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Traditional Posters (no CME credit)

Electronic Posters (no CME credit)

Electronic Power Pitch Poster (no CME credit)

Friday, 21 April 2017 Saturday, 22 April 2017 Sunday, 23 April 2017 Monday, 24 April 2017 Tuesday, 25 April 2017 Wednesday, 26 April 2017 Thursday, 27 April 2017


Saturday, 22 April 2017

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Weekend Course

Physics for Physicists

Organizers: Herbert Köstler, Dipl.-Phys. & N. Jon Shah, Ph.D.

Room 313BC Saturday 8:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Adrienne Campbell-Washburn & Armin Nagel

8:15
MRI: the Classical Description

The NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) signal can be described classically by considering the motion of the net magnetisation (the vector sum of magnetic moments of individual nuclei). By considering individual isochromats – i.e. subsets of the spins that are behaving identically– we can visualise how the received signal will decay away due to T1, T2 and T2* relaxation. By additionally considering the effects of magnetic field gradients, we can determine the spatial location of the signal, producing images. All these effects can be described by the Bloch equations, which give complete classical description of the behaviour of magnetisation.
Gareth Barker

8:45
Signal & Noise in MRI

The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is a fundamental measure of quality and performance in MRI, most frequently used as a metric for comparing and optimizing imaging sequences, MR hardware (e.g., RF coils), or to assess and process new imaging and reconstruction techniques. Clinically, signal and noise considerations are important for image assessment such as in reliable lesion characterization, or in the context of accurate parameter fitting (relaxometry).  This presentation will review the basic principles relevant to SNR, sources of noise, basic noise statistics, multi-channel noise, measurement of SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio, and factors influencing SNR.  
Claudia Hillenbrand

9:15
Spatial Encoding (k-Space, MRI as a Linear & Shift-Invariant System, PSF, MTF)

Michael Steckner

9:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:15
MRI: a Systems Overview

The “big three” sections of an MR scanner are well known; Magnet, Gradient system, and RF system, and probably should have a fourth: Patient comfort and user experience components.  We start with a review of these components, current limitations, and directions under investigation and continue to interaction between them needed to harmonize operation.
Lawrence Wald

10:45
Bloch Equations & Typical MRI Contrast

This presentation will provide an overview of the typical forms of the Bloch Equations, the physical mechanisms of relaxation phenomena as well as the basis of typical MRI contrasts.
Tobias Wech

11:15
Pulse Sequence Check: Reality vs. Ideal

The effect of any pulse sequence on the magnetization in an object can be predicted very accurately using the Bloch equation. A general algebraic inversion of the Bloch equation is not possible and thus, the full set of object and system properties and parameters cannot be derived from measurement data directly. Using a few assumptions and neglecting possible deviations, the results of a given pulse sequence can be calculated and the spatial encoding can be inverted to reconstruct an image. But what if these assumptions are wrong?
Oliver Speck

11:45
Basic MR Safety (Magnetic Fields, Peripheral Nerve Stimulation, etc)

Magnetic resonance techniques are considered to be not harmful. The three electromagnetic fields used for MR - static magnetic field, switched gradient fields, and radio frequency field - interact with human tissue, but also with other materials exposed to these fields. The physical interactions with human tissue do not cause irreversible physiological effects, as long as certain limits are not exceeded. Concerning foreign material (e.g. implants), the physical effects of the applied fields may cause severe hazards for patients, staff, and material, if MR examinations are not performed properly. 
Harald Kugel

12:15
Lunch & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Introduction to fMRI: Task & Resting State fMRI Methods/Analysis

Organizers: Jay J. Pillai, M.D. & Joshua S. Shimony, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 312 Saturday 8:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Jay Pillai & Benedikt Poser

8:15
BOLD Data Acquisition Considerations

Through a series of complex processes, under the umbrella term of neurovascular coupling, neuronal activity ultimately manifests as a signal change in an MR image via the blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) contrast. Functional MRI (fMRI) capitalises on this contrast mechanism to infer neuronal activity from BOLD contrast variation in a time series, typically acquired while the participant engages in a task. This approach has proved valuable in furthering our understanding of the working of the human brain. Here, issues pertinent to acquiring data with sufficiently high sensitivity to detect such changes are considered, e.g. susceptibility effects, physiological noise and approaches facilitating high spatio-temporal resolution.
Martina Callaghan

8:45
BOLD Signal/Physiology

Functional MRI has become a standard technique for exploring brain function, however this imaging modality is not a direct measure of neural activity. This course introduces the source of Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) contrast and the physiological mechanisms that drive the haemodynamic response to neural activity. The limitations and challenges of using blood as a surrogate for brain function are discussed, particularly in cohorts with differing cerebrovascular physiology. Potential solutions involving additional imaging modalities and complementary MRI contrast mechanisms may enable accurate understanding of the neuro-vascular processes underlying BOLD fMRI.
Molly Bright

9:15
General Linear Model Analysis of Task Based fMRI Data

The general linear model (GLM) is one of the most commonly utilized statistical platform that is currently used in analyzing task-based fMRI data.  In this talk we will introduce the general over view and basic concepts of GLM and how it is used in this very specific application of clinical neuroimaging.  We will briefly review the history of introduction of GLM into the fMRI community and later use some examples to demonstrate the utility in analyzing fMRI data. In the end we will discuss some of its limitations.
Feroze Mohamed

9:45
Introduction to Resting State Functional Connectivity

Steven Stufflebeam

10:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:45
Data Driven & Exploratory Analyses

Independent component analysis (ICA) has grown to be a widely used and continually developing staple for analyzing fMRI functional connectivity data. In this paper we discuss some key observations and assumptions regarding ICA and also key new applications of ICA to brain imaging data.
Vince Calhoun

11:15
Dynamic Functional Connectivity

Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) is the study of time-varying changes in functional interactions between brain regions. This talk will describe DFC methods along with the challenges involved in such analyses. We will also highlight results demonstrating associations between DFC and independently acquired measures of behavior, physiology, and neural activity, and will discuss the potential for DFC features to serve as clinical biomarkers.
Catie Chang

11:45
Network Analysis

This talk provides an introduction to network analysis of functional MRI, with an emphasis on the use of graph theory for understanding distinct aspects of brain organisation and dynamics. 
Alex Fornito

12:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Diffusion MRI: Principles & Applications

Organizers: Daniel C. Alexander, Ph.D. & Stephan E. Maier, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 311 Saturday 8:15 - 11:45 Moderators: Daniel Alexander & Stephan Maier

8:15
Introduction to Diffusion MRI

This lecture will cover the basics of diffusion MRI. We will explore how diffusion in biological tissue serves as an in vivo microscope through its measurement with MRI by varying both diffusion gradient and the diffusion time t, the time over which the molecules diffuse. The concepts of q-space imaging, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) will be covered, as well as other higher order diffusion methods (biophysical models versus representations). In addition, we will illustrate how varying the diffusion time t provides complimentary information about microstructural length scales.
Els Fieremans

8:45
Diffusion Modeling and Microstructure Probing

This lecture presents the key concepts behind modelling diffusion MRI signal. Specifically, it focuses on various techniques that go beyond the standard diffusion tensor model, and aim to provide biomarkers which can be related to tissue microstructure.
Andrada Ianuș

9:15
Tracking Fiber Structures

Diffusion MRI tractography enables unprecedented visualization of the trajectory of white matter pathways in vivo. This course will introduce the fundamental principles of tracking fiber structures in diffusion MRI data, and will provide an overview of different tractography methods. Participants will learn about the current capabilities and limitations of tractography techniques for investigating white matter anatomy. Clinical applications of tractography will be presented and challenges of using tractography findings for clinical decision support will be discussed.
Sonia Pujol

9:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:15
Neuro Applications of Diffusion MRI

Michael Zeineh

10:45
Body Applications of Diffusion MRI

This presentation will review the added value of DWI in the body, particularly in the oncology patients.

 

Bachir Taouli

11:15
Application of Diffusion MRI in Animal Models

This lecture will provide a brief overview of technical considerations involved in diffusion MRI of small animals on preclinical scanners. Applications of diffusion MRI to examine neuroanatomy and brain development in small animals will be covered. We will examine the relations between metrics derived using different diffusion models and acquisition schemes and white matter pathological changes in animal models of injury and disease. In addition, emerging applications of diffusion MRI methods for characterization of brain tissue microstructure in animal models will be explored.
Manisha Aggarwal

11:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Introduction into Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Organizers: Anke Henning, Ph.D. & Roland Kreis, Ph.D.

Room 314 Saturday 8:15 - 12:05 Moderators: Thomas Ernst & Harald Möller

8:15
Basic Principles of MRS (Chemical Shift, J-coupling, Spectral Resolution, Field Strength Effects)

The basic principles of NMR are discussed based on classical concepts like compass needles, bar magnets, precession and electromagnetic induction. More advanced topics such as chemical shift, scalar coupling, T1 and T2 relaxation and basic MR sequences are also covered. 
Robin de Graaf

8:40
Localization (Sequences: semiLASER, PRESS, STEAM, Chemical Shift Displacement)

Accurate localization is key for MR spectra quality and metabolites quantification. Metabolites low concentration and multiple frequencies pose more challenges in-vivo MRS than MRI, due to B0 inhomogeneity, insufficient B1, chemical shift displacement, and artifacts from lipids. Volume selection methods based on overlapping slices improves MRS quality by limiting the region of interest to areas where B0 and B1 can be better controlled. Spatial coverage can be improved by more modern approaches where arbitrary volumes can be shaped with parallel transmit, multiple volumes disentangled by parallel imaged, and different contributions to the MRS signal can be modeled in the reconstruction
Ovidiu Andronesi

9:05
Water & Lipid Suppression - VAPOR, WET, OVS, IR, Novel Approaches (MC, Crushers)

In this presentation, the need for water and lipid suppression, as well as the most widely used approaches to achieve this are explained.
Vincent Boer

9:30
Pre-Scan Adjustments (B0 Shimming, F0, PO, Water Suppression)

The pre-scan adjustments, while nearly invisible to many practitioners, are very important for the successful acquisition of many spectroscopic and imaging sequences. In this talk, approaches and constructs specific to B0 and B1 optimization are discussed with examples of methods and results. 
Jullie Pan

9:55
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:25
MRSI (Basic Sequences & Acceleration)

Ulrike Dydak

10:50
Editing, 2D & UHF - Detection a Comprehensive Neurochemical Profile

While the vast majority of MRS applications focus on the strong resonances of NAA, Cr, Cho and sometimes mIns and Glu+Gln, resonances from at least 15 neurochemicals, i.e., a comprehensive neurochemical profile are present in the spectrum. For detecting the small, weakly represented neurochemical resonances that underlie the typically detected large resonances such as NAA, Cr, Cho and mIns, options are: 1) to de-convolve all of the signals that are present or 2) to edit, i.e., to set the signal of interest apart (at least partially) from the others. Of course, there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach.
Melissa Terpstra

11:15
Postprocessing & Quality Assurance

In-vivo MRS data is unavoidably degraded by experimental imperfections such as subject motion, scanner drift, and eddy currents.  Spectral preprocessing improves spectral quality and quantification reliability, and is an indispensable part of any in-vivo MRS experiment.    MRS preprocessing is usually organized as a sequence, or ‘pipeline’ of individual processing routines, each designed to address a specific issue with the data.  This talk covers some of the most common experimental issues affecting MRS data, and the processing routines and pipelines that can address these issues.
Jamie Near

11:40
Spectral Fitting & Absolute Quantification

MRS quantification is complicated due to the metabolic resonance overlap and complex line shapes. The modern methods for the spectral fitting increasingly relies on the linear combination (LC) modeling algorithms. The absolute quantification can be carried out using internal or external concentration references. The challenges remain in the following areas: the generation of the accurate prior knowledge, creating proper model/constraints for data fitting algorithms and choice of more robust concentration references.  
Lana Kaiser

12:05
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Cardiovascular MRI: Vascular

Organizers: James C. Carr, M.D. & Winfred A. Willinek, M.D.

Room 316A Saturday 8:15 - 11:45 Moderators: Darren Lum & Jeffrey Maki

8:15
Overview of CE & NCMRA Methods

Principles of Contrast enhanced and non contrast enhanced MRA will be reviewed, as well as their clinical application.
Ruth Lim

8:35
Flow Imaging Techniques

Michael Hope

8:55
Contrast Agents

This lecture will deal with conventional Gd-based contrast agents. In particular the molecular basis of the paramagnetic enhancement as well as  Gd-complexes stability will be addressed.
Daniela Delli Castelli

9:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

9:30
Imaging Techniques: Current & Future

Atherosclerosis, a systemic disease affecting large and medium sized arterial vessel walls is a leading cause of mortality in the world. MRI is quickly becoming the imaging modality of choice for visualizing atherosclerosis in the vessel wall. Atherosclerosis is evaluated in vivo by multi-contrast dark blood turbo spin echo imaging to evaluate plaque burden and composition. DCE- MRI can be used to evaluate plaque permeability. Recently, quantitative MR imaging in the form of T1 and T2 mapping of the vessel wall and on evaluating 4D flow, shear stress and circumferential strain in the arterial tree have become popular. 
Venkatesh Mani

9:50
Intracranial Atherosclerosis MR Imaging

·         Intracranial artery atherosclerosis (ICAS) is one of the major causes of ischemic stroke.

·         MR vessel wall imaging techniques have been proposed and optimized dedicated for characterizing ICAS.

·         High risk ICAS features, such as T1-hyperintense, positive remodeling, and contrast-enhancement, can be accurately identified by ICAS MR imaging. 

Xihai Zhao

10:10
Coronary, Aorta & Peripheral Vessel Wall MR Imaging

Magnetic resonance (MR) has emerged as a leading noninvasive imaging modality for assessing the wall disease beyond revealing luminal stenosis. Continued technical innovations are being proposed for MR atherosclerosis imaging, particularly vessel wall imaging, at coronary, aorta and peripheral vascular beds. Detailed knowledge about these techniques would foster adoption of MR as an effective imaging tool in future research and clinical practice. The present lecture will focus on technical developments in MR vessel wall imaging of these arteries.
Zhaoyang Fan

10:30
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:45
Supra-Aortic & Intracranial Vascular Disease

We will review the current recommended imaging parameters to achieve consistent high-quality head/neck contrast-enhanced MRA at both 1.5T and 3.0T.  Discuss the utilization of clinical MPRAGE and 3D FSE T1W sequences to detect intraplaque hemorrhage and possibly necrotic core at the carotid bifurcation.  Review how this additional vessel wall imaging affords better risk stratification of future stroke than carotid stenosis measurements.  Discuss the rapidly evolving intracranial vessel wall imaging (IC VWI) techniques which are currently obtained with works-in-progress investigational sequences.  Early implement has documented the potential added value of IC VWI to identify specific etiologies of proximal intracranial arterial narrowing. 
J. Kevin DeMarco

11:05
Chest & Abdominal

This presentation will discuss the following:

  1. 1. Sequences used for MRA chest & abdomen
  2. 2. Clinical applications for MRA chest
  3. 3. Clinical applications for MRA abdomen
Christopher Francois

11:25
Peripheral Vascular Disease

Upon completion of this course, the attendee will be able to: Identify the appropriate technique for peripheral MRA depending on the available hardware and the clinical question and condition of the patient. Differentiate between different contrast agents and their specific characteristics. Chose between different contrast agent application schemes depending on the technique used and the clinical question. Compare the pros and cons of contrast-enhanced and non contrast-enhanced techniques for peripheral MRA.
Harald Kramer

11:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Brain Cancer: from Diagnosis to Treatment

Organizers: Kristine Glunde, Ph.D. & Natalie J. Serkova, Ph.D.

