INRIA, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France

We validate structural connectivity measures based on diffusion MRI with Electrical Stimulation (ES) of the human brain cortex. For this, we combine white matter fiber tractography with propagation of Cortico-Cortical Evoked Potentials (CCEPs) induced by intrasurgical ES in the language system of brain tumor patients. Our results show high correlation (Pearson's coefficient 0.5-0.9) between delays of CCEPs and pathways connecting stimulation sites with recording electrodes. Our approach outperforms earlier study based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging. This potentially indicates that probabilistic tractography is an effective tool to quantify cortico-cortical communication non-invasively.


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Assessment of cerebral venous outflow rates with 4D arterial spin labeling vessel-selective angiography
Sidy Fall1, Serge Metanbou2, Garance Arbeaumont2, Caroline Fournez2, and Olivier Baledent1,3

1Facing Faces Institute/CHIMERE EA 7516, University of Picardy, Amiens, France, 2Radiology Department, University Hospital of Picardy, Amiens, France, 3Medical Image Processing Department, University Hospital of Picardy, Amiens, France

4D arterial spin labeling (ASL) angiography has gained attention in the diagnosis of cerebrovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility for estimating blood flow rates of the cerebral drainage system using data obtained by a 4D ASL angiography sequence. Data of a 4D ASL angiography acquisition provided comparable flow measurements to those of a standard 2D phase-contrast MR imaging sequence in 12 subjects. We demonstrated that both detailed morphological information and flows rates can be obtained by using a single 4D ASL angiography acquisition.

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Toblerone: partial volume estimation on the cortical ribbon
Thomas Kirk1,2, Timothy Coalson3, Flora Kennedy McConnell1,2, and Michael Chappell1,2

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neuroscience, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, United States

Toblerone is a new method for estimating partial volumes on the cortical ribbon using surfaces as input (eg those produced by FreeSurfer). Evaluation has been performed using both simulations and subjects drawn from the Human Connectome Project. The estimates returned differ from those produced by existing tools such as FSL's FAST, which will have implications for the analysis of functional imaging data (notably ASL). A preliminary analysis of an ASL dataset has been performed using Toblerone's PV estimates. 

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Automatic segmentation of thalamic nuclei using multiple imaging modalities at ultrahigh field
Gaurav Verma1, John W. Rutland1, Rebecca Emily Feldman1, Bradley Neil Delman2, and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational & Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

Segmenting gray matter structures within the thalamus is complicated by poor inherent T1/T2 contrast. Most existing approaches focus on clustering diffusion data including fiber orientation and short & long distance diffusion directions. We propose a hybrid approach incorporating diffusion data with a recently-developed high T1 contrast imaging sequence known as FGATIR. The proposed algorithm clusters on spatial position, fiber orientation distribution coefficients and anatomical contrast to provide robust, yet fast and fully-automatic segmentation of the thalamic nuclei showing strong agreement to manual segmentation performed by a neuroradiologist. Reliable thalamic nuclei segmentation could facilitate targeted therapies like deep brain stimulation.

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Automatic segmentation of deep grey matter structures for iron quantification
Ying Wang1, Yongsheng Chen2,3, David T Utriainen2,4, and Ewart Mark Haacke1,2,3,4

1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2The MRI Institute for Biomedical Research, Bingham Farms, MI, United States, 3Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Magnetic Resonance Innovations Inc., Bingham Farms, MI, United States

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a promising iron quantification method for assessing subcortical deep gray matter (SGM) in various neurodegenerative diseases. The accuracy of the measurement depends largely on the accuracy of the structural segmentation. Manually drawn regions-of-interest from a well-trained specialist are often the best but are very time-consuming. In this work, we propose an automatic segmentation method for DGM iron quantification by taking advantage of a hybrid image approach combining T1W images and QSM data. Preliminary results on 5 stroke patients presented an overall 77.8±5.8% Dice coefficient compared to the manually drawn ground truth.  The measured susceptibility of the DGM showed good agreement between both methods. 

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A Simple Homogeneity Correction for Neuroimaging at 7T
Korbinian Eckstein1, Siegfried Trattnig1, and Simon Daniel Robinson1

1High Field Magnetic Resonance Center, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

A wide range of MR sequences produce inhomogeneous magnitude images due to the coil sensitivity variation over the head, which is especially severe for ultra-high field strengths. The optimum solution would be a homogeneous reference coil, which however is not possible at 7T due to the shorter wavelength. To date, correction methods require a very long computation time rendering them impractical for on-console imaging. We propose a new magnitude inhomogeneity correction approach, which is based on simplified segmentation and fast interpolation to estimate the bias field. The resulting images show high homogeneity across all three dimensions without any visible artifacts.

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Exploiting MPRAGE phase to improve Globus Pallidus segmentation
Nashwan Naji1 and Alan Wilman1

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

A Quantitative Susceptibility Map can be generated from MPRAGE phase and used to improve Globus Pallidus segmentation. This proposal does not require an additional GRE scan and thus saves time and minimizes possible motion and intermodal registration/interpolation related errors.  

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Quantitative measurements of three-dimensional vessel tortuosity for cerebrovascular risk assessment: A pilot study
Yoon-Chul Kim1, Ha-Na Song2, Ji-Eun Lee2, In-Young Baek2, and Woo-Keun Seo2

1Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Knowledge of intracranial vessel morphology may be important in predicting the risk of acute ischemic stroke. The three-dimensional nature of the vessels would make it challenging to measure vessels' segmental lengths, unless a software tool dedicated to the purpose is available. The goal of this study is to develop a customized graphical user interface that facilitates users' measurement of intracranial vessel tortuosity in an easy and interactive manner. Using the proposed tool, vessel branch lengths and vessel tortuosity data were collected from 11 proximal vessel segments (e.g., middle cerebral artery, anterior cerebral artery) of 532 subjects.

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Quantitative Analysis of Punctate White Matter Lesions Using Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and R2* Relaxation
Yuting Zhang1, Alexander Rauscher2, and Alexander Mark Weber2

1Children’s Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China, 2UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Objectives: Our aim was to distinguish PWMLs and focal hemorrhage lesions using quantitative measures. Materials and Methods: In the current study, we acquired multi-echo gradient echo MRI data in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and post-processed them as R2* relaxation maps and quantitative susceptibility maps (QSM). Manually drawing regions of interest (ROIs) on R2* maps, we measured R2* and susceptibility values of the lesions. Results: We found that R2* and susceptibility values are significantly increased in focal hemorrhage lesions, compared to PWMLs. Conclusions: R2* and QSM can be used to help clinicians distinguish and measure these lesions.

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Reproducibility of SIENAX volumetric outputs over intra-session, inter-session and inter-scanner acquisitions
Guillem Garcia1, David Moreno-Dominguez1, Matt Rowe1, Vesna Prckovska1, and Paulo Rodrigues1

1QMENTA Inc., Barcelona, Spain

Automatic tissue segmentation tools are common in the neuroimaging field. Evaluating their reliability is necessary to validate the findings of studies that use these tools. We conducted a reliability analysis for SIENAX in a test-retest dataset and a multi-site dataset. The results were analysed and compared with other automatic segmentation tools. The volumetric outputs of SIENAX show low coefficients of variance for the test-retest dataset in both grey matter (1.11%) and white matter (0.69%). In the multi-site data the results were to 3.95% and 6.47% respectively, suggesting a possible need for data harmonization in multi-site studies.

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Comparison of Gradient Echo and Gradient Echo Sampling of Spin Echo Sequence for the Quantification of the Oxygen Extraction Fraction by Combining Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependency
Simon Hubertus1, Sebastian Thomas1, Junghun Cho2, Shun Zhang3,4, Yi Wang2,3, and Lothar R. Schad1

1Computer Assisted Clincial Medicine, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China

The oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) is a promising biomarker for cerebral tissue vitality. Combining quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) modelling and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) from gradient echo (GRE) data revealed promising results but still suffered from biases in white matter and required good parameter initialization. We showed that using an additional gradient echo sampling of spin echo (GESSE) sequence enables OEF reconstruction with higher accuracy, precision and robustness to parameter initialization in simulation. Yet, this increased robustness did still not allow for parameter initialization without prior knowledge of local distributions in vivo, which lead to a non-physiological gray-white matter contrast in the OEF. 

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Direct reconstruction of arterial blood flow (aBF) from undersampled golden-angle radial non-contrast enhanced dynamic 4D MR angiography
Ziwei Zhao1,2, Kai Wang1, Danny JJ Wang1, and Lirong Yan1

1Laboratory of Functional MRI Technology (LOFT), Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Department of Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering, Viterbi School of Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Quantification of hemodynamics benefits clinical diagnosis. Non-contrast enhanced MRA with golden-angle radial acquisition has capability of characterization of dynamic flow with high spatiotemporal resolution within a short scan time. Here, we proposed a direct reconstruction framework of arterial blood flow (aBF) from undersampled radial dMRA K-t space data, which mitigated streaking artifacts induced by image-based reconstruction. Both simulation and experimental data suggested that direct optimization method provides reliable aBF under different undersampling rates while preserving detailed delineation of vascular structures, compared to the conventional post-processing singular value decomposition (SVD) method.

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Ultra-fast EPI sampling of pulsatile flow waveforms in cerebral arteries via retrospective binning of k-space lines
Joseph Whittaker1, Marcello Venzi1, Fabrizio Fasano2,3, Daniel Gallichan4, and Kevin Murphy1

1CUBRIC, School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany, 3Siemens Healthcare Ltd, Camberly, United Kingdom, 4CUBRIC, School of Engineering, Cardiff, United Kingdom

Flow related signal enhancement in ultra-fast EPI allows imaging of cardiac pulsatile blood flow profiles in cerebral arteries. We present a novel method that uses retrospective binning of k-space lines to make cardiac phase ‘composite’ k-space planes, from which pulsatile waveforms can be reconstructed with extremely high temporal resolution (~2ms).  We demonstrate the proof-of-principle for obtaining pulse wave velocity measures in cerebral arteries, paving the way for mapping quantitative arterial stiffness measures across the brain.