Room 316BC Saturday 8:15 - 12:05 Moderators: Kristine Glunde & Natalie Serkova

8:15
Introduction to Brain Cancer Imaging (incl. RANO Criteria)

This presentation provides an introduction to brain cancer and major treatment options. An overview of current imaging methods is given, including approaches to diagnosis, characterisation and response assessment. The major MR methods available are briefly described, as an introduction to the following more detailed presentations on specific MR imaging Methods. Current approaches to objective imaging based response assessment are discussed.
Martin Leach

8:40
Conventional Imaging: T1, T2 Bright Signal

Noriko Salamon

9:05
From Brain Tumor Angiogensis to MRI Biomarker

The devastating consequence of a brain tumor on a patient’s quality of life and survival has sparked a widespread search for novel therapeutic approaches (e.g. antiangiogenic therapies) to arrest cancer progression. This in turn has galvanized the development of new biomarkers capable of assessing the efficacy of such drugs in vivo. This lecture will provide an overview of how, why and which MRI-derived biomarkers are ideally suited for assessing the angiogenic status of brain tumors, noninvasively and safely in patients. Specifically, this lecture will introduce core concepts about the blood vessels of brain tumors, their role in disease progression, and how one can image them with certain MRI contrast mechanisms, in the preclinical and clinical setting.
Arvind Pathak

9:30
Diffusion & Perfusion Imaging Protocols for Gliomas

We have much to gain by greater incorporation of advanced physiologic MRI methods such as diffusion MRI (DWI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MRI (DSC-pMRI) methods into the treatment management protocols for patients with glioma.  To motivate greater use this course will describe how these methods can be used at several critical junctures in the management of patients with glioma.  Current questions and limitations, both scientific and technical, will also be discussed.
Kathleen Schmainda

9:55
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:25
How Helpful is Neurochemical Characterization

Carolyn Mountford

10:50
MRI for Surgical Planning/Intraoperative MRI

Usefullness of intraoperative MRI foe gloma surgery, Akira Matsumura et al.
Akira Matsumura

11:15
Integrated Amide Proton Transfer Imaging in the Assessment of Pre- & Post-treatment Gliomas

Ji Eun Park

11:40
Radiogenomics in Neurooncology

Olivier Gevaert

12:05
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Frontiers in Neuroscience: Preclinical MRI-X

Organizers: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Ed X. Wu, Ph.D.

Room 315 Saturday 8:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Albrecht Stroh & Ed Wu

8:15
Preclinical Neural MRI for Basic Neuroscience

Anatomical and functional MRI, complemented by optical imaging methods and electrophysiology, have been at the forefront of unraveling the anatomical and functional organization of the brain. In this talk, we aim to show that high resolution anatomical MRI of the brain can be obtained with remarkable cytoarchitectonic detail, while fMRI can be used to study various sensory systems. Complimentary to MRI/fMRI, optical microscopy enables the simultaneous recording of neuronal activity from thousands of neurons with single cell spatial resolution. When combined together, the practical advantages of multi-modal neuroimaging techniques make preclinical imaging an invaluable avenue in neuroscience research.
Afonso Silva

8:40
Optogenetic fMRI Overview

Jin Hyung Lee

9:05
Optogenetic fMRI Application: Dissecting Brain Networks & Properties

Understanding how individual cells and complex brain networks interact in both time and space has been one of the grand challenges in the 21st century. In 2010, Lee et. al. have demonstrated that optogenetic fMRI (ofMRI) within the living mammalian brain reveals BOLD signals in downstream targets distant from the stimulation site, indicating that this approach can be used to map the global effects of controlling a local cell-type specific neuronal population. Since then, multiple studies have utilized ofMRI to dissect brain networks and properties. In this session, technical considerations in the application of ofMRI will be examined. Studies dissecting brain networks and properties using ofMRI will be reviewed. The opportunities and challenges will be discussed.
Russell Chan

9:30
Deep Brain Stimulation & Chemogenetic fMRI

Electrical deep brain stimulation and chemogenetics are increasingly used with simultaneous fMRI. This lecture will introduce both techniques, discuss the strengths/weaknesses, and make suggestions to pilot studies. 
Yen-Yu Ian Shih

9:55
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:25
Molecular fMRI: Imaging Probes for Brain Functions & Circuits

A new experimental approach termed “molecular fMRI” aims to provide direct, minimally-invasive measures of neural function based on the application of molecular probes detectable in time-resolved MRI experiments. In this talk, we discuss the design and application of suitable probes for molecular fMRI, including their initial deployment for imaging several types of signaling molecules in the living brain. By improving the technology with more sensitive contrast agents and better brain delivery strategies, it will be possible to measure and map an expanding array of neurophysiological processes in animals and ultimately in humans.
Alan Jasanoff

10:50
Origins of BOLD - Neuroscience Perspectives

Our ability to study human brain is limited by the necessity to use noninvasive technologies. This is in contrast to animal models where a detailed view of cellular-level brain function has become available due to recent advances in microscopic optical imaging and genetics. Thus, a central challenge facing neuroscience today is leveraging these mechanistic insights from animal studies to accurately draw physiological inferences from noninvasive signals in humans. On the essential path towards this goal is the development of a detailed “bottom-up” forward model bridging neuronal activity at the level of cell-type-specific populations to noninvasive imaging signals. 
Anna Devor

11:15
Ultrasound Neuromodulation with MRI for Brain Cirtcuitry in Non-Human Primates

In this presentation, I will discuss ongoing work where we are using ultrasound in conjunction with fMRI to modulate and subsequently image brain circuits in non-human primates.
Charles Caskey

11:40
Concurrent TMS with Neuroimaging - Human Applications

Amit Etkin

12:05
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

MR Systems Engineering

Organizers: Gregor Adriany, Ph.D. , Mary P. McDougall, Ph.D. & Graham C. Wiggins, D.Phil.

Room 313A Saturday 8:30 - 12:00 Moderators: Priti Balchandani & James Bankson

8:30
MR Systems Overview

This educational talk is designed to provide a broad overview of the functions and interactions of the subsystems of a modern clinical MRI scanner and explain various design constraints originating from engineering and physiological limitations.
Seung-Kyun Lee

9:00
Magnets: Design, Manufacturing, Installation, Present & Future Technology

The field of an MRI magnet is generated by a circulating current through a sectioned superconducting coil, kept at its operating temperature by a refrigerated cryostat. Active shielding coils confine the stray field to a small volume near the magnet. This presentation covers various aspects of design and operation of these magnets.
Johan Overweg

9:30
Shimming: Superconducting & Passive Shims; Higher Order Shims, Shim Arrays & Dynamic Shimming

Shimming denotes the technical procedure to improve the homogeneity of the magnetic field in the MRI system. This presentation will give an overview about why the magnetic field is inhomogeneous at all, and what the consequence is. Passive and superconducting shims as technical means to improve the shim in every MRI system are described. Practical information on when shimming is needed, and what the operator can do to optimize the shim of their MRI system will be given as well. Moreover, latest developments like high-order shim systems, shim arrays and dynamic shimming will be presented.
Laura Schreiber

10:00
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:30
Gradient Coil Design Considerations, Manufacturing & Limitations

This presentation will describe the parameters that characterise the performance of the  gradient coils which are used to generate magnetic fields that vary linearly with position in MRI. The methods for designing cylindrical gradient coils, including the incorporation of active magnetic screening, will then be described, along with boundary element methods that can be used to design coils on any surface. The important elements of coil fabrication will also be considered.
Richard Bowtell

11:00
Gradient Drivers: Amplifier Considerations, Power, Tuning, & Cooling

Blaine Chronik

11:30
Eddy Currents & Interactions: Calibration, Compensation, & Pre-Emphasis

The native accuracy of gradient and shim systems is too low in order to drive MRI sequences. To avoid corresponding image artefacts the gradient chains are feed-backed, pre-distorted and post-corrected based on accurate characterizations or direct measurements of the field evolution in the scanner. In this talk, the underlying principles of the encountered distortions and frequently applied correction methods will be discussed.
David Brunner

12:00
Break & Meet the Teachers


Other

March for Science Special Session

Plenary Hall Saturday 12:00 - 13:00 (no CME credit)

0:00


Weekend Course

Physics for Physicists

Organizers: Herbert Köstler, Dipl.-Phys. & N. Jon Shah, Ph.D.

Room 313BC Saturday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens & Michael Steckner

13:15
Sequences & Simulations

This presentation will provide an overview of the main gradient echo based (gradient spoiled, RF spoiled and balanced steady state free precession) and conventional/fast spin echo based pulse sequences and will illustrate some methods by which their behaviour can be simulated.
Martin Graves

13:45
EPI Acquisition Strategies

The presentation provides a summary of echo planar imaging  (EPI) acquisition techniques with descriptions of methods used to shorten the acquisition interval to improve imaging performance ( resolution, SNR, distortion, and/or coverage)
Walter Block

14:15
EPI Artifacts & Correction Methods

Simone Winkler

14:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:15
Diffusion Weighted Imaging & Applications

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) makes use of molecular water motion to probe tissue microstructure. This lecture will focus on the basic principles of DWI acquisition. After introducing the most commonly used diffusion modules, the main acquisition challenges will be discussed.  Typical acquisition approaches will be presented, including single-shot and multi-shot sequences. Examples of frequent DWI image artefacts will be shown, and some of the approaches available for minimizing or correcting for their effect will be presented. The main applications of DWI to brain and body imaging will also be presented, focusing on stroke and lesion characterization.
Rita Nunes

15:45
Diffusion Tensor Imaging & Applications

This presentation will touch upon the following aspects:  general properties of diffusion, acquisition methods, the diffusion tensor model and diffusion indices,

correlations of these indices with other MRI parameters and histology-derived quantities, data sampling strategies, validation strategies, limitations of DTI and applications

Ana-Maria Oros-Peusquens

16:15
q-Space: What is it?

Diffusion MRI can provide useful information on microstructures that are much smaller than the imaging voxel sizes. This presentation will start from the original idea by Callaghan and Cory and Garroway showing that the diffusion NMR signal is the Fourier transformation of the displacement probability function, followed by examples of MRI experiments to infer microstructural properties of biological tissues. The basic concepts of q-space and propagator based methods will be discussed.
Qiuyun Fan

16:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

MR Systems Engineering

Organizers: Gregor Adriany, Ph.D. , Mary P. McDougall, Ph.D. & Graham C. Wiggins, D.Phil.

Room 313A Saturday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Priti Balchandani & James Bankson

13:15
RF Transmit: Power Delivery, Decoupling, & Duty Cycle

The RF transmit chain is one of several “black box” systems in the MRI scanner. The implementation of the RF transmit chain has remained fairly consistent since the earliest clinical MRI scanners. The advent of parallel transmission (pTX) provides a compelling opportunity to rethink not only the design of the RF power amplifiers (RFPAs) and coils, but of the entire MRI scanner. In this lecture we will review fundamental RFPA concepts such as linearity and efficiency. We will then explore advanced topics relating to pTX, including control, decoupling, local amplifiers, and switchmode amplifiers.
Michael Twieg

13:45
RF Receivers: Signal Detection Chain, Digitization, System Noise Figures - from MRI Signal to Bits

This presentation is designed to give an overview of the building blocks of an MRI receive RF chain, starting with the local MRI coil going all the way to the image processor. 
Arne Reykowski

14:15
Controlling the MR Subsystems: Pulse Sequence Control, Waveform Generation & Real-Time Control

Lecture for scientists and clinicians interested in learning more details about the core software structure and control systems of an MRI machine.
Juan Santos

14:45
Multi-Modality Imaging in an MRI Scanner: Simultaneous Imaging & Therapy - Making the Systems Compatible

Although envisioned since the late 1980s, hybrid PET/MR systems only became commercially available in the last few years and more than a decade later than hybrid PET/CT.  This is explained by the technological challenges originating from the combination of these two very different imaging modalities.  Manifold interferences between the two modalities (in terms of B0, Gradient, RF, Temperature, Photon Attenuation, Space Constraints, Workflow, …) needed to identified, understood and solved.  
Florian Wiesinger

15:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
Basic MR Safety: SAR to Temperature, Power Deposition/Monitoring, Effects of RF Coils & Field Strength

This lecture will cover basic safety issues related to MRI, focusing on power deposition and radio-frequency heating in the patients. Specific absorption rate (SAR) and its relation to temperature will be discussed. Various methods to simulate, predict,control and mitigate SAR and temperature will be introduced. Finally, the effects of RF coil geometry, field strength/frequency will be explained.
Yigitcan Eryaman

16:15
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation, Implants & Devices: Safe Use & Considerations for MRI

Simone Winkler

16:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

The Basics of Perfusion & Permeability Imaging

Organizers: Linda Knutsson, Ph.D. & Steven Sourbron, Ph.D.

Room 312 Saturday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Thomas Okell & Ashley Stokes

13:15
The Physiology of Perfusion & Permeability

This presentation will describe the mechanisms of microcirculation within the capillary network, as well as the microvascular parameters.

This knowledge is useful the understand dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), design acquisition protocols and analyze the data.

Charles Cuenod

13:45
Tracer-Kinetic Analysis

This seminar is intended to provide a broad overview of tracer kinetic modeling. While the basic underlying concepts are quite simple, there are innumerable details which bear close consideration when electing to utilize these methods to characterize the physiologic properties of various tissues in vivo. Multiple steps are involved in optimization of data acquisition and modeling, all of which must be appropriately adapted to the underlying unknowns. Participants should come away from this seminar with an understanding of these steps and a grasp of what considerations arise in planning and executing tracer kinetic studies.
Matthias Schabel

14:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

14:30
Contrast Agent Methods: Data Acquisition & Image Reconstruction

This lecture presents the main data acquisition and image reconstruction techniques for DCE-MRI and DSC-MRI, and discusses strengths, limitations and opportunities.
Ricardo Otazo

15:00
Contrast Agent Methods - Post -Processing

Post-processing methods for dynamic contrast agent acquisitions offer an improved understanding of the underlying tissue.  Post-processing methods encompass a number of image processing and pharmaco-kinetic modeling techniques that lead to the estimation of physiologically relevant semi-quantitative and quantitative parameters from the acquired dynamic set of images.  Some of the post-processing methods are broadly applicable to several clinical applications that include cardiovascular, tumor, and kidney imaging.
Ganesh Adluru

15:30
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
ASL - Data Acquisition

This talk will outline the basic principles of arterial spin labelling (ASL) data acquisition. The different labeling approaches are compared, the compromise in post labeling delay duration is discussed, why background suppression pulses improve the ASL-signal stability is explained, readout options are described, acquisition parameters are explored and examples of both basic and advanced ASL-techniques are shown.

Sophie Schmid

16:15
ASL- Post-Processing

This educational talk will cover common ASL post-processing steps. The talk includes (1) pre-processing of image data, (2) from general to basic models for perfusion quantification, (3) partial volume correction, and (4) advanced perfusion quantification. Focus will be put on the pre-processing and basic perfusion quantification.
André Ahlgren

16:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Connectivity: Structure & Function

Organizers: Jennifer A. McNab, Ph.D. & Joshua S. Shimony, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 311 Saturday 13:15 - 17:45 Moderators: Andrada Ianus & Elizabeth Meyerand

13:15
Connectomics Primer

In this talk I will outline basic approaches for charting the organisation of functional connectivity and introduce novel tools and techniques that enable characterisation of functional connectors in terms gradual change in connectivity profiles. I will provide examples of how these techniques can be used in clinical and cognitive neuroscience research.
Christian Beckmann

13:45
Measuring Connectivity with RSFMRI

Connectivity in resting-state fMRI can be evaluated through a variety of different methods. These include methods for static functional connectivity, such as seed-correlation, spatial independent component analysis, and graph theoretical approaches. In addition, dynamic functional connectivity can be assessed using methods such as sliding window correlation, time-frequency analysis, co-activation patterns and temporal independence component analysis.
Mark Chiew

14:15
Measuring Connectivity with Diffusion MRI

I will present the pipeline that is used for computing estimates of structural brain connectivity as obtained with diffusion tractography. Several methodological considerations will be discussed.
Alexander Leemans

14:45
What Correlates with Your Connectome?