Stroke

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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Data-driven regularized inversion (DRI) for improved QSM+qBOLD based CMRO2 Mapping: a feasibility study in healthy subjects and ischemic stroke patients
Junghun Cho1, Shun Zhang2, Youngwook Kee3, Pascal Spincemaille3, Thanh Nguyen3, Simon Hubertus4, Ajay Gupta3, and Yi Wang1,3

1Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Wuhan, China, 3Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 4Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany

We propose the use of machine-learning to improve the accuracy of a QSM+qBOLD model based Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping. The proposed method, data-driven regularized inversion or DRI, significantly outperformed, in simulation, the current method at all SNR levels. In n=11 healthy subjects, uniform OEF maps were obtained as expected. In n=18 ischemic stroke patients, low OEF regions were clearly located within the lesion region as defined by DWI.

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The effect of scan length on the assessment of perfusion using BOLD delay in ischemic stroke
Ayse Ceren Tanritanir1, Kersten Villringer1, Ivana Galinovic1, Ulrike Grittner2,3, Evgeniya Kirilina4,5, Jochen B. Fiebach1, Arno Villringer6,7, and Ahmed A. Khalil1,6,7

1Center for Stroke Research, Charité University of Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 2Institute of Biometry and Clinical Epidemiology, Charité University of Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 3Berlin Institute of Health (BIH), Berlin, Germany, 4Department of Neurophysics, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 5Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Free University, Berlin, Germany, 6Department of Neurology, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain, Leipzig, Germany, 7School of Mind and Brain, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany

Hypoperfusion in acute stroke can be detected without exogenous contrast agents  using BOLD delay. However the effect of scan duration on assessing perfusion using this method hasn’t been systematically evaluated. This study researched the effect of different scan lengths on diagnostic accuracy and  image quality of BOLD delay maps while accounting for head motion. Our results revealed that  scan time can be reduced to 3 min and 24 sec without compromising  diagnostic power and image quality. However, lesion volumes were robust down to a scan length of 1 min and 8 sec.

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Cerebral Venous Blood Volume Estimation Using Velocity-Selective Spin Labeling Prepared Single-Slab Three-Dimensional Turbo Spin Echo Imaging
Hyunyeol Lee1 and Felix W Wehrli1

1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

Venous CBV (CBVv) is of relevance to brain oxygenation level changes during functional activation. To date, MRI techniques for CBVv mapping fall into two categories, based on a 1) quantitative BOLD (qBOLD) model of extravascular signals, and 2) hyperoxic stimulus induced changes in intravascular signal. However, in the former estimation accuracy is impaired due to mutual coupling between CBVv and Yv in the model, while the latter suffers from the complexities in both experiments and estimation involving multiple parameters. Here, we propose velocity-selective spin labeling prepared single-slab 3D TSE imaging for straightforward derivation of CBVv maps in the whole brain. Results from three subjects show plausible values of CBVv estimates in the range of 1.9 - 3.3 % and 1.1 - 2.1 % for gray and white matter, respectively.

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Intrinsic vulnerability of low blood flow watershed to white matter hyperintensities in cerebral small vessel disease
Chunwei Ying1, Andria L. Ford2, Peter Kang2, Alla Al-Habib2, Slim Fellah2, Yasheng Chen2, Jin-Moo Lee1,2, and Hongyu An1

1Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

White matter hyperintensities (WMH), a major neuroradiological feature of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD), have a characteristic spatial distribution in the deep white matter and periventricular regions. In this study, we demonstrated a striking spatial overlap between WMH lesion hot spots and the watershed region, defined by a nadir in CBF within the white matter, suggesting that watershed is a region with intrinsic vulnerability to CSVD-related injury.

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Focal corticospinal tract volume loss following stroke characterized by diffusion tensor based morphometry (D-TBM)
Amritha Nayak1,2, Matthew Edwardson3,4, Pooja Modi5, Neda Sadeghi1, and Carlo Pierpaoli1

1Quantitative Medical Imaging Section, NIBIB,NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2The Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine Inc, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Georgetown University, Washington D.C, DC, United States, 4Georgetown University and MedStar National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington D.C, DC, United States, 5NICHD,NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States

Use of a diffusion tensor-based registration method to compare different scans within each subject and to map the results into a population template that can ultimately be used to stratify patients with different motor recovery outcome in stroke.


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Evaluation clinical outcome using mismatch between baseline mean diffusion and kurtosis MRI in focal ischemic stroke
Min Tang1, Wei Di1, Xin Zhang1, Jie Gao1, Xiaoling Zhang1, Xiaohong Wu1, and Zhizheng Zhuo2

1Shaanxi Provincial People`s Hospital, xi`an, China, 2Clinical science, Philips Healthcare China, Beijin, China

To observe the cerebral microstructural alterations after focal ischemic stroke by using DKI  and assess whether patients are likely to benefit from treated with intravenous tPA at onset of stroke when mean diffusion and kurtosis MRI mismatchs. 58 patients were enrolled. AK, RK and MK values were increased in ischemic lesions, which indicate heterogeneity and complexity of microstructural tissues at onset of stroke. MD-AK mismatch patients? recovered reasonably well with intravenous tPA at onset of stroke, whereas MD-AK mismatch patients without intravenous tPA and coincidence MD-AK of lesions volume showed poor recovery. MD-AK mismatch could be used to identify patients from baseline DKI who are likely to benefit from intravenous thrombolysis at onset of stroke.

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Using Vascular Territories to Predict Disconnection Profiles in Post-Stroke Aphasia
Natalie Busby1, Ajay D Halai1,2, Ying Zhao3, Geoff J.M. Parker4,5, and Matt Lambon Ralph1,2

1Neuroscience and Aphasia Research Unit, Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, School of Biological Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 3Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Quantitative Biomedical Imaging Laboratory, Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Bioxydyn Ltd., Rutherford House, Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom

Damage sustained to the brain post-stroke appears random but it may be constrained by the underlying neurovasculature; brain regions supplied by the occluded arterial branch will be affected. Combinations of vascular territories were matched to lesions from 62 post-stroke patients. Anatomical connectivity mapping, a measure of whole-brain connectivity, was used to estimate disconnection in each patient through summing disconnection associated with the territories which best matched their lesion. This novel methodology demonstrated that disconnection following a left-hemispheric stroke can be explained by the underlying neurovasculature and may be of particular interest when no diffusion data is available in the patient. 

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Differential Middle Cerebral Artery Plaque Characteristics in Patients with Transient Ischemic Attack and Ischemic Stroke: A High-Resolution MR Vessel Wall Imaging Study
Jiayu Xiao1, Qi Yang2, Zhaoyang Fan1, Shujuan Li3, Fang Wu2, Debiao Li1, and Tao Jiang4

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, los angeles, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 3Neurology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical university, Beijing, China, 4Radiology, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical university, Beijing, China

This study is to compare the characteristics of intracranial plaques between TIA and stroke patients using VWI. Sixty-two patients (31 TIA and 31 stroke) with MCA stenosis were enrolled in the study. Routine brain MRI, TOF-MRA, pre and post- contrast VWI were performed on each patient. Morphological features of the culprit plaque were compared between the two groups. TIA group had a lower occurrence of hyperintensity plaque, plaque surface irregularity and enhancement grade, those features showed no statistically significant differences and also the degree of stenosis and RI. VWI is useful modality for assessing the intracranial plaques in TIA patients. 

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Diffusion lesion segmentation with deep learning in acute ischemic stroke: A combined use of DWI and ADC
Yoon-Chul Kim1, Ji-Eun Lee2, Inwu Yu2, Ha-Na Song2, In-Young Baek2, Joon-Kyung Seong3, and Woo-Keun Seo2

1Clinical Research Institute, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

Conventional deep learning methods for cerebral infarct segmentation rely on diffusion weighted images (DWI) only. Meanwhile, traditional cerebral diffusion lesion segmentation is typically based on a fixed apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) threshold. It may be worthwhile to combine DWI and ADC images and use them as input for model training. The objective of this study is to develop a deep-learning segmentation model that takes DWI and ADC as input and produces a segmentation map as output and evaluate its performance.

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Neurodegeneration of the substantia nigra after ipsilateral infarct: quantification with MRI R2* mapping and relationship to clinical outcome
Tourdias Thomas1,2, Pierre Antoine Linck1, Gregory Kuchcinski3, Fanny Munsch4, Romain Griffier5, Renaud Lopes3, Gosuke Okubo1, Sharmila Sagnier6, Pauline Renou6, Julien Asselineau5, Paul Perez5, Vincent Dousset1, and Igor Sibon6

1Neuroimaging Dept., Bordeaux University hospital, Bordeaux, France, 2INSERM U1215, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 3Neuroimaging Dept., Lille University hospital, Lille, France, 4Division of MRI research, Radiology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 5USMR Dept., Bordeaux University hospital, Bordeaux, France, 6Neurology Dept., Bordeaux University hospital, Bordeaux, France

We tested whether long-term neurodegeneration of substantia nigra (SN) secondary to disconnection by supra-tentorial infarcts can be quantified with iron-sensitive imaging and contributes to clinical outcome. 181 stroke patients (75 striatum infarcts, 106 other locations) were prospectively evaluated at 24-to-72h and at one-year clinically and with MRI to quantify iron through R2*. We showed a delayed increase of R2* within SN that was strongly and independently associated with infarct location along known anatomic projections from SN. Such increase of R2* was an independent contributor of poor motor outcome. Iron-sensitive imaging can monitor neurodegeneration non-invasively within SN and potentially other areas.

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Remote Effect of Ischemic Stroke: Anatomical Specification of Oxygenation Alteration Investigated by Voxel Based R2' Quantification
Chunxiang Jiang1,2, Xiaojing Long1, Siqi Cai1, Li Yi3, and Lijuan Zhang1

1Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, China, 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 3Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China

Ischemic stroke (IS) may induce oxygenation alterations in brain regions remote to the lesion. Remote effect of IS in terms of oxygen metabolism was evaluated based on the voxel wise R2' quantification for subjects with first ever single lesioned IS in corona radiata (CR) (n=10) and brainstem (n=6) using R2' of the superior sagittal sinus as the reference. Both CR and brainstem IS groups showed significant changes of R2' in distributed brain regions with anatomical specifications, suggesting that IS rather represents a spectrum of pathophysiological events of hemodynamic and metabolic impairments at the global level than a focal vascular failure.

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Age Specific Differences in Association Between White Matter Cerebral Blood Flow and Ischemic Lesion Severity
Hualu Han1, Dongye Li1, Huiyu Qiao1, Dandan Yang1, Zhensen Chen2, Runhua Zhang3,4, Gaifen Liu3,4, and Xihai Zhao1

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University School of Medicine, Beijing, China, 2Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China, 4China National Clinical Research Center for Neurological Diseases, Beijing, China

White matter lesion (WML), one of the sequelae of cerebral hypoperfusion, accumulates with age. This study sought to investigate the relationship between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and WML severity with age in asymptomatic adults. We found that WML scores were strongly associated with WM CBF, suggesting that WM CBF might be an effective indicator for severity of WMLs. We also found that the WM CBF increased with age, consistent with the greater WM cerebrovascular reactivity response in elderly individuals. In addition, our findings of ascending WM CBF cut-off values revealed that the risk of developing WML increases with age.

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The value of different plaque indicators in predicting stroke
Yan Wang1,2, Xiaoyue Ma1,2, Yan Bai1,2, Qiang Li1, Xianchang Zhang3, Yusong Lin4, and Meiyun Wang1,2

1Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital, Zhengzhou, China, 2Henan Key Laboratory for Medical Imaging of Neurological Diseases, Zhengzhou, China, 3MR Collaboration, Siemens Healthcare Ltd., Beijing, China, 4Cooperative Innovation Center of Internet Healthcare & School of Software and Applied Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

Emerging evidence suggests that the characteristics of intracranial plaques detected by high-resolution vessel wall imaging may serve as an important in-vivo biomarker for predicting ischemic stroke. Different indicators have been introduced to depict plaque features, such as remodeling index, contrast enhancement, and stenosis rate. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess the diagnostic performance of these indicators by a quantitative comparison between ischemic stroke patients and transient-ischemic-attack patients. Our results indicated that the remodeling index may have a predictive power similar to contrast enhancement while stenosis rate was a poor predictor.

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The optimization of single-shot FLAIR for motion artifact reduction and scan time reduction in stroke imaging: A Comparative Analysis with Conventional FLAIR
Yoshihiro Kubota1, Hajime Yokota1, Takayuki Sakai2,3, Masami Yoneyama4, Hiroki Mukai1, Takuro Horikoshi1, and Takashi Uno5

1Radiology, Chiba university hospital, Chiba city, Japan, 2Radiology, Eastern Chiba Medical Center, Togane city, Japan, 3Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kanazawa university, Kanazawa, Japan, 4Philips Japan, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Oncology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba city, Japan

For stroke imaging, motion correction and scan time reduction are essential. We optimized the single-shot FLAIR sequence and implemented it into our stroke MR protocol. 48 patients suspected of stroke were retrospectively involved, and board-certified radiologists evaluated the images of our modified-single-shot FLAIR and conventional FLAIR at the terms of degree of motion artifact, image quality, delineation of hyperintense vessel and contribution for diagnosis. Motion artifact was significantly reduced (P < 0.001) and scan time was decreased by 40% in single-shot FLAIR. Hyperintense vessels were equally detected in both the sequences. Radiologists considered modified-single-shot FLAIR more useful for diagnosis.

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Quantitative assessment of cerebrovascular structure after carotid revascularization using intraCranial Artery Feature Extraction (iCafe) Technique
Manabu Shirakawa1, Li Chen2, Niranjan Balu1, Wenjin Liu1, Dakota Ortega1, Jinmei Chen1, Theodore Trouard3, Diane Bock4, Wei Zhou4, Chun Yuan1, and Thomas S Hatsukami5

1Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, United States, 4Surgery, University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ, United States, 5Surgery, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

The aim is to evaluate the change in intracranial arterial vasculature after carotid revascularization using an intracranial feature extraction (iCafe) technique for quantitative analysis of intracranial arteries from 3D time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA). Twenty subjects who received carotid revascularization were enrolled and all patients underwent MRA scans three times: before, within 3 days after, and six months after revascularization. The dataset was processed blindly by 4 reviewers using iCafe. Length and volume of intracranial artery and number of intracranial artery branches increased after surgery. This result suggested increased cerebral blood flow after carotid revascularization.

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Crossed cerebellar diaschisis characterization with BOLD-fMRI cerebrovascular reactivity and T2*-perfusion MRI
Marco Piccirelli1, Martina Sebök1, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik1, Giovanni Muscas1, Athina Pangalu1, Susanne Wegener1, Luca Regli1, Christoph Stippich1, and Jorn Fierstra1

1University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD) in stroke patients has been associated with worse neurological performance and outcome, but clinical routine CCD imaging is limited. We therefore tested the diagnostic value of blood oxygenation-level dependent cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR) and T2* perfusion weighted-MRI in patients with unilateral symptomatic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease exhibiting crossed cerebellar diaschisis. Secondly, we assessed the clinical significance of a CCD diagnosis based on BOLD-CVR imaging. BOLD-CVR is a valid clinical diagnostic tool for CCD, whereas perfusion MRI derived parameters were shown to be unsuitable. Furthermore, stroke patients exhibiting CCD showed a worse neurological performance and outcome, unrelated to stroke volume.

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Negative BOLD cerebrovascular reactivity in stroke patients: a sign of misery perfusion of the affected hemisphere
Marco Piccirelli1, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik1, Giovanni Muscas1, Martina Sebök1, Lita von Bieberstein1, Susanne Wegener1, Oliver Bozinov1, Giuseppe Esposito1, Andreas Luft1, Luca Regli1, Christoph Stippich1, and Jorn Fierstra1

1University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Subjects with hemodynamic failure stage 2 (i.e. misery-perfusion) have heightened risk of acute and chronic brain tissue damage. One of the most important signs of misery-perfusion is a negative cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). CVR is defined as a blood flow response to a vasoactive stimulus. Recently blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) CVR was proposed to detect misery-perfusion. However, BOLD-CVR MRI signal does not reflect CBF changes directly and discrepancies between negative BOLD-CVR and negative CBF changes have been reported. To better assess these discrepancies, we performed a multimodal clinical misery-perfusion assessment with perfusion-weighted-MRI and transcranial-Doppler complimentary to BOLD-CVR in patients with symptomatic steno-occlusive disease.

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Ipsilateral Thalamic Diaschisis in Stroke Patients
Marco Piccirelli1, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik1, Martina Sebök1, Giovanni Muscas1, Carlo Serra1, Athina Pangalu1, Oliver Bozinov1, Andreas Luft1, Luca Regli1, Christoph Stippich1, and Jorn Fierstra1

1University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Presence of ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis in stroke patients, detected using BOLD-CVR, is characterized by thalamic volume reduction, reduced thalamic blood flow, and worse stroke severity scores at admission as well as 3 months follow-up. This finding suggests that ipsilateral thalamic diaschisis may be an important clinical imaging marker in stroke patients.

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Absolute quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast cerebral perfusion imaging using the Self-Calibrated EPI sequence in patients with ischemic stroke
Xiaoyue Ma1,2, Yan Wang1,2, Qiang Li1, Menghuan Zhang1,2, Xianchang Zhang3, Yusong Lin4, and Meiyun Wang1,2

1Department of Radiology, Zhengzhou University People’s Hospital & Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China, 2Henan Key Laboratory for Medical Imaging of Neurological Diseases, Zhengzhou, China, 3MR Collaboration, Siemens Healthcare Ltd., Beijing, China, 4Cooperative Innovation Center of Internet Healthcare & School of Software and Applied Technology, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China

This study aims to explore the clinical value of the absolute quantitative dynamic susceptibility contrast cerebral perfusion-weighted imaging using Self-Calibrated EPI sequence (SCALE-PWI) in patients with ischemic stroke. SCALE-PWI could provide reliable quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume and mean transit time in a quite short scan time of 2:14 mins. Results suggest the CBF values in infarct core are significantly lower than the values in ischemic penumbra. In conclusion, the SCALE-PWI could provide quantitative hemodynamic information in a quite short scan time, thus may serve as a guide for tissue-based decision making and personalized treatment planning in acute stroke.

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Disrupted structural brain network configuration in patients with post-stroke depression
Xiaopei Xu1, Rui Tang1, Siyu Zhu2, and Zhijian Cao3

1Department of Radiology, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, China, 2Department of Medical Imaging, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China, 3Department of Radiology, Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine, Hangzhou, China

To better understand the underlying mechanisms for a wide range of emotional disturbances in post-stroke depression (PSD) patients, we used structural brain connectivity analysis to investigate the differences in global and local network organization of stroke patients with PSD and no PSD. Our results demonstrated that the efficiency of both local and regional network of patients with PSD were higher compared to those without, and that higher depression severity was significantly associated with increased network efficiency. These results indicated that the disrupted network architecture might be the cause of depressive symptoms in PSD patients, and brain network analysis is a useful tool to link psychological disorders with their underlying anatomical substrate.

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Evaluation of physiotherapy induced changes in post-stroke recovery using MRI
Rajesh Mishra1, Dushyant Kumar1, Surbhi Kaura2, Senthil Kumaran1, Priyanka Bhagat2, Padma Srivastava2, and Rama Jayasundar1

1Department of NMR, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

This study has evaluated the role of MRI in determining physiotherapy-induced changes in post-stroke recovery in 21 first-ever ischemic patients. Physiotherapy was given as intervention for 45 minutes every day for consecutive 6 months. Pre- and post- (3, 6 months) intervention assessment involved NIHSS, mRS and MRI studies (3T MR scanner). MRI studies included 3D-T1, 3D-FLAIR, DWI, and fMRI (motor task). Preliminary findings showed individual patients’ positive response to physiotherapy reflected in the NIHSS and mRS scores, and in the recovery of fMRI activation in the affected motor cortex post-intervention and other MR markers.

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Use of NODDI for Microstructural Characterization of Posterior Limb of the Internal Capsule in Subacute and Chronic Stroke Patients
Alfonso Mastropietro1, Maria Luisa Malosio2,3, Lucia Fontana4, Laura Straffi5, Simona Marcheselli5, Bruno Bernardini6, Sara Ghirmai6, Nunzio Paolo Nuzzi4, Giovanna Rizzo1, and Marco Grimaldi4

1Istituto di Bioimmagini e Fisiologia Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Segrate, Italy, 2Istituto di Neuroscienze, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milano, Italy, 3Laboratory of Brain Pathology and Pharmacology and Neuro Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy, 4Neuroradiology Unit and Neuro Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy, 5Stroke Unit and Neuro Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy, 6Neurorehabilitation Unit and Neuro Center, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy

This preliminary work shows that NODDI, supplementing the classical DTI approach, could provide a new insight into the subtle micro-architectural modifications occurring in the posterior limb of the internal capsule of 10 stroke patients in subacute and chronic phase.