Since the introduction of functional and structural connectivity approaches, MRI has been used to assess age-related differences on a brain network level. A systems-level or network approach of brain structure and function provides an intuitive framework for understanding a complex dynamic system. In this talk I will discuss previous research that used MRI to study the effect of aging on brain networks in vivo, through functional connectivity measures derived from resting-state functional MRI and structural connectivity measures derived from diffusion MRI.
Jessica Damoiseaux

15:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
RSFMRI - correlation with optical imaging in neonates

Diffuse optical imaging (DOI) is a portable imaging modality that provides the ability to perform early and continuous monitoring of brain function. Its portability overcomes many of the technical and logistical challenges of performing MRI investigations in hospitalized patients. While standard DOI systems suffer from low spatial resolution and lack of brain specificity, new developments in hardware and software have overcome many of these technical limitations. In this talk, I will introduce novel DOI techniques developed for bedside mapping of resting-state functional connectivity in neonates and adults and present multi-modal comparisons with functional MRI maps obtained in the same subjects.
Silvina Ferradal

16:15
FMRI - Ecog Correlates

This talk will focus on recent developments in studying the electrophysiologic basis of functional MRI correlations. We will examine methods to measure the spatial correspondence between electrophysiologic band-limited power (BLP) and fMRI correlation patterns in human subjects. We will then discuss the available evidence that correlated, spontaneous activity of the brain exhibits frequency specificity, and outline a hypothesis that the spectral structure of task responses is reflected in the hierarchical organization of RSNs.
Carl Hacker

16:45
Diffusion - Histology Correlates

MRI parcellation and connectivity is widely used in neuroscience, however their validation have been challenging. In this talk, sevreral validation methods will be discussed, such as histology, polarized light imaging and optical coherence tomography.
Caroline Magnain

17:15
Diffusion - Electrophysiology Correlates

The majority of fMRI studies use T2 or T2* weighted scans. Studies have shown that diffusion MRI scans can detect activation. However, the exact biophysical mechanism remains unclear. We will explore the physiology of neuronal activation, the BOLD response, fMRI and diffusion MRI, and how to disentangle the BOLD response and microstructure changes. 
Bernard Siow

17:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Novel & Mature MRI Contrast Agents

Organizers: Ichio Aoki, Ph.D. & Guanshu Liu, Ph.D.

Room 314 Saturday 13:15 - 17:15 Moderators: Ichio Aoki & Kevin Bennett

13:15
Chemistry of MRI Tracer

Silvio Aime

13:45
Nanoparticulate Agents for Imaging in Diabetes

Diabetes is a devastating disease hallmarked by high levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). While blood glucose measurement is considered a standard procedure for diabetic patients, it does not reflect a true status of functional beta cells and cannot be used for disease monitoring and evaluating the therapeutic response. The development of strategies for the noninvasive assessment of molecular events associated with diabetes constitutes an important healthcare priority. This presentation will focus on the development of imaging agents and techniques that could provide real time non-invasive data of biological parameters and their functions as they relate to diabetes progression and treatment. 
Anna Moore

14:15
Hyperpolarized MRI & MRS Tracers

MRI relies on detecting signals in the radiofrequency range that are related to very small energy transitions of the detected molecules. While this is a blessing with regard to the harmless character of MRI, it imposes a serious problem in terms of the low sensitivity caused by almost vanishing spin polarization at ambient temperature. Increasing the sensitivity through special preparation of the spin system prior to the encoding and detection is therefore a powerful approach. The achieved hyperpolarization has enabled various applications for molecular and cellular imaging. This tutorial will summarize aspects of polarization methods, probe design and signal encoding.
Leif Schröder

14:45
Beyond Proton MRI: 19F MRI & More

19F NMR offers exceptional insights for diverse physiological and pharmaceutical investigations. High sensitivity and lack of interfering background signal in the body have enabled the observation of exogenously administered agents and their metabolites. 19F exhibits a large chemical shift range, which is exquisitely sensitive to the microenvironment. In addition to chemical shift, relaxation processes (R1 and R2), and chemical exchange may be tailored to be responsive to a parameter of interest such as pO2, pH, metal ion concentrations, transgene/enzyme activity or hypoxia. I will review 19F NMR/MRI as a foundation for diverse applications and recent innovations.
Ralph Mason

15:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
MRI Biosensors

The role of MRI contrast agents is evolving, from enhancing tissue contrast to sensing physiological changes. New generation of MRI biosensors can detect and response to biomarkers such as small molecules, metabolites, metal ions, proteins, enzymes or pH. The major hurdles in translating these biosensors from bench to bedside are their insufficient sensitivity and specificity in vivo. Various biosensors have addressed these issues in specific biomedical applications. In this talk, we will discuss the frontier MRI biosensor designs for imaging biomarkers in vivo, such as using nanomaterials and MRI contrast mechanisms to improve the sensitivity and specificity, and their features to overcome barriers in biomedical applications. 
Kannie WY Chan

16:15
Current Clinical Applications & Future Translation Potential

Zahi Adel Fayad

16:45
Dual-Mode Cellular Imaging for Immunotherapy & Cancer Vaccine Development

Using magnetoGVAX and MRI for serially monitoring the afferent arm of the immune response (DCs), and bioluminescent imaging (BLI) for monitoring the efferent arm (T cells), one can apply dual-mode imaging to better understand the time course of antigen capture, lymph node delivery, and clonal T cell expansion. Depending on the timing of administration, immunoadjuvants either reduce or enhance antigen capture and delivery to the lymph nodes. The lack of antigen delivery to lymph nodes can be consistent with the lack of T cell BLI signal in the lymph nodes.  In those cases, a massive extranodal T cell proliferation occurs in the liver and spleen. These types of studies can show how dual-mode imaging can be used to evaluate and optimize combinatorial cancer vaccines.
Jeff Bulte

17:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Cardiac MRI: Function, Perfusion & Viability

Organizers: Reza Nezafat, Ph.D., Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Ph.D. & Winfred A. Willinek, M.D.

Room 316A Saturday 13:15 - 17:25 Moderators: Andrew Scott & Behzad Sharif

13:15
Clinical Needs & Applications: Evaluation of Cardiac Function

Yuchi Han

13:35
State of the Art: Acquisition & Processing

Cardiovascular MRI provides detailed information about the health status of the heart and the progression of disease. This talk will give course participants an overview of current methods used to evaluate cardiac performance on a global and regional level. Particular focus will be on strengths and weakness of methods to quantify myocardial strain, and atlas based methods for quantifying cardiac remodelling as z-scores.
Alistair Young

13:55
Future Perspectives: Acquisition & Processing

Mehdi Hedjazi Moghari

14:15
Clinical Needs: Ischemic Heart Disease

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has become an established non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and contributes important information for therapeutic decisions regarding revascularization. For the identification of ischemia, CMR provides two methods, which are routinely used in clinical practice. Ischemia can be visualized either as regional hypoperfusion when using CMR-perfusion imaging during vasodilator induced hyperaemia, or as impaired regional wall motion under dobutamine stress CMR. CMR has proven its robustness, diagnostic performance and prognostic value in patients with IHD in several multicenter trials.
Alexander Gotschy

14:35
Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion

Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF, in the unit of ml/min/g) is more objective to assess myocardial micro-circulation under rest and pharmaceutical or exercise stress condition and capture global flow reduction. Although perfusion quantification has been studies for the past 20 years, it is still not clear how to build a practical quantitative myocardial perfusion workflow. This syllabus reviews key components of such system and emphasizes on motion correction, intensity to Gd concentration conversion and Gd kinetics modelling. With recent developments more focusing on the automation and completeness of entire workflow, including fully automated processing and motion correction, the quantitative perfusion is becoming clinically practical.
Michael Hansen

14:55
Dobutamine Stress MRI

Connie Tsao

15:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
Clinical Needs & Applications: Myocardial Tissue Relaxometry

This lecture will discuss the clinical needs and applications of myocardial relaxometry.  We will discuss the need to develop relaxometry imaging biomarkers which are sensitive, specific, predictive and robust. These criteria will need to be fulfilled to make clinical decisions in individual patients.  We will also discuss current and emerging clinical applications of myocardial relaxometry.
Michael Salerno

16:05
Myocardial T1 Imaging Techniques

Sebastien Roujol

16:25
Myocardial T2 & T2* & T1 Rho Mapping Techniques

MRI measures of signal decay without refocusing, with intermittent refocusing and with continuous refocusing reflected by time constants T2*, T2, and T1ρ can yield important clinical information in myocardial pathophysiology. T2* is used to characterize iron overload, although specificity is reduced by susceptibility effects. By incorporating refocusing of static inhomogeneity effects, T2 yields more specific characterization of signal changes associated with changes in blood oxygenation reflecting ischemia and changes in water mobility reflecting inflammation. Decreasing refocusing interval reduces dephasing due to diffusion through gradients and chemical exchange effects and has been used to increase T1ρ contrast between healthy and infarcted myocardium.
Graham Wright

16:45
Clinical Needs & Applications

The following presentation will outline the clinical needs and applications for the use of CMR for cardiac function, perfusion and viability in clinical cardiology.
Raymond Chan

17:05
State of the Art: Viability Sequences

This talk will be presenting recent advances in late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac imaging which can overcome limitations of the standard protocol based on inversion recovery segmented 2D acquisition. The advanced approaches to be discussed will include single-shot imaging with motion corrected averaging, single-breath-hold 3D imaging, free-breathing isotropic 3D imaging with respiratory, and techniques to improve scar-blood contrast and scar-fat contrast.  
Taehoon Shin

17:25
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Imaging Biomarkers of Brain Disorders

Organizers: Kelvin O. Lim, M.D. & Kei Yamada, M.D.

Room 316BC Saturday 13:15 - 17:15 Moderators: Kelvin Lim & Kei Yamada

13:15
Diffusion as a Biomarker for Brain Disease

This session focuses on and tries to appraise diffusion MRI (dMRI)-derived imaging biomarkers (dMRI-IB) for brain disease. To categorize dMRI-IB: 1) confirm the definition of IB; 2) proceed through dMRI-derived measures and applications; 3) introduce the possible candidate of dMRI-IB; and 4) discuss about barriers that dMRI-IB candidates should overcome. In addition, this session will address following issues: 1) why only limited dMRI measures can be considered for IB? 2) what is the problem for dMRI-IB candidates to become true IB? 3) what can we do for creating new IB?
Koji Sakai

13:45
fMRI as a Biomarker for Brain Disease

In this talk I will discuss current progress and challenges in the use of brain imaging for single subject prediction.
Vince Calhoun

14:15
MRS as a Biomarker for Brain Disease

Carolyn Mountford

14:45
Panel Discussion

15:00
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:30
State of the Art - Depression

Major depressive disorder is a serious public health problem, representing a leading cause of worldwide disability, and a major contributor to suicide. While treatments exist to address this problem, they are not always efficacious, highlighting the need for more research to better understand the neural circuitry underlying depression and its treatment. In the past 2 decades, human neuroimaging research has made great strides in providing information about which neural circuits are implicated in depression. In this talk we will review some of the major contributions to this body of knowledge including research using structural neuroimaging, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. We will also discuss the smaller but emerging literature using these tools in the context of clinical trials to begin to understand predictors and mechanisms of treatment response in patients with depression. While there have been great strides forward in understanding the neural circuitry underlying depression, much work still remains before this knowledge can be applied in the clinic.  Heterogeneity in the findings across studies may reflect heterogeneity of MDD itself, where individuals that fall under the same diagnosis may have different neural circuitry signatures. Advanced methods that are designed to better understand these differences across subjects could provide the traction needed to develop personalized treatment approaches.
Kathryn Cullen

16:00
State of the Art - Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a broad syndrome that results in societal, economic and medical burdens. Identification and development of MRI based biomarkers  that are predictive of epileptogenesis are urgently needed. We describe the development of one such biomarker for febrile seizures. Once definitive biomarker imaging approaches have been validated, therapeutic interventions can then be investigated.
Andre Obenaus

16:30
State of the Art - Parkinson's Disease

The major role of the imaging used to be ruling out other disorders which present the symptoms of Parkinsonism. However, there are several imaging method which can visualize the abnormality in the Parkinson’s disease including neuromelanin image, diffusion images or susceptibility weighted imaging. This lecture will discuss on the recently developed imaging method for Parkinson’s disease or related disorders.
Toshiaki Taoka

17:00
Panel Discussion

17:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping & Electrical Properties of Tissues

Organizers: Dong-Hyun Kim, Ph.D., Chunlei Liu, Ph.D. & Peter van Zijl, Ph.D.

Room 315 Saturday 13:15 - 17:15 Moderators: Dong-Hyun Kim & Sina Straub

13:15
Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Tissue

The interaction of electro-magnetic fields with tissues is mediated by Maxwell Equations and inherently related to the existing dielectric and magnetic tissue properties.

In this presentation we will cover some of the aspects known regarding: the physical mechanisms behind of magnetic susceptibility; the conductivity and electric permittivity at the frequencies of interest in MRI (MHz in the case of the resonating radio-frequency waves, and KHz in the case of  the switching of encoding gradients).

The way these interactions influence not only the images acquired in MRI but also the comfort of subjects will be addressed.

José Marques

13:35
Principle of QSM: Physics & Contrast Mechanism

The principles of obtaining the physical quantity of magnetic susceptibility using MRI are being presented. Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) reflects tissue susceptibility using the MR phase information acquired using a gradient echo sequence. To obtain susceptibility maps several steps are required in the reconstruction, including (i) phase measurement, (ii) field map estimation, (iii) background field removal, and (iv) susceptibility map calculation by solving the inverse problem. Examples and challenges of QSM are presented and discussed.
Markus Barth

13:55
Principle of Electrical Properties Mapping

This study gives an overview of the principles of Electrical Properties Tomography. The aim is to introduce researchers new to EPT in the basic EPT reconstruction principles, EPT artifacts and new directions.

It reviews Helmholtz based reconstruction, B1+ phase and transceive phase, boundary errors of EPT, forward vs inversion based EPT reconstruction and the synergy of EPT at high fields.

Cornelis van den Berg

14:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

14:30
Application of QSM in the Brain: Neurovasculature

Clinical application of QSM in pediatric brain will be discussed including its clinical role for evaluating normal and abnormal cerebral neurovasculature, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic conditions through various clinical scenarios. In addition, plural contrast imaging feasible with 3D GRE multi-echo imaging will be addressed and its potential role in assessing various types of pediatric brain pathology. Use of Ferumoyxtol as a nan-oparticle vascular agent to augment neurovascular diagnostic evaluation will be addressed through clinical examples.  Finally, pitfalls and artifacts associated with QSM and T2* imaging will be discussed. 
Kristen Yeom

14:50
Application of QSM in the Brain: Neurodegenerative

Iron measured by MRI in vivo would contribute to searching for iron-related biomarkers in neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease. 

Here, we would like to briefly introduce the technological development of MRI in assessing brain iron, discuss the nigral iron as a potential marker for PD in both clinical and prodromal stages, further put insight into other influences of regional iron on PD symptoms.