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Ischemic Stroke Imaging and Outcomes: Differences between Sexes
Adrienne N Dula1 and Steven J Warach1

1Department of Neurology, Dell Medical School at University of Texas, Austin, Austin, TX, United States

Stroke is a treatable disease and neuroimaging can identify salvageable tissue, directly impacting treatment decisions. Women experience stroke differently than men with higher severity, worse outcomes, and varying therapeutic response. We examined the contribution of sex and age to stroke outcome with emphasis on therapeutic targets on MRI. MR images were evaluated for predictive imaging factors. A 90-day mRS was obtained to assess functional independence. Women present more often with treatable ischemic stroke than men as defined by MR imaging factors. Sex modulates the age-dependent stroke outcome but upon stratification for treatment, difference in outcome favoring men was not observed.

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A study of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in ischemic stroke
Zhenxiong Wang1, Shun Zhang1, Yang Fan2, and Wenzhen Zhu1

1Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China, 2GE Healthcare China, Beijing, China

Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can quantitatively evaluate specific microstructural changes in terms of neurite density and orientation distribution of axons and dendrites. In the study, we attempt to demonstrate the feasibility of NODDI in characterizing the microstructural alterations in brain tissues during ischemic stroke and to compare its sensitivity with diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion kurtosis imaging. Results demonstrated that NODDI is a potential technique for quantitatively evaluating ischemic stroke and showed higher sensitivity compared with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI).

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Stroke atlas of the brain: A voxel-wise density-based clustering of infarct lesion topographic distribution
Yanlu Wang1,2, Hadrien Van Loo3, Julia Juliano4, Sook-Lei Liew5,6, Alexander McKinney IV7, and Sam Payabvash8

1Clinical Sciences, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Sollentuna, Sweden, 2Medical Radiation Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, 3Medical Radiation Physics and Nuclear Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden, 4University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Viterbi School, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Chan Division of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Southern California, Kek School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Department of Neurology USC Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, Division of Biokinesiology and Physical Therapy, University of Southern California, Keck School of Medicin, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 8Yale Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

In stroke patients, both infarct volume and location affect functional outcome; however, infarct topography is far less commonly incorporated in prognostic models, given the complexity of assessing infarct topographic distribution. In this study, we applied data-driven density clustering analysis, using the OPTICS algorithm, on 793 infarct lesions from 438 stroke patients to devise a “stroke-atlas of the brain” stratifying brain voxels likely to infarct together. This atlas can help with differentiation of infarct lesions in clinical practice, assess topographic distribution of infarct in prognostic models for stroke patients, or be applied for defining regional infarct thresholds in CT/MR perfusion maps.


Psychoradiology: Schizophrenia, Psychosis, OCD & More

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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Myelin-associated clinical and physical correlates in a cohort of chronic schizophrenia patients.
Senften Peter1, Melissa L Woodward2, Randall F White3, Allen E Thornton4, Kristina Gicas3, Cornelia Laule1,5,6,7, Darren E Warburton8, A. Talia Vertinsky1, William G Honer3, Wayne Su3, and Donna J Lang1

1Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada, 5Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 6Physics & Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 7International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), University Of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 8Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Aberrant myelination and tandem cardiovascular deficits may contribute to emergence of the schizophrenias. To explore this hypothesis, a pilot study of Myelin Water Fraction (MWF), V02max capacity, and symptom severity was done in 15 chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients. MWF was positively correlated with age in some, but not all, fronto-medial and fronto-temporal regions, 2. V02max was positively correlated with MWF the superior longitudinal fasciculus, the genu, and the forceps minor, and 3. Social functioning was positively correlated to MWF in the forceps major. These data indicate the presence of relationships between MWF measures, social functioning and cardiovascular capacity in schizophrenia.

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Contribution and Interaction of Brain Structure and Function in Treatment Response Prediction of First-episode Drug-naïve Schizophrenia
GUI FU1, Ningxuan Chen2, Chaogan Yan2, Wenjing Zhang1, Jiaxin Zeng1, Yuan Xiao1, and Su Lui1

1Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Institution of Psychology, CAS, Beijing, China

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) including structural and functional neuroimaging has been applied extensively to examine response to antipsychotic treatment, however, questions remain regarding the interaction between these measurements and their unique role. Our study provided a comprehensive examination of interaction and contribution for voxel-wise measurements related with treatment response. We found that brain functional measurements in certain brain regions have advantages in predicting treatment response. Furthermore, the functional activities were different between short- and long-term treatment of antipsychotic drugs. These findings revealed that functional changes were more sensitive to the antipsychotic treatment and could be promising biomarkers in treatment prediction.

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Heterogeneity of brain structure alterations in patients with never-treated first episode schizophrenia
Yuan Xiao1, Bo Tao1, Jiaxin Zeng1, Gui Fu1, Biqu Tang1, Wenjing Zhang1, Siyi Li1, Su Lui1, and Qiyong Gong1

1West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

Although schizophrenia is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome, one important question that remains largely unanswered is whether the complex and subtle deficits revealed by MRI could be used as objective biomarkers to resolve neurobiological heterogeneity within this disorder. Using clustering analysis and structural MRI, first-episode schizophrenia patients were classified into three subtypes. The three subtypes of patients showed different morphological alterations.

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Source-based Laterality of Grey Matter in Schizophrenia
Thomas Patrick DeRamus1, Jiayu Chen1, Armin Iraji1, Eswar Damaraju1, Rogers Silva1, and Vince Calhoun1,2

1Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, United States, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, Neurosciences, Psychiatry, Biology, and Computer Science, Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, United States

Altered brain laterality is frequently reported in morphological brain studies of individuals with schizophrenia. However, these studies utilize voxel/vertex-wise univariate methods which may not be optimal for examining brain laterality. We introduce a novel multivariate approach to estimate covarying lateralized networks. In our approach, lateralized grey matter maps were computed by subtracting volumetric data one hemisphere from the other, and analyzed via independent component analysis (ICA), followed by testing loading parameters from components identifying covariation within laterality networks. Results display significant relationships with temporal lobe and cerebellar laterality and negative symptoms of schizophrenia that warrant further exploration with multimodal analyses.

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White matter microstructural changes in schizophrenia: A study using normative-model-based statistical analysis
Li-Ying Yang1,2, Chih-Min Liu3, Tzung-Jeng Hwang3, Chang-Le Chen2, Yung-Chin Hsu4, and Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng2,5

1Institute of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2Institute of Medical Device and Image, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 4AcroViz Technology Inc., Taipei, Taiwan, 5Molecular Imaging Center, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan

White matter microstructural changes have been found in schizophrenia but the effects of gender and age on these changes remains entangled. This study aimed to quantify the white matter changes in 158 schizophrenia patients using a novel approach which calculated the z scores based on the normative models built from 524 healthy subjects across lifespan. Our results showed that twelve tracts had significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls.

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Gray matter network changes with aging and duration in a large group of never-treated patients with schizophrenia.
Beisheng Yang1, Wenjing Zhang2, Bo Tao2, Wenbing Li2, and Su Lui2

1Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University., Chengdu, China, 2West China Hospital, Sichuan University., Chengdu, China

A large group of never-treated schizophrenia patient was enrolled to investigate the pattern of network changes with aging and illness duration. Cortical thickness preprocessed by FreeSurfer, and correlation matrix was constructed by correlating the cortical thickness of every pair of regions. Compared to healthy controls, all patient subgroups stratified along age and illness duration showed common changes while distinct changes, mainly involved DMN and CN. The alternations within DMN and CN may represent trait-related structural network changes in schizophrenia, while distinct changes may represent illness progression with more-wide spread brain abnormalities.

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Evaluation of structural brain modifications related to First Episode Psychosis
Francesca Saviola1, Marcella Bellani2, Letizia Squarcina3, Eleonora Maggioni4, Domenico Zacà1, Cinzia Perlini5, Mirella Ruggeri2,6, Paolo Brambilla3,7, and Jorge Jovicich1

1CIMeC, Center for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento, Rovereto (TN), Italy, 2UOC of Psychiatry, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata (AOUI) of Verona, Verona, Italy, 3IRCCS “E. Medea” Scientific Institute, Bosisio Parini, Lecco, Italy, 4Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Fondazione IRCCS Ca’ Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, University of Milan, Milano, Italy, 5Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Section of Clinical Psychology, University of Verona, Verona, Italy, 6Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Section of Psychiatry, University of Verona, Italy, Verona, Italy, 7Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milano, Italy

Psychiatric disorders are characterized by a complex range of symptoms. Psychosis, known as one of the most severe mental illness, is still lacking specific neuroimaging markers complementing clinical information for early differential diagnostics, disease progression monitoring and treatment response evaluations. Most previous studies in the field considered psychotic patients undergoing chronic pharmacologic treatment or long duration of illness, which may confound morphometric or functional findings. Here we study a cohort of First Episode Psychosis (FEP) patients to investigated grey matter changes using structural MRI, in FEP relative to healthy controls, with univariate and multivariate analysis.

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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping MRI shows changes in dorsal striatum in patients with a first Episode of Psychosis compared to controls.
Marisleydis García1,2,3, Néstor Muñoz1,2,3, Manuel Chappa1,2,3, Carlos Milovic1,2,3, Cristian Montalba2,3,4, Julio Acosta-Carbonero5, Luz María Alliende6, Bárbara Iruretagoyena6, Juan Undurraga7, Alfonzo González7, Carmen Paz Castañeda7, Marcelo Andia2,3,4, Sergio Uribe2,3,4, Nicolas Crossley2,6, and Cristián Tejos1,2,3

1Departament Electrical Engineer, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 2Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 3Millennium Nucleus for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 4Radiology Department, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 5Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 6Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago de Chile, Chile, 7Instituto Psiquiátrico Horwitz, Santiago de Chile, Chile

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in psychosis. Neuromelanin is a by-product of the synthesis of dopamine. In First Episode of Psychosis (FEP) is reported the effect that causes dopamine and its relationship with neuromelanin. However, it has not been reported signal change due to accumulation of heavy metal using magnetic resonance imaging techniques. We found susceptibility changes in two areas of brain using QSM, the left subthalamic nucleus and right caudate. This finding might help to discriminate between FEP patients and healthy subjects.  

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Brain morphometric and cellular metabolic alterations in patients with obsessive–compulsive disorder
Chung Man Moon1,2 and Gwang Woo Jeong2

1National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Radiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea, Republic of

Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) causes neural dysfunction associated with cognitive deficit and emotional dysregulation. To our knowledge, however, no one has applied the combined neuroimaging study of morphometric and metabolic brain abnormalities in patients with OCD. Therefore, this study assessed the associations of the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations in conjunction with in vivo cellular metabolic changes in patients with OCD. Our findings will be helpful to aid us in the understanding of neurocognitive impairment in OCD, and thus, enhancing the diagnostic accuracy for OCD by additional information on the associated cerebral volume change and metabolic abnormality.

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Amygdala dysfunction during negative emotional control in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: an fMRI study
Hyunsil Cha1, Sang Won Lee2, Kyungeun Jang1, Eunji Kim1, Heajeong Choi1, Jiung Yang1, Seungho Kim1, Jinsu Park1, Moon Jung Hwang3, Huijin Song4, Hui joong Lee5, Seung Jae Lee2, and Yongmin Chang6

1Department of Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 3Ge Healthcare, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 4Biomedical Engineering Research, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 5Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 6Department of Radiology and Molecular Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of

We investigated brain activation in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patient using thought-action fusion (TAF) task to assess the influence of OCD symptom on amygdala response to the task. Context-dependent psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis of close condition showed decreased amygdala PPI with putamen in patients with OCD compared to healthy controls.

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Alterations of structural anatomy and functional connectivity regarding hippocampus in obsessive–compulsive disorder
Xinyu Hu1, Lianqing Zhang1, Xuan Bu1, Hailong Li1, Bin Li2, Wanjie Tang2, Lu Lu1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Shi Tang1, Yingxue Gao1, Yanlin Wang1, Yanchun Yang2, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi MR Research Centre(HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Mental Health Center, Department of Psychiatry, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

Besides the classical cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits, the hippocampus has received increasing attention in the psychopathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We aimed to investigate the abnormalities of structural anatomy and functional connectivity (FC) regarding hippocampus in a relatively large sample of unmedicated OCD patients and explore the effects of onset age on these neural correlates. Our findings (i) identified significant volumetric reductions of right hippocampus in OCD; (ii) revealed abnormal cortico-hippocampal connectivity in the prefrontal-limbic networks of OCD and (iii) indicated distinct patterns of cerebral-hippocampal connectivity alterations in early-onset and late-onset OCD, which highlighted the potential importance of neurodevelopmental changes in OCD.

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Abnormal Static and Dynamic Functional Network Connectivity Patterns in Patients with Obsessive-compulsive Disorder
Hailong Li1, Yingxue Gao1, Xuan Bu1, Xinyu Hu1, Lianqing Zhang1, Lu Lu1, Shi Tang1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, Kaili Liang1, Yanlin Wang1, Qiyong Gong1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Huaxi Magnetic Resonance Research Centre (HMRRC), West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

Static and dynamic functional network connectivity (FNC) analyses were applied to determine the abnormal connectivity patterns among the large-scale brain networks in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. We found that static FNC analysis showed more obvious group differences than dynamic FNC. Decreased functional connectivity between visual network and DMN has been shown in both static and dynamic FNC analysis, it could be considered as the most stable connectivity change of functional brain networks in OCD patients. These findings advocate the using of both static and dynamic FNC to help truly understanding the alterations of brain networks.

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Medial temporal cortical changes in response to yoga and aerobic exercise interventions in early psychosis patients
Melissa L Woodward1, Jingxia Lin2, Wayne Weizhong Song3, William G Honer3, Eric YH Chen2, and Donna J Lang1

1Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Psychiatry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 3Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

Early psychosis patients exhibit cortical reductions and poor cardiovascular health, which may be worsened by antipsychotic medication. Aerobic exercise and yoga may be able to remediate cortical loss and improve symptom severity. First-episode psychosis patients who completed a twelve-week exercise program showed increased cortical volume and thickness compared to waitlist controls with differential effects of aerobic exercise and yoga. Exercise-mediated changes in brain measures were associated with greater improvement in symptom severity scores. Both aerobic exercise and yoga may have neuroanatomical and clinical benefits for early psychosis patients and may be a safe, cost-effective adjunct treatment.

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Acute and Chronic intranasal oxytocin differentially affect brain functional connectivity
Alessia De Felice1, Marco Pagani1, Ludovico Coletta1,2, Alberto Galbusera1, and Alessandro Gozzi1

1Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive System, Istituto Italiano di tecnologia, Rovereto, Italy, 2Centro Interdipartimentale Mente/Cervello (CIMeC), University of Trento, Rovereto, Italy

Intranasal oxytocin (OXT) administration has shown promise as a putative treatment for disorders characterized by social impairments. However, the brain-wide substrates engaged by this neuropeptide remain elusive. By using mouse fMRI, we show that the circuits engaged by intranasal OXT are differentially affected by the duration of OXT dosing. Specifically, acute OXT administration increases brain connectivity in key nodes of the social brain. By contrast, repeated dosing exacerbates inter-regional coupling and results in paradoxical social impairments in control “wild type” mice. These result have implications for clinical testing of OXT in control and pathological conditions.

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Brain gray matter correlates of extraversion: A systematic review and meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies
Han Lai1, Song Wang1, and Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Chengdu, China

Extraversion is a fundamental personality dimension closely related to individuals’ physical and mental health. Although increasing studies have attempted to identify the neurostructural markers of extraversion but have yielded inconsistent and heterogeneous results. The current study aims to reach a comprehensive understanding of brain gray matter (GM) correlates of extraversion by using a systematic review and meta-analysis approach. Our review revealed a preliminary outline of the brain GM differences related to extraversion in distributed brain regions. Our meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies identified six core brain regions correlated with extraversion and revealed the potential effect of gender and age.

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Alteration in negative emotional regulation associated with childhood abuse: fMRI study
Seungho Kim1, Sang Won Lee2, Kyungeun Jang1, Hyunsil Cha1, Heajung Choi1, Eunji Kim1, Jiung Yang1, Jinsu Park1, Huijin Song3, Hui Joong Lee4, Moon Jung Hwang5, Seung Jae Lee2, and Yongmin Chang1,6

1Department of Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering Research, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Radiology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 5GE Healthcare, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 6Department of Radiology and Molecular Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of

We assessed negative emotional regulation in young adults who experienced childhood abuse. We investigated a relationship between psychological data and brain activation during emotion regulation task. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) showed significant correlation with the degree of childhood abuse in negative emotion task.

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Inferior parietal lobule controls moral thought-action fusion: an fMRI study
Eunji Kim1, Sang Won Lee2, Hyunsil Cha1, Kyungeun Jang1, Heajung Choi1, Seungho Kim1, Jinsu Park1, Jiung Yang1,3, Huijin Song4, Moon Jung Hwang5, Hui Joong Lee6, Seung Jae Lee2, and Yongmin Chang1,6

1Department of Medical & Biological Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Psychiatry, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 3Daegu Gyungpook Medical Innovation Foundation, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 4Institue of Biomedical Engjneering Research, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of, 5GE Health Korea, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 6Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea, Republic of

Thought-action fusion (TAF) could make people feel that action to happen1. We investigated the difference from control thinking and administration of electrical shocks to another person in healthy control with moral related TAF task by using fMRI. The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) activation showed a negative correlation with moral score in TAF among the activated regions from a shock factor. Therefore, when considering the functional role of IPL in making another have some irritation and the appropriate empathic response, such as mentalization, might have an important role in TAF related situation.

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Sexual dimorphism in the young adult brain using magnetic resonance imaging: The effect of the field strengths
Jyun-Ru Chen1, Hui-Chieh Yang1, Yen-Chih Huang2, Chun-Ming Chen2, Chih-Feng Chen3, and Shin-Lei Peng1

1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan, 2Department of Radiology, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan, 3Department of Radiology, Taichung Tzu Chi Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

The existing reports regarding sexual dimorphism in brain structures are not confluent and generally heterogeneous. MRI instrument-related factor such as field strength is one of the greatest contributors to the brain quantification variability, but its effect on sexual dimorphism in brain structures remains unclear. In this study, we found that due to the image contrast differences arising from differences in field strengths, the sex dimorphism in brain morphology appears to exist dependent of field strengths. It suggests field strength should be considered as one important factor that contributes to the inconsistency in the sex dimorphism in brain across literatures.

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Altered gray matter volume and the relationship with the psychiatric symptoms in methamphetamine use disorder individuals
Shan Dang1, Wei Li1, Jia Zhu1, Qiang Li1, Wei Wang1, and Jing Chen1

1Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, the Air Force Medical University, Xian, China

The study used voxel-based morphological to explore the differences in gray matter volume and psychiatric symptoms of Self-reporting Inventory-90 between methamphetamine use disorders and healthy controls. It was found that many of the SCL-90 symptoms and the grey matter volume have changed in methamphetamine use disorder individuals. Meanwhile, the abnormal grey matter volume is associated with psychiatric symptoms.

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Common gray matter atrophy in individuals with different behavioral addictions: a voxel-wise meta-analysis
Kun Qin1, Feifei Zhang1, and Qiyong Gong1,2

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Psychology, School of Public Administration, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

In order to figure out the common structural alterations in behavioral addicts among various publications and to find a biomarker for future improvement of diagnostic category, we searched for voxel based morphometry studies compared between patients and healthy controls and pooled them together in a meta-analytic way by using AES-SDM. 22 studies comprising 5 different addictive behaviors were included. 576 patients showed GM reduction in the left ACC, right striatum and right SMA compared with 635 HCs. In summary, our findings revealed common GM decreases in frontostriatal circuitry, consistent with previous multimodal neuroimaging findings in addiction.

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The diagnosis of Internet gaming disorder by MR imaging: A MRI based analysis
Lei Wei1, Zhe Wang 2, Qianfeng Wang2, Xu Han3, Yawen Sun3, Weina Ding3, Yan Zhou3, and He Wang2

1Institute of Science and Technology for Brain, Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, shanghai, China, 2Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, shanghai, China, 3Department of Radiology, Ren ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, shanghai, China

The internet gaming disorder has become one of the most serious healthy problem among teenagers, the questionnaire and scale are widely used to IGD diagnostic. However, the underlying neural mechanism of IGD was still unclear. Current study present an evidence that cerebral morphometric alteration could be used to identified IGD from normal, and may also help for further study about  IGD. 