Minming Zhang

15:10
Application of QSM in the Body

The brain has long been a major focus for QSM, while applications of QSM outside the brain have occurred more recently. This course deals with both the technical aspects specific to QSM of the body and some of its clinical applications.
Pascal Spincemaille

15:30
Application of Electrical Properties Mapping

The contrast in electrical properties (EP’s) between regions of interest (ROI’s) is typically limited to less than 30%; within-subject and between-subject variability is also on the order of 30%. The SNR of reconstructed EP’s depends on the reconstruction method used; for Laplacian-based EP reconstruction, SNR depends on field strength, absolute value of EP’s and (ROI_size)3.5.  At 3T and 7T, some applications for which relatively large ROI EP’s are sought have promising results using standard EP reconstruction. In order for EP mapping to become a reality at spatial resolutions useful for clinical diagnosis, more advanced reconstruction methodologies are likely needed.
Ileana Hancu

15:50
Break & Meet the Teachers

16:05
Review of Algorithms of QSM

Quantitative susceptibility mapping aims to solve the magnetic dipolar inverse problem to reconstruct tissue magnetic susceptibility distributions from single- or multi-echo GRE phase data. Being an ill-conditioned inverse problem, computation of magnetic susceptibility is challenging and requires conditioning. Several approaches to solve this problem exist, including threshold-based masking or kernel modification, utilizing data redundancy achieved by multiple MRI measurements with different orientations of the object, or applying regularization techniques that incorporate prior information about the spatial distribution of susceptibility. Several of these approaches will be reviewed in this lecture.
Jürgen Reichenbach

16:25
Microstructural Effect on Susceptibility

High field studies have brought to light not only that the composition of tissues affects MRI susceptibility contrast, but also that a tissue’s sub-voxel structure at scales all the way down to the molecular level plays an important role as well. In this overview, various ways will be discussed by which sub-voxel structure can affect magnetic susceptibility contrast, and the extraction of quantitative magnetic susceptibility values.  In addition, opportunities study the microstructural aspects of brain tissue with susceptibility weighted MRI will be reviewed, with an emphasis for inferring the orientation of fiber bundles in white matter and the relative size of the myelin water compartment.  
Jeff Duyn

16:45
QSM Software Demo

This demo focuses on the processing pipeline of the 2016 QSM Reconstruction Challenge. The aims of the Challenge were (i) to test the ability of QSM algorithms to recover the underlying susceptibility from phase data, and (ii) to provide a dataset that would help benchmark existing and future techniques. The demo begins with raw phase data and applies unwrapping, background removal, transmit phase mitigation, and finishes with fast dipole inversion techniques: TKD and Closed-Form L2-regularization. This replicates the pipeline through which the benchmark susceptibility maps were computed for the Challenge, and can serve as a starting point in future studies. 
Berkin Bilgic

16:45
QSM Software Demo

We have developed robust QSM software for both clinicians and researchers. For clinicians interested in using QSM in their daily practices, we present an automated QSM workflow that can be implemented across major MRI manufacturers at both 1.5 and 3T. QSM is automatically reconstructed and available for viewing at the end of each patient MRI session. For researchers interested in further developing QSM algorithms, we present MATLAB tools and source codes for the core Bayesian QSM algorithm, along with implementation for nonlinear field estimation, field unwrapping and background field removal. A GUI tool is provided and demonstrated.
Zhe Liu

16:45
QSM Software Demo

Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and susceptibility tensor imaging (STI) are two recently developed imaging methods for quantifying tissue’s magnetic property. Magnetic susceptibility offers a new contrast for high-resolution anatomical imaging; it further provides important information on tissue’s chemical composition, especially myelin and iron, and white matter microstructures of the brain. However, processing QSM and STI still requires advanced technical expertise. The growing application and wider acceptance of this new technique has generated a need for a comprehensive software package that can easily perform all these analysis. Here, we have developed such a tool named “STI Suite”. This software is based on our previous works. In this Matlab-based software package, we have implemented the essential algorithms for phase processing, QSM, STI, and related analysis tools. To facilitate the dissemination and evaluation of these methods, we make STI Suite freely available at http://people.duke.edu/~cl160/ for non-commercial academic use. STI Suite contains both Matlab command-line functions and graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for phase processing, QSM, STI, and related visualization and ROI analysis tools.

Hongjiang Wei

17:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Other

Newbie Reception

Hilton Hawaiian Village Great Lawn Saturday 19:00 - 21:00 (no CME credit)



Sunday, 23 April 2017

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Other

ISMRM Fun Run 2017

Sunday 5:00 - 7:30 (no CME credit)


Weekend Course

IVIM & Cerebrovascular Reserve

Organizers: Hanzhang Lu, Ph.D. & Stephan E. Maier, M.D.,Ph.D.

Room 311 Sunday 8:15 - 11:45 Moderators: Hanzhang Lu & Stephan Maier

8:15
Introduction to IVIM

Intravoxel Incoherent Motion (IVIM) refers to translational movements which within a given voxel and during the measurement time present a distribution of speeds in orientation and/or amplitude. The IVIM concept has been used to estimate perfusion in tissues as blood flow in randomly oriented capillaries mimics a pseudo-diffusion process. IVIM-based perfusion MRI, which does not require contrast agents, has gained momentum recently, especially in the field oncology. In this introduction the basic principles, models, technical requirements and limitations inherent to IVIM-based perfusion MRI, as well as new, non-perfusion applications of IVIM MRI, such as virtual MR Elastography will be outlined.   
Denis Le Bihan

8:45
IVIM in the Body

Intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), which decomposes diffusion-weighted MRI signals in to microcirculation and microstructural components, has seen tremendous application throughout the body.  This presentation will review the major trends, findings, and challenges of this surge of activity.
Eric Sigmund

9:15
IVIM in the Brain

The lecture targets physicists, engineers and physicians with an interest in advanced brain perfusion imaging with intravoxel incoherent motion. 
Christian Federau

9:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:15
Introduction To Cerebrovascular Reserve & Its Measurements

Cerebrovascular reserve is a marker of the brain's ability to compensate for a decreased perfusion pressure which would otherwise lead to a decreased cerebral blood flow with consequently ischemic events. In this lecture we will describe the concept of cerebrovascular reserve, we will briefly go through the different MRI methods to evaluate the cerebrovascular reserve and we will describe the challenges available to assess the cerebrovascular reserve. 
Jill De Vis

10:45
MRI Measurement of Cerebrovascular Reactivity: Clinical Implementation

The interest in translating MRI mapping of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) for the clinical assessment of hemodynamic insufficiency secondary to cerebrovascular disease is increasing. This presentation will focus on the current issues and potential solutions facing widespread dissemination of this methodology. Issues regarding the flow stimulus, flow sensitive pulse sequences, data analysis, and clinically relevant detection thresholds will be presented.
David Mikulis

11:15
Applications of Cerebrovascular Reserve: Vascular Disease, Tumor, fMRI, Etc.

Measuring the brain perfusion responsive to the external vasodilators, termed cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), is a useful tool towards better understanding of brain pathophysiological conditions, such as arterial stenosis, brain tumor, dementia, and traumatic brain injury. Moreover, CVR evaluation could serve as a novel approach to normalize the BOLD fMRI signal and quantify neural activity evoked by stimulation in calibrated fMRI as well, paving the way for neuroscience research.
Shin-Lei Peng

11:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Body MRI: Optimize Your Clinical Practice: Approach to Setting Up a Body MRI Practice

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 315 Sunday 8:15 - 9:45 Moderators: Vikas Gulani & Darren Lum

8:15
An Update on Pulse Sequences & Hardware for Body MRI

This presentation will provide an update on pulse sequences and hardware for body MRI. This presentation is by no means a complete overview of the new hardware and pulse sequence development; due to the time constraints, this talk will highlight a few important developments pertinent to body MRI.
Shahid Hussain, MD, PhD, FACR

8:45
Contrast Agents & Their Applications

This educational talk provides a broad overview of gadolinium based contrast agents (GBCA) for MRI with a focus on the types of gadolinium chelators, toxicity concerns with a focus on nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), as well as potential applications for specific GBCA. Although numerous MRI contrast agents have been developed, this talk will focus on those that are clinically available to inform radiologists of potential clinical applications for GBCA. 
Joseph Ippolito

9:15
Non-Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging of the Body

Contrast is widely used in body MRI, but is it always necessary? This presentation will review clinical scenarios and protocols where contrast may not be required.
Ruth Lim

9:45
Break & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Multiparametric Imaging in Cancer: How & Why

Organizers: Gregory J. Metzger, Ph.D. & Natalie J. Serkova, Ph.D.

Room 314 Sunday 8:15 - 12:05 Moderators: Gregory Metzger & Natalie Serkova

8:15
Quantitative Multiparametric Imaging in Oncology

This course will introduce the different imaging modalities that are used in (clinical) oncology research. This lecture gives a brief overview of these imaging techniques and the quantitative information that can be derived from it. Combining information from different modalities can aid in answering typical questions related to oncology.  

Learning goals

At the end of this lecture you will know:

·       What different MR modalities are being used in oncology research (and clinic).

·       What their quantitative endpoint is.

·       What other imaging modalities such as PET and optical imaging have to offer for oncology (research) and what their quantitative endpoint is.

·       How information of different modalities can be combined in research and clinical questions.   

Jannie Wijnen

8:40
What Is the Ground Truth - Calibration & Standards

MR-based quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs) can provide anatomic and functional measures critical to the successful delivery of precision medicine by informing treatment selection, providing early non-invasive assessment of treatment response, and providing post-treatment surveillance.  There are significant barriers, however, to successful implementation of such measures across imaging systems, centers, and time, including the need for phantoms (physical and digital) and standards.  This presentation will provide examples of MR-based QIBs, describe key challenges to their disseminated implementation, and provide examples of approaches that a variety of agencies and organizations are taking to address those challenges.
Edward Jackson

9:05
Parameters Derived from Diffusion Weighted Imaging

John Gore

9:30
Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) Imaging - Heuristic Versus Quantitative

This lecture discusses the heuristic and quantitative methods for DCE-MRI data analysis, the clinical applications of both approaches in cancer imaging, the major factors that cause variabilities in the estimated heuristic metrics and quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters, and the need for standardization of data acquisition and analysis to improve reproducibility and repeatability and for consensus/guideline on whether heuristic or quantitative data analysis is the best-practice approach for a particular cancer imaging problem or topic.
Wei Huang

9:55
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:25
Other Methods: DSC, BOLD, ASL, MRS

This course will present a high level overview of the “other” MRI methods (dT1, DSC, BOLD, ASL, MRS) that have been used for the assessment of cancer, with a focus on their utility in brain tumors.  The specific emphasis will be on quantification, which is becoming increasingly necessary to detect and track changes over time with the goal of optimal response assessment.
Kathleen Schmainda

10:50
Feature Extraction & Radiomics

Radiomics is defined as: " “conversion of digital medical images into mineable high-dimensional data… motivated by the concept that biomedical images contain information that reflects underlying pathophysiology and that these relationships can be revealed via quantitative image analyses”. Radiomic features are comprised of imaging biomarkers (IB)Some key questions must be answered at an early stage: “Does the IB fulfill an unmet clinical need?”; “Does data exist to evaluate the IB and if not can it be obtained?”. At an early stage, technical validation including assessment of precision through repeatability and reproducibility must be determined. Furthermore, biologic and clinical validation must also be performed. Cost effectiveness must also be considered. The paradigm and consideraiton in radiomics research wil be reviewed.
Masoom Haider

11:15
Quantitative Multi-Model PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

PET and MR are two imaging modalities that complement each other, and by combining the two, both the anatomical depiction of MRI, and the high molecular sensitivity of PET can be exploited. With truly integrated PET/MR systems, PET and MR images can be acquired simultaneously in one imaging session, saving time and securing minimal need for registration between images. Within oncology, PET/MR could be a viable option in cancers where MR is the preferred imaging modality and where PET/CT currently has a limited role in the clinic.
Kirsten Selnæs

11:40
Panel Discussion

12:05
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Translational Musculoskeletal Imaging: from Qualitative to Quantitative

Organizers: Jenny T. Bencardino, M.D., Eric Y. Chang, M.D., Christine Chung, M.D. & Philip Robinson, M.D.

Room 316A Sunday 8:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Neal Bangerter & Catherine Roberts

8:15
MR Imaging Around Metal: Technical Aspects

Orthopedic implants cause significant artifact in MRI. Here, we will make a classification of these artifacts. Then approaches to minimize the susceptibility related artifacts are desciribed, such as the use of "wide band" sequences, view angle tilting and multi-spectral imaging methods. 

Clemens Bos

8:50
MR Imaging Around Metal: Clinical Applications

Metal implants are now commonplace in modern medicine. MRI evaluation of symptomatic patients with orthopedic hardware used to be severely limited by susceptibility artifact. However, recent advances in metal suppression techniques allow improved imaging around metal, making MRI effective for evaluation of patients with symptomatic implants, even at higher magnetic field strengths. This lecture will cover some of the common clinical applications of metal suppression MRI, particularly with respect to total hip and knee arthroplasties, and will also demonstrate the utility of metal suppression with respect to other implants and in the evaluation of patients with spinal hardware.
Kathryn Stevens

9:25
Acceleration Methods: Technical Aspects

MR quantitative imaging have been shown to be promising markers for detecting early degeneration and predicting disease progression in musculoskeletal (MSK) imaging due to its relatively independence of scanners/protocols. However, the long acquisition time and associated low resolution quantitative imaging have impeded their wide applications in clinical trials and practice. Recently compressed sensing and parallel imaging based acceleration methods have shown promise to address these challenges such that the quantitative imaging can be translated into clinical practice. Despite the extensive studies in other applications such as brain imaging, MR quantitative imaging in MSK has been overlooked. This course will teach some acceleration methods combining compressed sensing and parallel imaging and show their applications in MSK imaging. 
Leslie Ying

10:00
Acceleration Methods: Clinical Applications

Multiple different methods are now available which can been used to accelerate musculoskeletal MRI and improve the efficiency of MRI protocols for evaluating musculoskeletal diseases without compromising image quality or diagnostic performance.  These methods including the use of highly efficient spiral and radial k-space trajectories, 3T scanners, parallel imaging acceleration, isotropic resolution imaging, compressed sensing k-space under-sampling, and T2 shuffling. 
Richard Kijowski

10:35
Break & Meet the Teachers

11:05
MSK Applications of Diffusion Weighted Imaging: Technical Aspects

The objective of this talk is to present a hands-on on the acquisition and processing of diffusion-weighted imaging tailored to MSK applications. In this presentation we will

explain how diffusion is measured and which is the meaning of the experimental parameters;
  • discuss the different acquisition strategies for diffusion-weighted imaging; and learn how to optimize a diffusion protocol for a given


Jose Raya

11:40
MSK Applications of Diffusion Weighted Imaging: Clinical Applications

Won Hee Jee

12:15
Break & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Traumatic Brain Imaging: Whom, How, When

Organizers: Alex L. MacKay, D.Phil. & Andre Obenaus, Ph.D.

Room 312 Sunday 8:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Tim Duong & Andre Obenaus

8:15
MRI in Current Clinical Practice for TBI

Esther Yuh

8:45
Animal Models for MRI in TBI

TBI is devastating yet currently without a cure. Investigators are seeking therapeutic strategies through the preclinical animal model to elucidate changes occurring after brain injury and identify potential neuroprotective therapies for brain-injured patients. The choice of animal model depends on the research goal and underlying objectives. This lecture will introduce the animal models of TBI commonly used for MRI study and explain their biomechanical, pathological and neurological differences in characteristics. Recent advances of MRI in probing the pathophysiology responses in experimental TBI will also be reviewed.
Tsang-Wei Tu

9:15
Advances in White Matter Imaging

Sumit Niogi

9:45
Neurovascular Consequences of Traumatic Brain Injury

Blood flow dysregulation is known to occur immediately after traumatic brain injury. Since neurovascular coupling is an essential component for maintaining the health of the neurovascular unit, impairment of this important regulatory mechanism can have significant implications on recovery from injury and may therefore be involved in the persistence of symptoms after injury. The ability to map dysregulation of blood flow using BOLD MRI cerebrovascular reactivity mapping offers the ability to investigate blood flow control providing a method to further understanding the relationship between post-injury blood flow derangements and recovery from injury. 
David Mikulis

10:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:45
Brain inflammation in Trauma – MRI, MRS & New Radioligands

Both early and chronic inflammation are therapeutic targets in brain trauma. New PET radioligands allow targeting of several key components of the CNS inflammation. This talk will review the emerging PET tracers for neuroinflammation, and consider them in the context of experimental traumatic brain injury, temporal disease progression, and available MRI and MRS approaches.
Riikka Immonen

11:15
Large Scale Clinical Studies in TBI

Pratik Mukherjee

11:45
Controversies in TBI

Enduring neuroimaging controversies exist in the study of traumatic brain injury (TBI) especially related to mild TBI (mTBI).  The presentation begins with a brief historical overview of various definitional statements as to what constitutes a TBI, especially involving “concussion.” Although various lesion quantification methods have become standard, when to scan post-injury and what to quantify remain part of the debate. Individual differences and the heterogeneity of the injury complicate and may mask effects at the individual level. With advanced neuroimaging techniques, controversies remain as to acquisition, post-processing and study design questions and what outcome metrics should be examined.
Erin Bigler

12:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

CEST Imaging

Organizers: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Peter van Zijl, Ph.D.