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Regional Cortical Thickness Changes and Neurocognitive Performance in Perinatally HIV-infected Youth
Manoj Kumar Sarma1, Margaret A. Keller2, Paul M. Macey3, Tamara Welikson4, David E. Michalik5, Karin Nielsen-Saines 6, Jaime Deville 6, Joseph A. Church7, Eva Operskalski 8, Andrea Kovacs 8, Irwin Walot9, Joseph Ventura10, and M. Albert Thomas1

1Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Pediatrics, Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA, United States, 3School of Nursing, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Infectious Disease-Pediatrics, Miller Children’s Hospital of Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, United States, 6Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 8Pediatrics, Keck School of Medicine at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 9Radiology, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 10Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Despite effective viral suppression, youth with perinatal HIV (PHIVY) often demonstrate long-term cognitive deficits. We measured grey matter cortical thickness as a measure of brain structural integrity in 11 PHIVY receiving long term cART compared to 16 age-matched controls and assessed neurocognitive performance. The PHIVY group performed significantly worse than controls. Regions of significantly thinner and thicker cortex in PHIVY were observed which may contribute to these deficits in neurocognitive function. Cortical thickness in PHIVY was correlated with current CD4 count and neurocognitive performance. Our findings suggest the potential importance of continued monitoring of PHIVY.

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Brain Microstructural Abnormalities in Patients with Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: A Voxel Based Morphometry and Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study
Wanqun Yang1, Caihong Zhou1, Yingjie Mei2, and Biao Huang1

1Department of Radiology, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China, 2Philips Healthcare, Guangzhou, China

Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) has close relationship with neurodegenerative disorder. Many researches has validated that almost all of iRBD patients evolved into Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, or multiple system atrophy over time. However the pathogenesis of iRBD still remains unclear. In this research, VBM and voxel-based DTI analysis were combined to detect the microstructural abnormalities in the iRBD patients. A wide range of changes in brain structure in iRBD group was observed, which may reveal pathophysiologic mechanism on cognitive function disorder,which can be valuable for the early diagnosis and treatment of iRBD.

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Altered white matter microstructure in anorexia nervosa: A voxel-based meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging
Simin Zhang1, Weina Wang1, Xiaorui Su1, Huaiqiang Sun1, Qiang Yue2, and Qiyong Gong1

1Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC), Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China, 2Department of Radiology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, China

The neurobiological underpinnings of anorexia nervosa (AN) remain unclear. Altered white matter microarchitecture has been described, but findings are inconclusive. To investigate a statistical consensus among published DTI studies of altered white matter microarchitecture in AN, we conducted a quantitative voxel-based meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy using Seed-based d Mapping. The pooled results in AN showed robust reduction fractional anisotropy in the interhemispheric connections, frontal-subcortical circuitry and limbic association fibers. This study provides a thorough profile of WM microarchitecture alterations in patients with AN and these intrinsic alterations may aid in developing effective treatments in AN.


Aging & Neurodegeneration (Other than AD)

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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T1-rho in the aging brain: results from large-scale population imaging
Johanna Kramme1, Eberhard D. Pracht1, Gerard Sanroma1, Tony Stöcker1, and Monique M.B. Breteler1,2

1German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Bonn, Germany, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Bonn, Institute for Medical Biometry, Informatics and Epidemiology (IMBIE), Bonn, Germany

Within the Rhineland Study we investigated and report normative brain T1-rho values and their change over age, for a large cohort of 547 participants. Investigated regions were GM, WM, deep gray matter and selected white matter tracts. All investigated regions, except amygdala and accumbens, show a positive trend with age. Total scan time was under six minutes (whole brain), showing the feasibility to provide normative values for a wide range of brain regions in a reasonable amount of time.

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Gender difference on cerebral blood flow in people aged over 80 years: A pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling study
Heng Zhang1, Xian Xu1, Ningyu An1, and Zhentao Zuo2

1Radiology, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China, 2State Key laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science,Institute of Biophysics,Chinese Academy of SciencesNeuroInformation of Ministry of Education, Beijing, China

This study focuses on cerebral blood flow(CBF) of the elderly over 80years old, with a large sample size. Different from the conclusions ofprevious studies, females brain perfusion CBF values are higher than males,in the whole brain and various brain lobes.

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Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging in the human hippocampal subfields using super-resolution HYDI
Nahla M H Elsaid1,2, Pierrick Coupé3,4, and Yu-Chien Wu1,2

1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Indiana Alzheimer Disease Center, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 3University of Bordeaux, LaBRI, UMR 5800, PICTURA, F-33400 Talence, France, 4CNRS, LaBRI, UMR 5800, PICTURA, F-33400 Talence, France

The hippocampal atrophy is known to be the most validated biomarker of Alzheimer’s disease. Accordingly, in this study, we develop a method to enable the structural connectivity mapping through tractography of the hippocampal subfields using super-resolution diffusion data.

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Differential Relationship of GABA and GLX in Dorsal vs. Ventral Prefrontal Cortex and Their Relationship To Age and Gender
Mark S Brown1, Harry R Smolker2, Rebecca J Helmuth2, and Marie T Banich2

1Radiology, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, United States, 2Institute of Cognitive Science, Dept of Psychology and Neuroscience, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States

MRS was employed in two regionally distinct prefrontal voxels (dorsal and ventral) in 62 adult females and 119 adolescents (60 males, 59 females) to determine the variations of GABA and GLX concentrations with regional specificity, participant gender, and age.  The results indicate that levels of prefrontal neurotransmitter concentrations are influenced by age.  Furthermore, the results suggest that the relationship between neurotransmitter levels can vary for adjacent portions of cortex, being more highly correlated for the dorsal than ventral voxel.   

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T2*-weighted imaging and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and bulbar impairment
Graziella Donatelli1, Mauro Costagli2, Elena Caldarazzo-Ienco1, Gianmichele Migaleddu1, Paolo Cecchi3, Michela Tosetti4, Gabriele Siciliano1, and Mirco Cosottini1

1University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2Imago7, Pisa, Italy, 3Azienda Ospadaliero-Universitaria Pisana, Pisa, Italy, 4Imago7 and IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa, Italy

The T2* hypointensity of the primary motor cortex (M1), associated to an increase in iron deposits related to neuroinflammatory reaction and cortical microgliosis, has been suggested as possible MRI marker of upper motor neuron impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study investigates the orofacial subregion of M1 (fM1) in 36 patients with ALS. The evaluation of T2* signal hypointensity and quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) values in fM1 were related to patients’ bulbar functions (such as speech and swallowing) assessed clinically. Results demonstrate that QSM values were significantly higher in patients with bulbar dysfunction than in those without (p≤0.0001).

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Different Cortical Thinning Pattern in Primary Motor Cortex Correspond to Clinical Characteristics of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Subtypes
Haining Li1, Qiuli Zhang1, Qianqian Duan1, Jingmei Xie2, and Ming Zhang1

1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China, 2Department of Medical Imaging of the Second Hospital of Yulin, Yuling, China

Heterogeneity of motor phenotypes is a clinically well-recognized fundamental aspect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).The body region of onset is one of independent primary attributes of ALS motor phenotype heterogeneity. In order to investigate the patterns of brain atrophy between ALS patients with bulbar and limb onset and analyse its correlation with clinical characteristics , cortical thickness analyses were performed. ALS Patients with limb onset revealed the majority of significant cortical thinning in the limb segment of the motor cortex, and patients with bulbar onset, in the bulbar segments. The findings suggest that neuroimaging could be a helpful objective measure to estimate of upper motor neuron loss.

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Comparative Corticospinal Tract Relaxation and Diffusion MRI Measures in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Hagen H Kitzler1, Carolin Schwamborn1, Paul Kuntke1, Hannes Wahl1, Rene Guenther2, Sean C Deoni3, Andreas Hermann2, and Jennifer Linn1

1Neuroradiology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany, 2Neurology, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany, 3Warren Alpert Medical School, Brown University, Providence, RI, United States

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disease that primarily affects the human primary motor system. Selective neurodegeneration leads to systemic functional motor decay. We aimed to understand the relationship between cortical degeneration and the desintegration of the related motor corticospinal tract (CST) by applying both Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and the multi-component driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT). We found early changes in diffusion and relaxation measures indicating WM tract degeneration secondary to cortical neurodegeneration. Besides the loss of structural integrity early alterations of the myelin characteristics indicate toward changes of its compositional condition instead of early myelin loss.

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Fully-automatic quantitative susceptibility mapping of the precentral gyrus in motor neuron disease
Valeria Elisa Contarino1,2, Giorgio Conte1, Claudia Morelli2, Sonia Francesca Calloni1, Luis Carlos Sanmiguel Serpa3, Elisa Scola1, Francesca Trogu2, Vincenzo Silani2,4, and Fabio Triulzi1,4

1Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milano, Italy, 2Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Milano, Italy, 3Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy, 4Università degli Studi di Milano, Milano, Italy

The diagnosis of Motor Neuron Disease (MND) is a long process that involves careful clinical and neurological examination during a long period of time. As iron overload is recognized as one of the main pathogenic mechanisms, previous studies focused on hand-drawn ROI-based measures of susceptibility in the precentral gyrus in MND. In contrast to the manually drawn ROIs approach guided by pathology localization and lateralization, this study suggests that the building of a MND biomarker might rely on susceptibility properties of the precentral gyrus measured on clinical images with a fully-automatic pipeline.

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The Splenial Angle: A Novel Index in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Ling Ling Chan1,2, Robert Chen1, Wei Ying Go1, Huihua Li2,3, Soo Lee Lim1, Sumeet Kumar4, and Nicole Chwee Har Keong5

1Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore, 2Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore, Singapore, 3Health Services Research Unit, Singapore General Hospital, Singapore, Singapore, 4Neuroradiology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore, 5Neurosurgery, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore, Singapore

The callosal angle (CA) is a useful tool in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) for diagnosis and patient selection for shunt surgery. We evaluated for (1) differences in a novel splenial angle (SA) in iNPH compared to healthy controls (HC), and (2) temporal changes in SA, CA and Evan’s index in shunted and non-shunted iNPH patients. Significant differences (p<0.0001) existed in the EI, CA and SA between iNPH and HC. Amongst iNPH patients with or without shunting, significant temporal changes were also found in in all indices on follow-up MRI scans compared to baseline measurements.

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Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Superior Thalamic Radiation and Cerebrospinal Fluid Distribution in Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
Khader M Hasan1, Kyan Younes2, Arash Kamali1, Zafer Keser2, Pejman Rabiei1, Christine E McGough3, Omar Hasan2, Tomas Melicher4, Larry A Kramer1, and Paul E Schulz2

1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, UThealth, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States, 2Neurology, UThealth, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States, 3UThealth, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States, 4Psychiatry, UThealth, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX, United States

Ventricular enlargement in elderly raises a challenging differential diagnosis to physicians. While Alzheimer`s disease is the most common form of dementia, idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (iNPH) constitutes a potentially reversible syndrome.  iNPH has a unique pathophysiology pertaining to cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and periventricular white matter. We aimed to determine the effects of iNPH on periventricular white matter bundles and to further characterize its ventricular and sulcal CSF distribution by using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumetrics on high resolution T1-weighted MRI data.

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Detection of accumulated iron and microglia in the striatum of Huntington’s Disease patients: evidence from post-mortem MRI and histology
Marjolein Bulk1, Ernst Suidgeest1, Ingrid Hegeman-Kleinn2, Sjoerd van Duinen2, Jan Lewerenz3, Bernhard Landwehrmeyer3, Itamar Ronen1, and Louise van der Weerd1,4

1Radiology, LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Pathology, LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands, 3Neurology, Ulm University Hospital, Ulm, Germany, 4Human Genetics, LUMC, Leiden, Netherlands

We detected increased iron deposits in the striatum of post-mortem brain tissue of Huntington’s Disease (HD) patients. High-field T2*-weighted MRI of the striatum showed a different imaging phenotype in HD patients compared to controls, and spatially correlated with the iron distribution obtained from histology. Increased iron was observed in the matrix and in cells morphologically resembling glial cells. These findings bridge the gap between neuropathological and clinical imaging findings and point to iron accumulation as a potential imaging biomarker for disease progression in vivo, possibly reflecting neuroinflammation.

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Investigating Microglial Activation and white matter changes in Huntington Disease Patients
wafaa sweidan1, navid seraji bozorgzad2, edwin george3, fen bao4, and rachel darling5

1wayne state university, detroit, MI, United States, 2university of michigan, ann arbor, MI, United States, 3Neurology, wayne state university, detroit, MI, United States, 4univeristy health center, detroit, MI, United States, 5university health center, detroit, MI, United States

This study will investigate the effects of Huntington disease (HD) progression on white matter microstructure and microglial activation using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography in HD patients over the course of 6 months (baseline and 6 month visit). Age-matched healthy controls will be followed up similarly. Baseline differences between HD and healthy controls will likely reflect effect of HD pathology on white matter tracts and assessing longitudinal changes accompanied by disease progression will reflect the temporal and spatial changes.

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Progressive Supranuclear Palsy versus Parkinson’s disease-related damage using quantitative multimodal MRI
Nadya Pyatigorskaya1,2,3, Lydia Yahia-cherif1,3, Rahul Gaurav1, Claire Ewenczyk4, Cecile Gallea1, Romain Valabregue1, Fatma Gargouri1, Eric Bardinet1, Cyril Poupon5, Marie Vidailhet3,4, and Stephane Lehericy1,2,3

1CENIR, ICM, Paris, France, 2Neuroradiology, APHP, Pitie Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 3Sorbonne Universite, Univ Paris 06, UMR S 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, ICM, Paris, France, 4Clinique des mouvements anormaux, Département des Maladies du Système Nerveux, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, PARIS, France, 5NeuroSpin, CEA, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France

Our primary objective was to generate a precise in vivo model of neurodegeneration of brainstem nuclei, cerebellum, basal ganglia, basal forebrain, and cortex using multimodal MRI in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Secondary objective was to use multimodal imaging biomarkers to efficiently differentiate PSP from Parkinson disease (PD) patients and healthy control subjects (HC). Multiple factorial analyses of the regional damage allowed to efficiently differentiate PSP from HC and PD, in agreement with previous pathological studies. These results suggest the possibility of direct non-invasive assessment of brain damage at multiple level of the central nervous system in PSP and efficient multimodal multiregional based differential diagnosis between PSP and PD patients

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Associations Between Dual Task Cost and Striatal Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Ece Bayram1, Karthik Sreenivasan1, Jason Longhurst1, Sarah Banks2, Zhengshi Yang1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Dietmar Cordes1, Aaron Ritter1, Jessica Caldwell1, Brent Bluett3, and Virendra Mishra1

1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 2University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States, 3Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

This study investigated striatal functional connectivity correlates of dual-tasking in Parkinson’s disease with and without mild cognitive impairment using resting state fMRI. Increased caudate functional connectivity with frontotemporal, insular and subcortical regions were associated with increased dual task cost in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment, whereas correlations were only seen in increased putamen and supplementary motor area functional connectivity and increased dual task cost in PD participants. These results reveal that dual tasking is associated with different striatal functional connectivity patterns in PD participants, with and without, cognitive impairment suggesting compensatory mechanisms in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment.

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Altered topological properties of gray matter structural covariance networks inminimal hepatic encephalopathy
Tian-Xiu Zou1 and Hua-Jun Chen1

1Department of Radiology, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China

Despite the abnormal structural findings in cirrhotic patients with MHE, previous studies have only focused on regional structural changes in cirrhosis and did not consider brain network-level architecture. Recent progress in structural MRI analysis has facilitated the development of a human brain structural network model that is based on statistical correlations of morphological descriptors, including the thickness of the cortex or regional gray matter volume (RGMV). We investigated the topological alterations involving brain structural covariance networks in MHE patients for the first time. Our results suggest that MHE patients exhibit an unoptimizable architecture involving the gray matter structural covariance network and provide structural evidence supporting that MHE is a neurological complication related to disrupted neural networks.


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Factor analysis of atlas-segmented brain MRSI data in HIV infection
Liangjie Lin1,2, Kalpana J. Kallianpur3, Cecilia M. Shikuma3, Andreia V. Faria1, Hubert Liu4, Anna Wang1, Zhong Chen2, and Peter B. Barker1,5

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China, 3Hawaii Center for AIDS, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI, United States, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5F. M. Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

HIV-infection may cause HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. Here, factor analysis is applied to atlas-segmented brain MRSI data from a cohort of HIV-positive subjects to evaluate the relationships of MRSI measures with neuropsychological test performance and immunologic markers. Results indicate that distribution of NAA in right-hemisphere brain regions of basal ganglia, thalamus, etc. may be positively correlated with CD4 counts, and distribution of Cho in both hemispheres of similar regions positively correlated with CD8 counts in HIV-infected subjects. Higher neuropsychological z-scores tends to be associated with higher NAA and/or lower Cho distributions in specific brain regions.

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Contributions of cardiovascular risk and smoking to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related changes in brain structure and function
Catherine A Spilling1, Mohani-Preet K Bajaj1, Daniel R Burrage2, Sachelle Ruickbie2, Jade N Thai3, Emma H Baker2, Paul W Jones2, Thomas R Barrick1, and James W Dodd4

1Institute for Molecular and Clinical Sciences, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom, 2Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, London, United Kingdom, 3Clinical Research and Imaging Centre, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom, 4Academic Respiratory Unit, School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom

Structural and functional brain abnormalities have been reported in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), however, it is unclear whether these occur independently of cardiovascular risk. Neuroimaging and clinical markers of brain structure and function were compared between 27 COPD patients and 23 age-matched non-COPD smoker controls. Clinical relationships and group interactions with brain structure were tested. COPD patients showed a specific pattern of structural (lower grey matter volume) and functional (lower cognitive function and psychological status) brain abnormalities that could not be explained by cardiovascular risk. Lower lung function and psychological ill-health were associated with markers of white matter damage.

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Microstructural changes of the cortico-striatal pathway in Fabry disease: a diffusion MRI connectometry study
Matteo Battocchio1, Sirio Cocozza2, Simona Schiavi1, Giuseppe Pontillo2, Camilla Russo2, Antonio Pisani3, Alessandro Daducci1, and Arturo Brunetti2

1Computer Science Department, University of Verona, Verona, Italy, 2Advanced Biomedical Sciences Department, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy, 3Nephrology Unit, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy

Aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microstructural alterations along the cortico-striatal pathway of Fabry Disease (FD) patients. Mean Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values of bundles connecting the motor cortex with the striatum were extracted from 15 FD patients and 14 controls.We found a reduction of mean FA values, along bundles of the cortico-striatal pathway in FD patients compared to HC (p=0.04 and p=0.01 for the right and left side, respectively).Our preliminary results confirm the presence of an extrapyramidal involvement in FD patients, showing the presence of microstructural changes affecting the cortico-striatal pathway in this condition.

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Longitudinal monitoring of the cerebral iron load in de novo neurological Wilson disease
Monika Dezortova1, Petr Dusek2,3, Artem Lescinskij1,2, Julio Acosta-Cabronero4,5, Radan Bruha6, and Milan Hajek1

1MR-Unit, Dept. Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Prague, Czech Republic, 2Dept. Radiology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic, 3Dept. Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic, 4German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Magdeburg, Germany, 5Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 64th Dept. Internal Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic

We report a long-term study of three de novo diagnosed Wilson disease patients with neurological form who repeatedly underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neurological examinations for 2 years after treatment initiation. The quantitative measurement of susceptibility revealed higher values in basal ganglia and thalamus compared to controls which correspond to higher iron accumulation.

Degree of iron load reflected the clinical severity of neurological impairment. Thus, we can suppose that the increase of the brain iron concentration can be a marker of suboptimal response to anti-copper therapy and unfavorable outcome.


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Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping shows differences in substantia nigra of individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and controls
Nestor Andres Muñoz 1,2,3, Marisleydis García1,2,3, Carlos Milovic1,2,3, Manuel Chapa1,3,4, Cristian Montalba2,3,5, Julio Acosta-Cabronero6, Sergio Uribe2,3,5, Marcelo Andia2,3,5, Gabriela Repetto7, Analía Cuiza1, Cristian Tejos1,2,3, and Nicolás Crossley2,3

1Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2Biomedical Imaging Center, Santiago, Chile, 3Millennium Nucleus for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Santiago, Chile, 4Biomedical Imaging Center, Santiago, Chile, Santiago, Chile, 5Department of Radiology, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 6Wellcome Centre for Human Neuroimaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 7Center of Genetics and Genomics, Santiago, Chile

Unlike individuals with Parkinson’s disease, patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome at risk of Parkinson show an increase in dopamine at striatal regions. Since iron levels are related to dopamine levels, we studied the difference of magnetic susceptibility between 17 patients with the deletion and 19 healthy individuals.  Susceptibility measurements were obtained with QSM and then compared using a Mann Whitney U test. Results showed a significant difference in the substantia nigra, which indicates a possible cause for the increased levels of dopamine in 22q11.2 individuals at Parkinson’s risk. 