Room 316BC Sunday 8:15 - 11:45 Moderators: Guanshu Liu & Ravinder Reddy

8:15
CEST, Basic Principles, Contributions To Z-Spectrum

The purpose of this lecture is to introduce the ideas underlying 1) exchange effects in MRI, and CEST in particular; 2) the contributions to CEST contrast; 3) CEST comparisons to spectroscopy; and 4) current issues in CEST research related to pulse sequence design, imaging metrics, and solute specificity.
Daniel Gochberg

8:35
CEST Theory, Exchange, T1p, T2 Relationship

Analytical solutions provide sound insight in the Bloch-McConnell equations that underlie every exchange-weighted contrast, be it CEST, T1p or T2. In this lecture we show that for all experiment affecting the water magnetization, a single eigenvalue solution is able to describe all these experiments. This knowledge forms the basis for interpretation of the outcomes of different exchange-weighted contrasts as well as quantification of exchange.
Moritz Zaiss

8:55
Pulsed Exchange Transfer Technologies

Creative applications of pulse techniques can provide a way to increase detectability and specificity of CEST contrast. In this presentation, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of several pulsed CEST techniques including pulsed saturation, chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT), frequency labeled exchange (FLEX), and variable delay multi-pulse (VDMP) methods. 
Xiang Xu

9:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

9:30
Designing ParaCEST Agents (BASIC, Responsive)

This presentation will review Paramagnetic Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (ParaCEST) MRI contrast agents. These agents should be thoroughly characterized with regard to their dependence on saturation time, saturation power, concentration, pH and temperature.  Responsive ParaCEST agents can detect or measure enzyme activity, metabolites, metal ions, pH, redox state, temperature, and light. Some ParaCEST agents can also exhibit T2-Exchange relaxation. The intermediate exchange rate of a T2ex agent does not affect the T1 relaxivity of the agent.  Therefore, the T2/T1 ratio of a T2ex agent can be employed to detect a biomarker.  
Marty Pagel

9:50
LipoCEST, Basic Principles & Applications

Daniela Delli Castelli

10:10
DiaCEST Probes (Reporter Genes, Ion Detection, pH Etc)

In light of the recent demand for new tools that will allow better investigation of complex biological processes, a new field has evolved at the interfaces of synthetic chemistry, molecular engineering, and cellular imaging. Label-free molecular probes based on diaCEST agents for molecular and cellular imaging applications provide the scientific community with unprecedented versatility to monitor wide range of biological events in health and disease. Although diaCEST molecular sensors should be further developed, their performances marks the dawn of a new scientific era for molecular and cellular MRI
Amnom Bar-Shir

10:30
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:45
APT-Weighted MRI of Cancer & Ischemia

Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) imaging, a variant of the CEST-based molecular MRI technique, is based on the chemical exchange between free bulk water protons and the amide protons (-NH) of mobile proteins and peptides. Theoretically, the APTw-MRI signal relies mainly on the mobile amide proton concentration and amide proton exchange rate which are related to tissue pH. Therefore, APTw-MRI has the potential to detect brain tumors (where many proteins are overexpressed) and ischemic strokes (where pH drop). Early pre-clinical and clinical data suggest that APTw imaging has unique features by which to detect and characterize brain tumors and strokes.
Hye-Young Heo

11:05
Other Endogenous CEST Studies: GagCEST, GluCEST, Cr, etc.

The aim of this presentation will be to give the MRI practitioner a good overview of the methods used in CEST and MT imaging, the current state of the art, and to outline the opportunities and limitations of the methods with respect to particular applications.
Alexej Jerschow

11:25
GlycoCEST, GlucoCEST, pH Agents, Translation to Humans

CEST is a powerful technique to measure metabolites and other molecules in small concentration through indirect exchange of its labile protons by saturation transfer. In this presentation, a review of its use to indirectly assess metabolic processes is presented, based on amide proton transfer imaging, as well as GlucoCEST and GlycoCEST.
Xavier Golay

11:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

RF Engineering: Coils

Organizers: Gregor Adriany, Ph.D. , Mary P. McDougall, Ph.D. & Graham C. Wiggins, D.Phil.

Room 313A Sunday 8:30 - 12:00 Moderators: Ryan Brown & Hiroyuki Fujita

8:30
Basics of Transmission Lines & Power Transfer

Fundamentals of transmission lines and power transfer are presented to help in the understanding, design, implementation and performance evaluation of MRI hardware.
Natalia Gudino

9:00
Volume & Surface Coils

RF coils (antennas) for MRI are designed to generate a RF magnetic field inside the patient. Large body volume coils are optimized for the generation of a homogeneous RF magnetic field. Local surface coils are designed to provide high signal to noise ratio. Different designs and related physical aspects are discussed.
Christoph Leussler

9:30
Multi-Tuned Coils

X-nuclei (13C, 31P, 19F etc) MRI and spectroscopy are of great interest since these methods provide a non-invasive technique to study in-vivo metabolite changes due to various diseases. To provide anatomical landmarks for interpretation of X-nuclei spectroscopic data, 1H anatomical images are required. To eliminate uncertainties associated with repositioning the patient, the RF coil must also resonate at the 1H frequency. This technique is called double-tuning (DT) of the RF coils. The choice of DT design is determined by the requirements of a specific application. Various methods of constructing DT RF surface coils, volume coils, and phased arrays are discussed.
Nikolai Avdievich

10:00
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:30
Receive Arrays & Circuitry

Boris Keil

11:00
Transmit Arrays & Circuitry

As the main magnetic field strength increases, the corresponding RF wavelength is shortened. This leads to pronounced wave effects in the transmit field, causing inhomogeneous excitation. Multi-channel arrays provide additional degrees of freedom to mitigate such effects and to manipulate (or to tailor) RF transmission. Roughly these can be divided in 3 types, namely local arrays, remote circumferential arrays and travelling wave arrays. Examples of these arrays are presented in this educational talk.
Stephan Orzada

11:30
RF Modelling

Mikhail Kozlov

12:00
Break & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Image Acquisition & Reconstruction

Organizers: Edward V.R. DiBella, Ph.D. & Neville D. Gai, Ph.D.

Room 313BC Sunday 8:30 - 12:00 Moderators: Mariya Doneva & Neville Gai

8:30
MR Basics (Refresher) Recap of Physics of RF & k-Space Acquisition.

Daniel Herzka

9:00
Excitation & Parallel Transmission

William Grissom

9:30
Cartesian & Non-Cartesian Sampling Schemes - Advantages & Disadvantages

This educational talk will cover the advantages and disadvantages of Cartesian and non-Cartesian sampling techniques.  Cartesian, radial, and spiral k-space scanning methods will be compared with respect to scan efficiency, hardware considerations, off-resonance effects, motion sensitivity, and scan acceleration.  
Craig Meyer

10:00
Break & Meet the Teachers

10:30
Motion Sensitization: PC Imaging etc

Motion sensitization techniques are used in various applications, such as flow imaging, black blood imaging, bright blood imaging, etc. Technical differences in motion/flow sensitization methods are discussed in this presentation. 
Mitsue Miyazaki

11:00
Motion Compensation: Pulse Sequence & Reconstruction Strategies

Over the past decade Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has become an increasingly important non-invasive tool in risk assessment and treatment monitoring of cardiovascular disease. However, despite ongoing progress and developments in MR acquisition and reconstruction technology, physiological motion remains a major problem in many cardiovascular MRI applications. Since MR acquisition is slow compared to physiological motion, the extensive cardiac and respiratory induced motion of the heart during the acquisition period can degrade image quality by introducing ghosting and blurring like motion artifacts. Several cardiac and respiratory motion compensation techniques have been proposed over the last two decades to overcome this problem. These techniques are based on minimizing or correcting the motion during the acquisition. This part of the Image Acquisition & Reconstruction Course at ISMRM 2017 will include an overview of some of these methods, discussing their strengths and limitations.
René Botnar

11:30
Reduced FOV, Reference Scans, Gradient Pre-Emphasis

This lecture focuses on three pulse sequence strategies to increase spatial resolution, accelerate acquisition, and improve image quality while reducing artifacts.  First, strategies for reducing the field-of-view (FOV) are described using examples of spatial saturation, multi-dimensional RF excitation, and selective RF refocusing.  Second, reference scans are presented for measuring errors in k-space and enabling various phase corrections in echo-train pulse sequences.  Third, gradient pre-emphasis is discussed as an effective method to reduce the adverse effects caused by eddy currents in a variety of pulse sequences. Although these three topics may appear isolated, together they reflect a central theme of how to improve image quality and/or speed while avoiding artifacts.
Xiaohong Joe Zhou

12:00
Lunch & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Body MRI: Optimize Your Clinical Practice: Focal Liver Lesions

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 315 Sunday 10:15 - 11:15 Moderators: Sooah Kim & Lorenzo Mannelli

10:15
MRI of Focal Lesions in the Non-Cirrhotic Liver

The differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in the non-cirrhotic liver is broad. MRI plays a crucial role in the non-invasive histologic characterization of these lesions and the decision making for patient management. In this talk we will present a simple, practical approach to focal hepatic lesions, review the MRI findings in the most common focal lesions in the non-cirrhotic liver, and discuss some of the pitfalls in image interpretation.
Ivan Pedrosa

10:45
MRI in the Cirrhotic liver

MRI in the cirrhotic liver has important roles in the standard care of cirrhotic patients. Recent advance in MRI also offers functional information which can serve as MR-based biomarker to predict patients’ outcome.
Utaroh Motosugi


Weekend Course

Body MRI: Optimize Your Clinical Practice: GI

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 315 Sunday 11:15 - 12:15 Moderators: Sooah Kim & Lorenzo Mannelli

11:15
MR Enterography

Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography is a robust alternative to modalities utilizing ionizing radiation in evaluating small bowel and surrounding structures in children and adults. Technical advances enabling rapid relatively motion-insensitive MR sequences and protocol modifications adapted to patients’ ages and morbidities will be detailed.  Image optimization improves diagnostic capabilities, further enhanced by systematic review. Image interpretation, from detection and characterization to quantification of disease burden in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - and increasingly other bowel disorders - will be discussed. The expanding role MR enterographic findings play as imaging biomarkers in the management of IBD will also be considered.  
Mary-Louise Greer

11:45
Rectal CA Staging

This lecture will cover the basic information needed to properly perform and interpret baseline MRI for rectal cancer staging. It includes recommended techniques and parameters by the ESGAR 2012/2016 guidelines. It illustrates how to interpret T- and N- staging as well as proper assessment of the CRM and of EMVI. It discusses geographic differences in treatment around the world and also introduces staging of low rectal cancer involving the anal sphincter apparatus.
Marc Gollub

12:15
Lunch & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Image Acquisition & Reconstruction

Organizers: Edward V.R. DiBella, Ph.D. & Neville D. Gai, Ph.D.

Room 313BC Sunday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Edward DiBella & Claudia Prieto

13:15
Sparsity & Compressed Sensing

Incomplete data sampling is an attractive approach to accelerate MRI but it requires prior knowledge-driven image reconstruction. Sparsity is a powerful concept that allows linking many different types of prior knowledge to the mathematical apparatus adopted in MR image reconstruction. Compressed sensing theory establishes conditions for optimal use of sparse representations for high quality MR image reconstruction from undersampled data. In this talk, we will cover the aforementioned concepts of advanced image reconstruction and demonstrate real examples of accelerated structural and dynamic MRI. We will also discuss both theoretical requirements of compressed sensing and essential aspects of its practical implementation.
Alexey Samsonov

13:45
MR Fingerprinting

Quantitative MR measurements are essential to assess complex changes in the brain and monitor treatment outcomes. Although full quantitative multi-parametric acquisition has long been the goal of research in MR, the conventional methods typically provide information on a single parameter at a time, thus requiring significant scan time. The purpose of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is to introduce a new framework to data acquisition and post-processing that permits the simultaneous quantification of multiple tissue properties in a time efficient manner.
Dan Ma

14:15
Dictionary & Model-Based Methods

This lecture explains the principles of model-based reconstruction methods and their linearization using dictionaries for MR parameter mapping.  
Mariya Doneva

14:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:15
Simultaneous Multi-Slice Methods

Steen Moeller

15:45
Motion Compensated Reconstruction

Sajan Goud Lingala

16:15
MRI & Manifolds

Novel image and patch manifold models that can exploit the non-linear and non-local redundancies in a dynamic dataset will be introduced. Specifically, the collection of images/patches in the dataset is assumed to be on a smooth manifold. I will introduce novel iterative algorithms to exploit the structure of the data. The use of these algorithms enables implicit motion compensation and motion resolution, and hence is a good alternative to current strategies that perform these operations explicity.
Mathews Jacob

16:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Recent Advances in Diffusion, Perfusion & fMRI

Organizers: Daniel C. Alexander, Ph.D., Fernando Calamante, Ph.D., Benedikt A. Poser, Ph.D., Joshua S. Shimony, M.D., Ph.D. & Steven P. Sourbron, Ph.D.