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Disrupted topological brain organizations in large-scale cortical networks between impaired and nonimpaired active fighters
Virendra R Mishra1, Karthik R Sreenivasan1, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Zhengshi Yang1, Sarah Banks2, Dietmar Cordes1, and Charles Bernick3

1Imaging Research, Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States, 2University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States

Using neuropsychological scores from the Professional Fighters Brain Health Study (PFBHS), this study first identified 70 cognitively impaired active professional fighters, and then matched 70 nonimpaired fighters but matched on demographics, and other fighting criteria. This study shows that repeated head trauma is associated with altered coordination of large-scale structural brain networks, especially in the long-range connections. Furthermore, the cortical thickness of regions identified as hubs has the potential of developing into a predictive biomarker for identifying the fighters that will develop cognitive decline due to repeated head trauma. 

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Improved sensitivity to longitudinal changes with advanced DTI analysis in a rare neurodegenerative disease
Young Woo Park1, James M Joers1, Diane Hutter1, Khalaf Bushara2, Gulin Oz1, and Christophe Lenglet1

1Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

We present an optimized processing pipeline for longitudinal DTI data analysis in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) patients, a rare neurodegenerative disease. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis was used to investigate longitudinal changes in white matter (WM) integrity in patients. While no significant changes in WM integrity were observed using the standard TBSS analysis pipeline, TBSS with advanced spatial normalization with DTITK tool showed significant longitudinal alterations in WM integrity. This result suggests that the use of advanced spatial normalization must be considered for longitudinal group studies of DTI data, especially when small to moderate disease effects are expected.

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Chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging depending on several neurodegenerative diseases at 3T
Yuki Matsumoto1, Masafumi Harada1, Yuki Kanazawa1, Takashi Abe1, Maki Otomo1, and Mitsuharu Miyoshi2

1Tokushima University, Tokushima, Japan, 2Global MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo, Japan

In this study, CEST imaging was performed on the substantial nigra, the basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex level to reveal the mechanism each neurodegenerative disease. For this study, patients with Parkinson’s disease, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and spinocerebellar degeneration were examined. Region-of-interest analysis was performed in the substantia nigra, red nuclei, lentiform nucleus, and supplementary motor area. As the results, the CEST parameters were significantly different for each of the neurodegenerative diseases. CEST imaging might have the ability to obtain abnormal proteins each of the neurodegenerative diseases.

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Evaluating Countermeasures Against Chemical Warfare Nerve Agents using Diffusion Tensor Imaging
Kevin Lee1, Matthew Bouchard1, Sara Bohnert2, Steven D Klaassen3, Roland M van den Berg3, Marloes J.A. Joosen3, and Jeff F. Dunn1

1Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Defence Research and Development Canada-Suffield Research Centre, Ralston, AB, Canada, 3CBRN Protection, TNO, Rijswijk, Netherlands

Seizures induced by chemical warfare nerve agents cause debilitating neurological damage. It is widely accepted that the main contributor to this neuropathology is excitotoxic damage. Current countermeasures to the damage are effective in preventing mortality, but do not always prevent nerve agent-induced seizures and related neuropathology. We have applied diffusion tensor imaging to study the microstructural changes in the brain to evaluate the efficacy of countermeasures against chemical warfare nerve agents. 


Neuroimaging: Flying High at 7T & Beyond

Exhibition Hall
Tuesday 13:30 - 14:30
 Neuro

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Quantitative susceptibility mapping of post-mortem ALS brains at 7T with quantitative iron histopathology validation
Chaoyue Wang1, Benjamin Tendler1, Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage2, Olaf Ansorge2, Sarah Bangerter-Christensen2, Ricarda AL Menke1, Martin R Turner2, Sean Foxley3, and Karla Miller1

1Wellcome Centre for Integrative Neuroimaging, FMRIB, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Clinical Neurology, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of the motor system and its wider cortical connections. Progress in therapeutic development in ALS is compromised by a lack of specific biomarkers. In this work, we describe a platform for QSM data acquisition and post-processing protocol for postmortem brains. Preliminary results of 10 brains (validated with quantitative ferritin staining) have shown that ALS brains had significant higher mean susceptibility in motor cortex than control brains, which indicates that QSM has the potential to accurately quantify iron concentration and thus serve as an imaging biomarker for ALS.

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Quantitative analysis of the wall thickness and enhancement ratio of intracranial aneurysms using high-resolution black-blood imaging at 7T
Zihao Zhang1,2, Qingle Kong1,3, Xinke Liu4, Chengcheng Zhu5, Zhaoyang Fan6, Jing An7, Youxiang Li4, and Yan Zhuo1,2

1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 2The Innovation Center of Excellence on Brain Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China, 4Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing, China, 5Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 6Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, China

Three-dimensional turbo-spin-echo (3D-TSE) is increasingly being used in black-blood imaging of intracranial aneurysms. In this study, we optimized the protocol of T1-weighted (T1w) 3D-TSE to reach a high isotropic resolution of 0.40 mm. The inner wall thickness and enhancement ratio were analyzed in sections from ten aneurysms. The segments of aneurysmal walls with a higher wall thickness tend to represent a higher enhancement ratio (Pearson correlation, r = 0.32, p < 0.001). The wall thickness and enhancement ratio should be comprehensively considered to predict the prognosis of intracranial aneurysms.

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Cardiac and Respiratory induced 3D Brain Tissue Strain as Marker of Physiological Blood Volume Dynamics at 7T MRI.
Jacob Jan Sloots1, Peter R. Luijten1, Geert Jan Biessels2, and Jaco J. M. Zwanenburg1

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Brain tissue deformation induced by the cardiac and respiration cycles could be a valuable source of information on the physiology of the brains tissue properties. In this work, we assess the tissue deformation by computing the tissue strain from DENSE displacement data sets and unravel cardiac and respiratory contributions by using a linear model. We observed consistent trends in the three strain components due to cardiac and respiration cycles, which agree with blood volume changes. In contrast to tissue displacement, the tissue strain may serve as a reliable novel marker of physiological blood volume dynamics in the brain.

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Optimizing the DENSE Sequence for Accurate Brain Tissue Strain Measurements at 7T MRI.
Jacob Jan Sloots1, Peter R. Luijten1, Geert Jan Biessels2, and Jaco J. M. Zwanenburg1

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Brain tissue strain could be a valuable source of information on the brains tissue properties. Therefore, accurate DENSE measurements are crucial, since the computation of tissue strain requires spatial derivatives, which amplifies noise present in the displacement maps. In this work, we optimize the SNR in the displacement maps and substantiate the theory with both computer simulations and measurements. We tested the optimized settings in one volunteer and found a factor of 1.66 SNR increase compared to previously reported experiments. Preliminary results in one volunteer in the basal ganglia showed heartbeat-induced strain of approximately 2.1·10-3 and inspiration-induced strain of -0.54·10-3.

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Most small cerebral cortical veins demonstrate significant flow pulsatility: a human phase contrast MRI study at 7T
Ian D Driver1, Maarika Traat1,2, and Richard G Wise1

1Cardiff University Brain Research Imaging Centre, School of Psychology, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom, 2Institute of Psychology, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia

We demonstrate new methods to identify and quantify the characteristics of flow pulsatility in small cerebral cortical veins to aid better understanding of the haemodynamics of this little-studied vascular compartment. 7T cardiac-gated motion sensitive phase contrast MRI was combined with an automated method for establishing where venous flow is pulsatile, revealing pulsatile flow in 104 out of 132 veins assessed in parietal and frontal regions. Distributions of pulsatility index and pulse waveform delay were characterized, indicating a small delay in cortical veins compared to the superior sagittal sinus, but no differences between veins draining different arterial supply territories.

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Multi-modal 7T imaging of the Locus Coeruleus in healthy older adults
Catarina Rua1, Claire O'Callaghan2, Luca Passamonti3, P Simon Jones3, Kamen Tsvetanov4, James Rowe3,5, Rong Ye3,5, Adrian Carpenter1, Christopher T Rodgers1, and Guy Williams1

1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Wolfson Brain Imaging Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute and Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 3Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Department of Psychology, Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge, United Kingdom

The Locus Coeruleus (LC) is the main source of cerebral noradrenaline, which modulates many cognitive domains from attention and motivation to mood and memory. However, the LC is a small structure located in the mid-brain, proven difficult to detect in-vivo. We studied healthy individuals using high-resolution MT-w, R2*, QSM, and fMRI at 7T to characterize the LC’s shape and size, magneto-chemical and functional properties. While no R2* or QSM contrast was found in the LC, it was clearly detected in MT-images and showed widespread functional connectivity towards cortex and cerebellum, These results are the benchmark for future studies in dementia.

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Global and Focal Effects of Radiation Therapy on the Cerebral Vasculature in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors using simultaneous MRA-SWI at 7T
Sivakami Avadiappan1, Melanie A Morrison1, Angela Jakary1, Erin Felton2, Schuyler Stoller2, Christopher P Hess1,2, Sabine Mueller2,3, and Janine M Lupo1

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

With the improved survival of children with brain tumors, understanding the late effects of the treatment has become critical.  This study explores the effects of RT on vascular structure using a combined MRA-SWI sequence at 7T and a new method for arterial segmentation and quantification. Normalized arterial volume was significantly reduced with increasing RT treatment volume, number of CMBs, and at follow-up. CMBs were located closer to veins than arteries and were larger when further away. Our findings demonstrate the feasibility of our approach for quantifying subtle vascular changes in arterial structure and CMB properties due to RT.

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Investigation of microstructural differences in the nigrosome-1 region of the substantia nigra between healthy and Parkinson’s disease subjects at 7T
Yiming Xiao1, Jonathan C Lau1,2, Terry M Peters1,2,3, and Ali R Khan1,2,3,4

1Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, Western University, London, ON, Canada, 2School of Biomedical Engineering, Western University, London, ON, Canada, 3Department of Med