Room 311 Sunday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Joshua Shimony & Steven Sourbron

13:15
DCE/DSC with Multiple Echoes: Blurring the Boundaries

Contrast-enhanced MRI methods follow the dynamic passage of exogenous paramagnetic contrast agents to provide perfusion-related parameters, such as cerebral blood volume and cerebral blood flow, or permeability-related parameters, such as the volume transfer constant or extravascular extracellular volume. Perfusion- and permeability-related biomarkers can inform on different, but complementary, aspects related to vascular proliferation and angiogenic processes. Separate acquisitions and contrast injections are typically used to acquire both perfusion (DSC) and permeability (DCE) in patients. More advanced acquisitions involving multiple echoes permit simultaneous assessment of both perfusion and permeability information and may provide new insight into tumor-induced hemodynamic changes.
Ashley Stokes

13:45
ASL with Multiple Inversion & Echo Times

This presentation will describe extensions of the standard ASL method which enable quantification of extra haemodynamic parameters, additional to tissue perfusion. These parameters include arterial and tissue arrival times, water exchange times between the intra- and extra-vascular compartments, and estimation of partial volume effects. Changes to the acquisition scheme required to achieve these extra measurements, using multiple inflow times and echo times, will be described, and examples of uses of the techniques in vivo will be shown.
David Thomas

14:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

14:30
Multi-Echo, Multi-Band Acquisitions for BOLD

Keith Jamison

15:00
Multi Echo ICA (MICA)

This talk covers the applications of multi-echo (ME)-fMRI in combination with independent components analysis (ICA), called ME-ICA (Kundu et al., 2011). The ME-ICA approach to fMRI acquisition and analysis greatly increases the fidelity of BOLD fMRI while reducing the burden of artifacts across fMRI applications. Thus, the target audience of this talk includes all users of fMRI. Examples include users of resting state fMRI, task-based fMRI, pharmaco-fMRI, clinical fMRI of patients with lesions, and preclinical fMRI.  The evidence presented indicates that the ME-fMRI approach expands the range of experiments that is practicable using fMRI.
Prantik Kundu

15:30
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:45
Acquisition: Novel Gradient Waveforms

Most diffusion MRI is today performed with the so-called pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) method, which encodes for diffusion using two gradient pulses. This method is sensitive to cellularity of tumours, orientation of white matter tracts, and microstructure features such as axon density and cell sizes. However, the PGSE method is fundamentally limited in several ways. This talk will pinpoint these limitations and show how novel gradient waveforms can overcome them.
Markus Nilsson

16:15
Analysis: Tissue & Signal Models

The diffusion signal provides unique, but indirect information about tissue microstructure. In this course, we will examine two main avenues for diffusion analysis: signal representations and tissue models. The former render the signal behavior without any assumptions about the tissue structure and thus produce sensitive but unspecific metrics (e.g. fractional anisotropy from DTI). For models, a theoretical expression of the diffusion signal in a given geometry (assumed to describe the tissue well) is fit to the data and characteristic parameters of the geometry are extracted. This approach should yield more specific metrics but is also more challenging to implement correctly.
Ileana Jelescu

16:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Body MRI: Optimize Your Clinical Practice: Pelvis & GU

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 315 Sunday 13:15 - 16:15 Moderators: Jurgen Fütterer & Valeria Panebianco

13:15
Female Pelvis - Uterus

MRI plays an important role in accurate classification, treatment selection and planning of suspected uterine anomalies as well as evaluation of other benign uterine conditions such as leiomyomas and adenomyosis. It plays a crucial role in surgical planning of patients with endometrial cancer by accurately predicting depth of myometrial invasion, cervical stroma invasion and lymph node involvement. In young patients with low grade endometrial cancer who wish to preserve fertility, MRI is used to exclude myometrial invasion prior to hormonal therapy. MRI is valuable in distinguishing cervical from endometrial origin of uterine cancer in cases of biopsy proven adenocarcinoma.
Evis Sala

13:45
Adnexal Masses

The superior soft tissue contrast of MRI aids characterisation of adnexal masses.  T2-W contrast is the mainstay of diagnosis. Enhancement of T1-W images with gadolinium chelate is helpful in refining diagnosis. Examinations are optimized by scanning after the patient has emptied her bladder and intramuscular antiperistaltic agents have been administered. Classification into benign and malignant pathology is crucial for deciding on type of surgical management.  In addition, recognition of disseminated malignant disease determines whether or not neoadjuvant chemotherapy is warranted prior to surgical debulking.
Nandita deSouza

14:15
Fetal MRI

Fetal Body MRI requires different contrasts to adequately visualize the organs at different stages of maturation. A profound knowledge of often complex pathologies that may involve more than one organ, and that may be diagnosed prenatally, is necessary for a tailored management of these pregnancies. Among all extra-CNS indications assessment of the fetal lungs has become the most important one, allowing an accurate prediction of the respiratory state of the newborn.
Daniela Prayer

14:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:15
Renal

This clinically oriented talk will review the Renal Mass MRI technique/scanning protocols at NYU, review the basics in renal mass lesion subtyping and pitfalls in the characterization of renal lesions and the clinical impact therein.
Nicole Hindman

15:45
Prostate

This session discusses opportunities to take full advantage of current multiparametric prostate MRI to guide individual management in multiple clinical scenarios that affect prostate cancer patients.
Hebert Alberto Vargas

16:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

MRI, MRS & Molecular Imaging to Diagnose Disease & Assess Treatment

Organizers: Carolyn E. Mountford, D.Phil. & Bruce R. Rosen, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 314 Sunday 13:15 - 16:15 Moderators: In-Young Choi & Brenda Bartnik Olson

13:15
Deregulation, Disease & Damage Recorded by MRS

This presentation will enable you to describe the current state of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the detection of pathology; understand the drawbacks and problems associated with the use of MRS; and understand how MRS could be further improved to allow better diagnostic and research utility.
Caroline Rae

13:45
Imaging Applications of Ferumoxytol for MRI: Focusing on the Vasculature & Inflammation

Ferumoxytol is an ultrasmall, paramagnetic iron oxide and also a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent. With its unique features (long plasma half-life and delayed intracellular uptake) ferumoxytol may pay a crucial role in the MR imaging in the future. We have completed over 700 MRI studies with ferumoxytol in our institution, primarily for CNS imaging. In this presentation we go through the general properties and the specific opportunities of ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI in and outside the brain. 
Edward Neuwelt

14:15
Molecular Imaging of In Vivo Gene Expression & Intracellular Messengers

We cover the use MRI molecular imaging
Zahi Adel Fayad

14:45
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:15
MR-Guided Radiotherapy

Online MRI guidance is the new disruptive technology for radiotherapy that will facilitate online and real-time adaptive treatments. An overview of the current hybrid MRI-guided treatment machines will be given. The MRI-Linac, which combines a 1.5T closed bore system with a modern 7MV linear accelerator will be described. Its clinical introduction is highlighted and the potential for future treatments and research is outlined.  
Rob Tijssen

15:45
Imaging of Non-Proton Nuclei: Methodology & Applications in Clinical Research

In this presentation I will give an brief overview of X-nuclei MRI/MRS, of its challenges and potential clinical applications. I will mainly focus on 23Na MRI and 31P MRS/MRI as examples of potentially useful non-proton imaging methods that could give interesting new metabolic information in vivo in a non-invasive and quantitative manner.
Guillaume Madelin

16:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Translational Musculoskeletal Imaging: From Qualitative to Quantitative

Organizers: Jenny T. Bencardino, M.D., Eric Y. Chang, M.D., Christine Chung, M.D. & Philip Robinson, M.D.

Room 316A Sunday 13:15 - 16:05 Moderators: Neal Bangerter & Catherine Roberts

13:15
Quantitative MR Imaging: Technical Aspects

Quantitative MRI in musculoskeletal tissues is challenging. Our technical ability to accurately measure and reliably interpret MRI parameters in musculoskeletal tissues can be influenced by the complexity of our specimens (human patient, animals, ex vivo specimen), instrumentation, experimental details, and data-analysis. This talk examines a number of these issues and their impact on the robustness of quantitative MRI, using the examples mainly from articular cartilage and its degradation process that leads to osteoarthritis. A brief comparison between articular cartilage and other musculoskeletal tissues (tendon, nasal cartilage, meniscus, and bone) will also be given.
Yang Xia

13:50
Quantitative MR Imaging: Clinical Applications

Quantitative techniques such T2/T2* imaging, sodium MRI and gagCEST help to analyze the composition of the connective tissues

Results from quantitative techniques provide additional information and predictive markers for MSK structures and have the potential for the development of imaging biomarkers.

Siegfried Trattnig

14:25
Break & Meet the Teachers

14:55
MR Spectroscopy: Technical Aspects

Chemical shift encoding techniques can quantify chemical species content and investigate metabolic changes in physiological and diseased conditions of multiple musculoskeletal tissues, including skeletal muscle, bone marrow, intervertebral disc, cartilage and bone. The present lecture aims to provide an overview of the most important technical aspects when applying chemical shift encoding techniques, including single-voxel magnetic resonance spectroscopy, chemical shift imaging and chemical shift encoding-based water-fat separation techniques, for targeting lipids, creatine, macromolecules, choline and phosphorous metabolites in musculoskeletal tissues.
Dimitrios Karampinos

15:30
MR Spectroscopy: Clinical Applications

MR spectroscopy is able to quantify intramyocellular lipids, intrahepatic lipids, and marrow adipose tissue in several clinical conditions.
Miriam Bredella

16:05
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Neurovascular MRI: from Micro to Macro

Organizers: Christopher P. Hess, M.D.,Ph.D. & Daniel M. Mandell, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 312 Sunday 13:15 - 16:40 Moderators: Kevin DeMarco & Christopher Hess

13:15
Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging

Mahmud Mossa-Basha

13:40
Blood Flow Imaging

MR imaging is the only effective modality for imaging hemodynamic conditions in the intracranial vasculature.  The use of these methods for evaluating healthy and diseased vessels will be discussed.
David Saloner

14:05
Cerebrovascular Reserve Imaging

To understand the hemodynamic changes due to a decrease in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and evaluation of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR) capacity in patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is important to determine the risk of future ischemic events and in the selection and planning of the therapeutic interventions. 3 approaches (positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography and MRI) can be used in the evaluation of CVR. We will present the basic concept to measure CVR in patients with CVD combined by nuclear medicine imaging and introduce the possibility of MRI application in measuring CVR.
Naomi Morita

14:30
Penumbra Imaging

In acute stroke imaging, the “penumbra” usually refers to brain tissue that is considered to be at risk for infarction. Identification of the penumbra is consistently a focus of active imaging research, particularly in the development of strategies for selecting patients for intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical thrombectomy. Penumbral imaging approaches usually employ perfusion imaging, which provides a variety of complementary measurements of cerebral hemodynamics at the microvascular level. This talk will explore the relationship of penumbral imaging to fundamental principles of cerebrovascular physiology, addressing both currently implemented penumbral imaging techniques, and potential novel applications of perfusion imaging in stroke care. 
William Copen

14:55
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:25
Venous Imaging

With increasing use of high field scanners and high resolution imaging protocols such as susceptibility-weighted imaging that can be used to visualize fine venous structures, understanding of the structure of fine venous anatomy has become important. Deep medullary veins drain into subependymal veins with four convergence zones and show parallel distribution patterns adjacent to the body or inferior horn and a radial pattern in the frontal horn or trigon of the lateral ventricle. Some disorders are related to deep medullary veins.
Toshiaki Taoka

15:50
Neurovascular Case Review

Michele Johnson

16:15
Identifying & Characterizing Arteriovenous Shunting Lesions with Arterial Spin Labeling

Greg Zaharchuk

16:40
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

Biostatistics for Imaging Studies

Organizers: Dwight G. Nishimura, Ph.D.

Room 316BC Sunday 13:15 - 16:45 Moderators: Priti Balchandani & Dwight Nishimura

13:15
Designing Studies of Diagnostic Imaging

The short-course is broken down into three sections:

First Hour: Foundations of Imaging Studies    

Second Hour: Statistical Methods in Imaging Studies

Third Hour: Advanced Methods 

Nancy Obuchowski

13:45
Basic Concepts in Calculations of Sample Size & Statistical Power

The Overview of Biostatistical Data Analysis Methods is comprised of the following 3 parts:  

  • Part 1: Basic concepts in calculations of sample size and statistical power
  • Part 2: ROC Analysis in diagnostic medicine
  • Part 3: Statistical prognostic/predictive modelling of quantitative imaging biomarkers (QIBs)
Todd Alonzo

14:15
Break & Meet the Teachers

14:30
Part 1 of Assessing Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers (QIBs)

14:55
Part 1 of ROC Analysis in Diagnostic Medicine

15:20
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:35
Part 2 of ROC Analysis: Multi-Reader ROC & Other Advanced ROC Methods

15:55
Part 2 of Assesssing QIBs: Statistical Prognostic/Predictive Modeling of QIBs

16:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Weekend Course

RF Engineering: Coils

Organizers: Gregor Adriany, Ph.D. , Mary P. McDougall, Ph.D. & Graham C. Wiggins, D.Phil.

Room 313A Sunday 14:00 - 16:15 Moderators: Ryan Brown & Hiroyuki Fujita

14:00
Dielectric Materials & Resonators

This talk will review and explain the dielectric effects in MRI using simple examples. Its applications in enhancing RF field using ultrahigh dielectric constant materials at 1.5T, 3T and 7T will be presented. 

Qing Yang

14:30
UHF Coil & Array Design

Karthik Lakshmanan

15:00
Break & Meet the Teachers

15:30
Construction of Rx Arrays

We aim to present a step-by-step method to construct a transmit array. The measurements will be demonstrated using an 8-channel transmit array. We will then extend this method to the development of a dual-row transmit array. Construction and charecterisation of a receive coil element and combining a transmit and recieve array is also included.
Shajan Gunamony

16:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Plenary Session

Lauterbur Lecture

Plenary Hall Sunday 17:00 - 18:15

17:00
Opening Remarks - Society Awards

17:30
Lauterbur Lecture: MRI as a Window into Cardiac Function

Paul Lauterbur not only invented the basic concept of MRI, he also pioneered many of its extensions and applications, including to cardiovascular imaging. My research career has focused in part on exploring some of the ways in which the unique capabilities of MRI to reveal motion can be used to study cardiac function. While this area has still had limited clinical impact, due to persistent technical limitations, there is ongoing progress in overcoming them, with promising prospects for the future of MRI for characterizing cardiac function.
Leon Axel


Other

Opening Reception

Exhibition Hall Sunday 18:30 - 20:00 (no CME credit)



Monday, 24 April 2017

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Sunrise Session

Cardiovascular MR: "More is Better": LV Structure & Mechanics

Organizers: Daniel K. Sodickson, M.D., Ph.D., Bernd J. Wintersperger, M.D. & Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Ph.D.

Room 310 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Daniel Ennis & David Sosnovik

7:00
Cardiac Diffusion
Martijn Froeling

7:25
Cardiac Mechanics
Daniel Auger

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Bleeding Edge of Brain Techniques: Fingerprinting & Hyperpolarized C13

Organizers: Fernando E. Boada, Ph.D. & Christopher P. Hess, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 311 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Fernando Boada & Christopher Hess

7:00
Hyperpolarized 13C: New Kind on the Block
Myriam Chaumeil

7:25
Brain MR Fingerprinting: Brain MR for the Masses?
Timothy Shepherd

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Contrast Mechanisms in MSK Imaging

Organizers: Jenny T. Bencardino, M.D., Eric Y. Chang, M.D., Christine Chung, M.D. & Philip Robinson, M.D.

Room 312 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Graeme Bydder & Ives Levesque

7:00
Magnetization Transfer: Applications in MSK imaging
Ives Levesque

7:25
Fat Water Separation: Applications in MSK imaging
Johan Berglund

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Overview & Technology

Organizers: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Joshua D. Trzasko, Ph.D.

Room 313A Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Curtis Johnson & Joshua Trzasko

7:00
Overview & History
Richard Ehman

7:25
MRE Technology
Ingolf Sack

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Individualized Brain MRI: Building a Neurosurgical Planning Toolbox

Organizers: Christopher P. Hess, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 313BC Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Jeffrey Berman & Manabu Kinoshita

7:00
Fiber Tractography for Practical Neurosurgical Application
Shawna Farquharson

7:25
Functional MRI for Practical Neurosurgical Application
Vivek Prabhakaran

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound in the Brain

Organizers: Edward V.R. DiBella, Ph.D. & Dennis L. Parker, Ph.D.

Room 314 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Kim Butts Pauly & Dennis Parker

7:00
MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound in the Brain - Description, Overview & Method
John Snell

7:25
MR-Guided Focused Ultrasound in the Brain - Clinical Potential & Relevance
Pejman Ghanouni

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

It Doesn’t Have to Be That Way: Extreme Fields & Gradients

Organizers: Michael S. Hansen, Ph.D. & Joshua D. Trzasko, Ph.D.

Room 315 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Michael Hansen & Shengzhen Tao

7:00
Extreme Fields
Thomas Witzel

7:25
Gradients
Gigi Galiana

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

fMRI: Best Practices & Cautionary Tales: Acquisition & Pathology

Organizers: Hanzhang Lu, Ph.D. & Karla Miller, Ph.D.

Room 316A Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Hanzhang Lu & Victoria Morgan

7:00
Acquisition Issues
Benedikt Poser

7:25
Pathological Issue (e.g. Metal Implants, Neurovascular Decoupling)
Jay Pillai

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

PI-RADS: Yes or No

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 320 Monday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Kathryn Fowler & Hebert Vargas

7:00
PI-RADS: YES!
Sadhna Verma

7:25
PI-RADS: NO!
Pieter De Visschere

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Traditional Poster: Acquisition, Reconstruction & Analysis

Exhibition Hall 1272-1296 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Cardiovascular

Exhibition Hall Monday 8:15 - 9:15 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Body: Breast, Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis

Exhibition Hall Monday 8:15 - 9:15 (no CME credit)

Study Groups

Hyperpolarization Methods & Equipment Study Group

Room 323ABC Monday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)


Study Groups

Psychiatric MR Spectroscopy & Imaging Study Group

Room 317AB Monday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)


Educational Course

ISMRM-SMRT Joint Forum: Assessing Implant Safety: in the Clinic Now & as the Field Strength Rises

Organizers: Amanda Golsch, MBA, R.T. (R)(MR) & Karla L. Miller, Ph.D.

Room 311 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Amanda Golsch & Maureen Hood

8:15
Introduction to MRI Safety
Vera Kimbrell


8:45
Evaluation of MRI Issues for Implants & Devices
Frank G Shellock, Ph.D., FACR, FACC, FISMRM1

1Radiology and Medicine, University of Southern California, Playa Del Rey, CA, United States


9:15
Implant Safety at Ultra-High Field
Stuart Clare1 and Jon Campbell1

1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

As the field strength rises to 7 Tesla and above, this talk will assess the risks of scanning patients with implants and surgeries at ultra-high-field and review what more needs to be done.

9:45
Building an MRI Safety Program
Bernd Ittermann1

1Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Berlin, Germany

Certain organizational roles are frequently encountered in the MRI safety context: the MR Director (MRD), the MR Safety Officer (MRSO) and the MR Safety Expert (MRSE). It is attempted to describe their respective responsibilities and how these relate to each other. In addition, a set of minimum requirements shall be identified, an MR operator in a research setting should fulfill before scanning human subjects.


10:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Power Pitch

Pitch: Interventional/Safety/Engineering

Power Pitch Theater A - Exhibition Hall Monday 8:15 - 9:15 Moderators: Caroline Jordan (no CME credit)

1
8:15
Overcoming Limitations of Virtual Observation Points in pTx using IMPULSE
Mihir Pendse1 and Brian K Rutt1

1Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

2
8:15
Optical-based probe for real time assessment of RF electrical field during MRI exam
Isabelle Saniour1, Gwenaël Gaborit2,3, Lionel Duvillaret3, Anne-Laure Perrier2, and Olivier Beuf1

1Univ. Lyon, CREATIS ; CNRS UMR 5220 ; INSERM U1206 ; INSA-Lyon ; UJM-Saint-Etienne ; Université Lyon1, Villeurbanne, France, 2Univ. Savoie-Mont-Blanc, IMEP-LAHC, Le Bourget-du-Lac, France, 3Kapteos, Sainte-Hélène-du-Lac, France

3
8:15
Modeling of Peripheral Nervous Stimulation Thresholds in Realistic Body Models
Mathias Davids1,2, Bastien Guérin2,3, Lothar R Schad1, and Lawrence L Wald2,3,4

1Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 2Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 4Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences Technology, Cambridge, United States

4
8:15
Cardiac Synchronization at Ultra-High Field Using a 3-Lead ECG Trigger Device
Daniel Stäb1, Juergen Roessler2, Kieran O'Brien3, Je Yen Su1, Christian Hamilton-Craig4, and Markus Barth1

1The Centre for Advanced Imaging, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia, 2Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany, 3Siemens Healthcare Pty Ltd, Brisbane, Australia, 4Richard Slaughter Centre of Excellence in CVMRI, The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane, Australia

5
8:15
A Combined 7 Tesla MRI/NMR Probe Head for Photochemical Applications.
Jens Groebner1, Gernot Heitmann1, Marcel Dommaschk1, Lukas M. Huber2, Eduard Stadler3, Reiner Umathum4, Frank D. Sönnichsen1, and Rainer Herges1

1Otto Diels Institute for Organic Chemistry, Kiel University, Kiel, Germany, 2Molecular Imaging North Competence Center, University Medical Center Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel, Germany, 3Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria, 4Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany

6
8:15
Evaluation of cardiac magnetic resonance thermometry in patients
Valery Ozenne1, Solenn Toupin1,2, Pierre Bour1, Baudouin Denis de Senneville3, Alexis Vaussy2, Matthieu Lepetit-Coiffé2, Pierre Jaïs4, Hubert Cochet4, and Bruno Quesson1

1Electrophysiology and Heart Modeling Institute, Bordeaux, France, 2Siemens Healthcare, Paris, France, 3Mathematical Institute of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France, 4Department of Cardiac Electrophysiology, Hôpital Cardiologique de Haut-Lévêque, Bordeaux, France

7
8:15
MRI-monitored Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion (ACDF) surgery: Observation of intra-procedural nerve decompression during surgery
Ehud J Schmidt1, Daniel F Kacher1, Wei Wang1, Mitchel B Harris2, Thomas C Lee1, Ravi Seethamraju3, Clare M Tempany1, and Jay Zampini2

1Radiology, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Womens Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3MRI, Siemens Healthcare, Boston, MA, United States

8
8:15
Water diffusivity changes in the brain following exposure to low levels of focused ultrasound energy
Sijia Guo1, Jiachen Zhuo1, Xin Lu1, Su Xu1, and Rao Gullapalli1

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

9
8:15
Low Rank plus Sparse Compressed Sensing Reconstruction for PRF Temperature Imaging
Zhipeng Cao1,2, Sumeeth V. Jonathan2,3, and William A. Grissom1,2

1Biomedical Engineernig, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Radiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

10
8:15
2D Multi-Spectral Thermometry for Monitoring Focused-Ultrasound Sonications Near Metallic Hardware
Hans Weber1, Pejman Ghanouni1, Aurea Pascal-Tenorio2, Kim Butts Pauly1, and Brian A. Hargreaves1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Comparative Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

11
8:15
Toward individualized specific absorption rates: Building a surface-based human head model
Mikhail Kozlov1, Benjamin Kalloch1,2, Pierre-Louis Bazin1, Mario Hlawitschka2, Nikolaus Weiskopf1, and Harald E Möller1

1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Leipzig University of Applied Science, Leipzig, Germany

12
8:15
Patient specific modeling of deep brain stimulation patients for MRI safety studies
Bastien Guerin1,2, Peter Serano3,4, Maria I Iacono3, Todd Herrington2,5, Alik Widge2,6, Darin Dougherty2,6, Giorgio Bonmassar1,2, Leonardo M Angelone3, and Lawrence Wald1,2

1Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Division of Biomedical Physics, OSEL, CDRH, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD, United States, 4Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States, 5Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, United States, 6Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, United States

13
8:15
Interventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Guided Carotid Embolectomy using a Novel MRI-Conditional Resonant Catheter: Demonstration of Preclinical Feasibility
Jeffrey K. Yang1, Andre Cote1, Caroline D. Jordan1, Aaron Losey1, David McCoy1, Andrew Chu2, Jay F. Yu1, Teri Moore1, Carol Stillson1, Fabio Settecase1, Matthew D. Alexander1, Andrew Nicholson1, Mariam Aboian1, Daniel L. Cooke1, Maythem Saeed1, Dave Barry2, Alastair J. Martin1, Mark W. Wilson1, and Steven W. Hetts1

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Penumbra Inc, Alameda, CA, United States

14
8:15
Acousto-optic Based Active MRI Marker for Interventional MRI Devices
Yusuf Samet Yaras1, Sarp Satir1, Cagla Ozsoy2, Rajiv Ramasawmy3, Adrienne E Campbell-Washburn3, Anthony Faranesh3, Robert Lederman3, Ozgur Kocaturk2, and Levent Degertekin1

1G.W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey, 3Division of Intramural Research, National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

15
8:15
MRI based RF safety characterization of implants using the implant response matrix: a simulation study.
Janot P. Tokaya1, Alexander J.E. Raaijmakers2,3, Peter R. Luijten2, and Cornelis A.T. van den Berg1

1Radiotherapy, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Biomedical Image Analysis, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands


Power Pitch

Pitch: 7T Neuroimaging

Power Pitch Theater B - Exhibition Hall Monday 8:15 - 9:15 Moderators: Penny Gowland & Christopher Hess (no CME credit)

16
8:15
The effects of B1+ correction of MP2RAGE on estimating cortical thickness and T1 at 7T
Roy Haast1, Dimo Ivanov1, Elia Formisano1, and Kâmil Uludağ1

1Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands

17
8:15
The relationship between cortical myeloarchitecture and functional connectivity in the human brain
Olivier E. Mougin1, Benjamin A.E. Hunt1, Prejaas K. Tewarie1, Nicolas Geades1, Peter G. Morris1, Matthew J. Brookes1, and Penny A. Gowland1

1Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

18
8:15
Towards in vivo spinal cord cyto- and myelo-architecture deciphering using multi-modal MRI parcellation at 7T
Manuel Taso1,2,3, Aurélien Massire1,2,3, Pierre Besson1,2, Arnaud Le Troter1,2, Maxime Guye1,2, Jean-Philippe Ranjeva1,2,3, and Virginie Callot1,2,3

1CRMBM, Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, Marseille, France, 2Pôle d'imagerie médicale, Hôpital de la Timone, CEMEREM, AP-HM, Marseille, France, 3iLab-Spine international associate laboratory, Marseille/Montréal, France

19
8:15
7T Quantitative Magnetization Transfer (qMT) of Cortical Gray Matter in Multiple Sclerosis Correlates with Cognitive Disability
Lydia McKeithan1,2, Bailey D. Lyttle2,3, Bailey A. Box2,3, Kristin P. O'Grady2,3, Richard D. Dortch1,2,3, Benjamin N. Conrad2, and Seth A. Smith1,2,3,4

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 3Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 4Department of Opthamology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN

20
8:15
Changes in structural network connectivity in early-stage multiple sclerosis are associated with cortical demyelination
Atef Badji1,2, Gabriel Mangeat1,3, Russell Ouellette3,4, Constantina Andrada Treaba3,4, Tobias Granberg3,4,5, Elena Herranz3,4, Celine Louapre3,4, Nikola Stikov1,6, Jacob Sloane4,7, Pierre Bellec 2, Caterina Mainero3,4, and Julien Cohen-Adad1,2

1NeuroPoly Lab, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Functional Neuroimaging Unit, CRIUGM, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, MGH, 4Harvard Medical School, 5Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, 6Montreal Health Institute, 7Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

21
8:15
3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 7 Tesla of patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy with non-lesional or inconclusive clinical MRIs: First Results
Rebecca Emily Feldman1, Madeline Cara Fields2, Bradley Neil Delman3, Lara Vanessa Marcuse4, and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY, United States, 3Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai Hospital

22
8:15
The value of 7T in the clinical evaluation of epileptic patients with focal cortical dysplasia
Kaibao Sun1,2, Xueyuan Wang3, Zhongwei Chen1,2, Chang Liu3, Jianfei Cui4, Zhentao Zuo1, Rong Xue1,2, Yan Zhuo1, Lin Chen1,2, Shuli Liang4, Tao Yu3, and Bo Wang1

1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Beijing MRI Center for Brain Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Xunanwu Hospital Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 4Chinese PLA general hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China

23
8:15
Individualized Tractography-Based Parcellation of the Globus Pallidus Pars Interna using 7T MRI in patients with Parkinson’s Disease Prior to DBS Surgery
Rémi Patriat1, Yuval Duchin1, Christophe Lenglet1, Joshua Aman2, Scott Cooper2, Jerrold Vitek2, and Noam Harel1

1CMRR / Radiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Neurology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

24
8:15
Assessment of cerebral vascular abnormalities in Huntington’s Disease at 7Tesla
Richard J Dury1, Sarah L Mason2, Francesca Cicchetti3, Janelle Drouin-Ouellet2, Roger A Barker2, Penny A Gowland1, and Susan T Francis1

1Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2John van Geest Centre for Brain Repair, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 3Département de Psychiatrie & Neurosciences, Université Laval, QC, Canada

25
8:15
7T TOF-MRA Shows Different Patterns of Perforating Artery in Patients with Intracranial Atherosclerosis Disease (ICAD) and Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL)
Qingle Kong1,2, Qi Yang3,4, Zhaoyang Fan3, Xianchang Zhang1,2, Yun Yuan5, Xiaojing Fang5, Jing An6, Yan Zhuo1, and Zihao Zhang1

1State Key Laboratory of Brain and Cognitive Science, Beijing MR Center for Brain Research, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Xuanwu Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 5Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 6Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, People's Republic of China

26
8:15
Intracranial vessel wall imaging in suspected cerebral vasculitis: evaluation of diagnostic value and treatment effects using 3T and 7T MRI
Nikki Dieleman1, Anja G. van der Kolk1, Catharina J.M. Frijns2, Anita A. Harteveld1, Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg1, Hugo J. Kuijf3, Arjen Lindenholz1, L. Jaap Kappelle2, Peter R. Luijten1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Images Science Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

27
8:15
Detection of intracranial vessel wall lesions using 7T MRI: patients with posterior circulation ischemia versus healthy controls
Anita A. Harteveld1, Anja G. van der Kolk1, H. Bart van der Worp2, Nikki Dieleman1, Peter R. Luijten1, Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

28
8:15
Metabolic differences between asymptomatic C9orf72 carriers and non-carriers assessed by brain 7T MRSI.
Henk-Jan Westeneng1, Carrie Wismans1, Abram D. Nitert1, Renée Walhout1, Peter R. Luijten2, Jannie P. Wijnen2, and Leonard H. van den Berg1

1Department of Neurology, Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

29
8:15
GABA and glutamate in children with Tourette Syndrome: a 7T 1H-MRS study
Nicolaas AJ Puts1,2, Richard AE Edden1,2, Matthew Ryan3, E Mark Mahone3,4, and Harvey S Singer5

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2FM Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Neuropsychology, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Department of Neurology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

30
8:15
Multi-Parametric MRI at 7 T Enables Differentiation of MS and Age-Related White Matter Lesions
Zahra Hosseini1,2, David A. Rudko3, Jacob A. Matusinec4, Marcelo kremenchutzky 5, Ravi Menon2,6, and Maria Drangova1,6,7

1Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 2Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, ON, Canada, 3Montreal Neurological Hospital and Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Medicine, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 5Department of Clinical Neurological Sciences, Schulich School of Medicine & Dentistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 6Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 7Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute


Oral

Young Investigator Awards

Room 310 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Elizabeth Hecht & Houchun Hu

31
8:15
Free-breathing volumetric fat/water separation by combining radial sampling, compressed sensing, and parallel imaging
Thomas Benkert1,2, Li Feng1,2, Daniel K. Sodickson1,2, Hersh Chandarana1,2, and Kai Tobias Block1,2

1Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

Fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo imaging is commonly used for abdominal MR examination. However, image quality can be compromised by inhomogeneous fat suppression and imperfect breath-holding. To overcome both limitations, we describe a novel technique for free-breathing fat/water separation (Dixon-RAVE).

Motion-robust acquisition is achieved by using radial sampling. A model-based reconstruction, which incorporates compressed sensing, parallel imaging, and fat deblurring, is used to obtain fat and water maps. Two extensions are described that enable motion-resolved fat/water separation (XD-Dixon-RAVE) and dynamic contrast-enhanced fat/water separation (DCE-Dixon-RAVE). The technique is demonstrated for various clinical applications, including free-breathing liver and breast exams in volunteers and patients.


32
8:35
Direct Quantitative 13C-Filtered 1H Magnetic Resonance Imaging of PEGylated Biomacromolecules In Vivo
Rohan D. A. Alvares1, Justin Y. Lau2,3, Peter M. Macdonald1, Charles H. Cunningham2,3, and R. Scott Prosser1,4

1Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

We demonstrate a new platform technology in which macromolecular constituents, such as proteins and drug delivery systems, are observed directly and quantitatively in vivo using 1H MRI of 13C-labeled polyethylene glycol (13C-PEG) tags. The 28 kDa 13C-PEG tags are non-immunogenic, and each bears approximately 2500 spectroscopically equivalent 1H nuclei appearing at a single resonance position.  By filtering the 1H PEG signal through the directly coupled 13C nuclei, background water and fat signals are largely eliminated. We demonstrate the approach by monitoring in real-time the distribution of 13C-PEG and 13C-pegylated albumin injected into the hind leg of a mouse.

33
8:55
Hybrid MRI-ultrasound acquisitions, and scannerless real-time imaging
Frank Preiswerk1, Matthew Toews2, Cheng-Chieh Cheng1, Jr-yuan George Chiou1, Chang-Sheng Mei3, Lena F. Schaefer1, W. Scott Hoge1, Benjamin M. Schwartz4, Lawrence P. Panych1, and Bruno Madore1

1Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2The Laboratory for Imagery, Vision and Artificial Intelligence, École de Technologie Supérieure, Montréal, QC, Canada, 3Department of Physics, Soochow University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Google Inc, New York, NY, United States

The goal of this project was to combine MRI, ultrasound (US) and computer science methodologies toward generating MRI at high frame rates, inside and even outside the bore. A small US transducer, fixed to the abdomen, collected signals during MRI. Based on these signals and correlations with MRI, a machine-learning algorithm created synthetic MR images at up to 100 frames per second. In one particular implementation volunteers were taken out of the MRI bore with US sensor still in place, and MR images were generated on the basis of ultrasound signal and learned correlations alone, in a 'scannerless' manner.

34
9:15
Imaging Left-ventricular Mechanical Activation in Heart Failure Patients using Cine DENSE MRI: Validation and Implications for Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy
Daniel Auger1, Kenneth C. Bilchick2, Jorge A. Gonzalez2, Sophia X. Cui1, Jeffrey W. Holmes1,2, Christopher M. Kramer2,3, Michael Salerno1,2, and Frederick H. Epstein1,3

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 2Medicine/Cardiology/Electrophysiology, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States, 3Radiology/Medical Imaging, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States

This study developed methods for imaging left-ventricular (LV) mechanical activation, with application to identifying optimal LV pacing sites for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Cine displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) was used for strain imaging, and mechanical activation time was defined as the time of onset of circumferential shortening (TOS). Active contours were applied to strain data to automatically compute TOS.  Results showed a strong correlation between TOS and electrical activation time, heterogeneity of the location of latest activation, and a significant association between TOS at the LV pacing site and CRT response. These methods may enable improved CRT implementation.

35
9:35
PET/MR Imaging of Metabolic Bone Activity in Osteoarthritis
Feliks Kogan1, Audrey Fan1, Emily McWalter2, Uchechukwuka Monu1, Edwin Oei3, Andrew Quon1, and Garry Gold1,4,5

1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 22Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada, 3Department of Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands, 4Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, San Francisco, CA, United States

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability, resulting in reduced quality of life, at tremendous societal cost. New hybrid PET/MR systems allow for simultaneous, sensitive, and quantitative assessments of early bone activity in OA with PET, which can be correlated with high-resolution quantitative MR methods of soft tissues to study the pathogenesis of OA. We demonstrate promising initial results of simultaneous PET/MR hybrid imaging of knee OA. Results suggest that PET/MR may detect metabolic abnormalities in subchondral bone, which appear normal on MRI.  These advancements will allow us to detect and track early and reversible changes in OA.

36
9:55
Quantifying the Influence of Respiration and Cardiac Pulsations on the Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics using Real-Time Phase-Contrast MRI
Selda Yildiz1, Suraj Thyagaraj2, Ning Jin3, Xiadong Zhong4, Soroush Heidari Pahlavian2, Bryn Martin5, Francis Loth2, John Oshinski6, and Karim G. Sabra1

1Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Conquer Chiari Research Center, The University of Akron, Akron, OH, United States, 3MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Columbus, OH, United States, 4MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA, United States, 5Department of Biological Engineering, The University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, United States, 6Department of Radiology & Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow undergoes periodic pulsatile motion driven by cardiac and the respiratory forces.  Invasive studies using spinal taps as well as non-invasive studies using phase contrast MRI (PCMRI) sequences have well documented the cardiac-driven CSF flow. PCMRI, however, often uses a conventional cine-phase contrast technique gated to the cardiac cycle, and thus cannot measure the effects of respiration or other non-cardiac transient events such as coughing. Examining these effects requires the ability to perform real-time MRI measurements of continuous CSF flow along the spine and cranial cavity, and determine accurate instantaneous CSF flow velocity values.


Oral

Myocardial Tissue Relaxometry

Room 312 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Jihye Jang & Graham Wright

37
8:15
Joint Native Myocardial Fat Fraction, Off-Resonance and R2*/T2* Mapping in Ischemic Cardiomyopathies
James W Goldfarb1, Usama Hasan1, and Jie J Cao1

1St Francis Hospital, Roslyn, NY, United States

Myocardial fat content, R2*/T2* and off-resonance frequency can be measured with high resolution using a native MR water-fat separation imaging technique applied to multiple gradient echo images. Significant differences in myocardial fat fraction were found consistent with fatty metaplasia in a subset of chronic myocardial infarction patients. Off-resonance and T2* changes consistent with intramyocardial hemorrhage were observed in a subset of acute myocardial infarction patients.

38
8:27
Simultaneous Multi-Slice Imaging For Whole Heart Myocardial T1 Mapping In A Single Breath-Hold
Sebastian Weingärtner1,2,3, Steen Moeller2, Kâmil Uğurbil2, Chetan Shenoy4, and Mehmet Akçakaya1,2

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 3Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany, 4Department of Cardiology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Myocardial T1-mapping bears promise for evaluation of numerous cardiomyopathies, but requires multiple breath-hold scans with conventional techniques. In this study we explored the acceleration potential of multi-band imaging for myocardial SAPPHIRE T1-mapping with 3-slice coverage in a single breath-hold. Three linear methods for slice and in-plane unaliasing were evaluated. Phantom studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed T1-mapping method, and in-vivo evaluation has shown reliable image quality with 3-fold acceleration at the cost of 1.3 to 1.7-fold increased in-vivo variability. Smaller loss in-vivo precision was achieved using regularized methods, for the trade-off against increased inter-slice leakage.

39
8:39
Free-Breathing, Non-ECG-Gated, Continuous Myocardial T1 Mapping and ECV Quantification with Multitasking
Jaime L. Shaw1,2, Anthony Christodoulou1,3, Behzad Sharif1, and Debiao Li1,2

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA

Currently used T1 mapping techniques utilize both ECG gating and breath-holds/navigators with low imaging efficiency and/or respiratory motion artifacts. We removed the need for ECG gating and respiratory monitoring with Cardiac MR Multitasking, a continuous acquisition technique using a low-rank tensor (LRT) imaging framework. The aim of this work is to validate a free-breathing, non-ECG-gated native T1 mapping and ECV quantification method in healthy subjects against standard MOLLI T1 mapping.

40
8:51
Optimized Single Pre/Post Contrast Protocol for MOLLI T1 Mapping with Inversion Group (IG) Fitting
Marshall Sussman1,2, Luigia D'Errico1, and Bernd Juergen Wintersperger1,2

1Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

A major focus in cardiac research is the assessment of myocardial pathology using quantitative T1 mapping.  A number of sequences are being investigated for this task.  One candidate is MOLLI.  It provides superior precision to other cardiac T1 mapping techniques.  However, its precision is dependent on heart rate and range of T1 values present.  Current attempts at optimizing precision are somewhat impractical, as they utilize separate MOLLI protocols for different heart rates, and for pre/post contrast imaging.  This study identifies a single MOLLI protocol optimal for precision over a broad range of heart rates and pre/post contrast T1 values. 


41
9:03
Early Gradual Assessment of Tissue Injury and Functional Outcome after Myocardial Infarction by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance T1 Mapping
Sebastian Maximilian Haberkorn1,2, Christoph Jacoby1, Jürgen Schrader2,3, Malte Kelm1,3, and Uli Flögel2,3

1Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany, 2Department of Molecular Cardiology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany, 3Cardiovascular Research Institute Duesseldorf, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf, Germany

The value of CMR to distinguish between the severity of ischemic injuries after myocardial (MI) has yet to be established. Here, we quantified local tissue injuries and their correlation with functional outcome in two different experimental models of MI including native and post-contrast T1 maps, T2 maps and LGE. Only native T1 maps enabled in the acute phase after MI the detection of substantial differences in myocardial tissue texture between the two models, where neither of the other measures was indicative. In conclusion, native T1 mapping enables a gradual assessment of myocardial injury and holds predictive potential for the functional outcome.

42
9:15
Multiparametric Characterization of Myocardial Tissue by Contrast-Enhanced Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Prediabetes, Diabetes and Controls from a Western General Population – Results of the KORA-MRI-Study
Corinna Christina Storz1, Holger Hetterich2, Roberto Lorbeer2, Sigrid Auweter2, Wolfgang Rathmann3, Christopher L Schlett4, Annette Peters5,6,7, Konstantin Nikolaou8, Fabian Bamberg8, and Jeanette Schulz-Menger9,10

1Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, 2Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Munich, Germany, 3Biometry and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center Duesseldorf, Germany, 4Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Germany, 5Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum Munich, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, Germany, 6Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig-Maximilians University Munich, Munich, Germany, 7German Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research (DZHK e.V.) Munich, Munich, Germany, 8Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, 9Cardiology, Charité, Experimental and Clinical Research Center and HELIOS-Clinics Berlin-Buc, Germany, 10German Center for Cardiovascular Disease Research (DZHK e. V.) Partnersite Berlin, Germany

Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) allows for detailed characterization of the myocardium, which may be beneficial in assessing cardiomyopathy in the setting of hyperglycemic states.  We performed a comprehensive CMR protocol in subjects with prediabetes, diabetes and controls and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in a western population-based sample. Subjects with prediabetes and diabetes had an increased LV-remodeling-index as well as higher estimates of cell volume compared with controls, while extracellular volume, as a parameter of diffuse myocardial fibrosis (MF), was decreased. This may highlight the role for hypertrophy in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy in this western population. 

43
9:27
Comprehensive Cardiac Structure-Function MRI in Heart Transplant Recipients:  Influence of Acute Cardiac Allograft Rejection
Ryan Dolan1, Amir Rahsepar1, Julie Blaisdell1, Kenichiro Suwa1, Allen Anderson2, Kambiz Ghafourian2, Esther Vorovich2, Jonathan Rich2, Jane Wilcox2, Clyde Yancy2, Jeremy Collins1, James Carr1, and Michael Markl1

1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Cardiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

Cardiac MRI provides a comprehensive structure-function evaluation of the heart with increasingly strong evidence of its ability to detect acute cardiac allograft rejection following heart transplant.  In this large cohort of transplant recipients, quantitative T2 and ECV were significantly elevated during episodes of biopsy-proven rejection compared to baseline.

44
9:39
Myocardial T2* Changes Periodically across the Cardiac Cycle and is Prolonged in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: A 7.0 Tesla MRI Patient Study
Till Huelnhagen1, Fabian Hezel1, Teresa Serradas Duarte1, Min-Chi Ku1, Bert Flemming2, Erdmann Seeliger2, Marcel Prothmann3, Jeanette Schulz-Menger3, and Thoralf Niendorf1,4,5

1Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association(MDC), Berlin, Germany, 2Institute for Physiology, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany, 3Working Group on Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany, 4Experimental and Clinical Research Center, a joint cooperation between the, Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association, Berlin, Germany, 5DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Berlin, Berlin, Germany

Ultrahigh field MR (UHF-MR) enables temporally resolved myocardial T2* mapping which benefits probing the myocardium at different physiological states. Myocardial BOLD contrast or T2* are commonly regarded as surrogates for myocardial tissue oxygenation, but the factors influencing T2* are manifold including cardiac macromorphology. Meaningful interpretation of myocardial T2* could be beneficial for understanding cardiac (patho)physiology in vivo, but requires careful identification of influential factors and their contributions to T2*. To this end, this study examines the relationship between myocardial T2* and myocardial wall thickness and investigates it’s capability to distinguish between healthy myocardium and myocardium affected by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

45
9:51
Myocardial extracellular volume expansion precedes functional myocardial alterations during the evolution of systemic sclerosis
Alexander Gotschy1,2, Constantin von Deuster1, Christian Stoeck1, Valeriy Vishnevskiy1, Lukas Wissmann1, Kerem Can Tezcan1, Markus Niemann3, Suzanna Jordan4, Britta Maurer4, Sebastian Kozerke1, Oliver Distler4, and Robert Manka2

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University & ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 3Faculty Mechanical and Medical Engineering, Furtwangen University, Schwenningen, Germany, 4Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Myocardial involvement is common in patients with systemic sclerosis and is known to cause myocardial fibrosis and subtle ventricular dysfunction. Both can be characterized by novel CMR methods like native T1-mapping, ECV quantification or LV deformation imaging. However, the temporal onset of myocardial fibrosis and functional impairment during the progression of the disease is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the presence of subclinical functional and fibrotic myocardial involvement in patients with very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis and found that the expansion of ECV can be detected before LV functional impairment, assessed by CMR feature tracking, can be observed.

46
10:03
Non-contrast free breathing and motion corrected 3D whole heart quantitative magnetization transfer imaging for assessment of myocardial fibrosis
Karina Lopez1, Radhouene Neji1,2, Rahul Mukherjee1, John Whitaker1, Reza Razavi1, Camila Muñoz1, Claudia Prieto1, Sebastien Roujol1, and Rene Botnar1

1Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2MR Research Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare Limited, Frimley, United Kingdom

We have developed a contrast-free free-breathing motion corrected (100% scan efficiency) 3D whole heart imaging technique for measurement of myocardial magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps. The sequence is based on the interleaved acquisition of MT weighted and non-MT weighted datasets and beat-to-beat rigid motion correction using 2D image navigators. Initial results in 4 healthy volunteers have shown good image quality, enabling the visualisation of the coronary arteries and MTR maps of healthy myocardium (MTR=41±7.2%). This approach promises higher sensitivity for measuring changes in macromolecule content associated with myocardial fibrosis than previous studies, justifying further investigation in a patient cohort.


Oral

White Matter & Connectivity in TBI

Room 313A Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Andre Obenaus & Sheng-Kwei Song

47
8:15
Disrupted topological brain organizations in large-scale cortical networks between impaired and nonimpaired active fighters
Virendra Mishra1, Sarah Banks1, Charles Bernick1, and Dietmar Cordes1

1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, Las Vegas, NV, United States

Several MRI studies have shown structural differences in athletes with repetitive head trauma. However, whether coordinated variation exists in brain morphology of cognitively impaired-fighters is still unknown. Using graph-theoretical methods on inter-regional cortical thickness of impaired and nonimpaired fighters, we found alteration in the coordination of the large-scale structural brain-networks of impaired-fighters. The cortical thickness of regions identified as hubs showed a negative association with processing speed in impaired-fighters. Future studies will evaluate the role of network properties in predicting cognitive impairment in active fighters. Our study opens new avenues to understand impact of repetitive head trauma on brain organization.

48
8:27
Connectivity Domain Analysis of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multi-center Study to Extract Robust Imaging Biomarkers
Armin Iraji1, Jiachen Zhuo2, Natalie M. Wiseman3, Ali-Reza Mohammadi-Nejad4, Rao Gullapalli2, Zhifeng Kou1,5, and E. Mark Haacke1,5

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Henry Ford Health System, 5Department of Radiology, Wayne State University

Identification of biomarkers for mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) diagnosis and outcome prediction is challenging due to the heterogeneity of mTBI patients. Multi-center studies help to alleviate this, but functional MRI data can be difficult to combine across sites. Here, we applied our recent connectivity domain (CD) framework and indentified predictive features of mTBI diagnosis and one-month outcome. Despite high heterogeneity of predictors between and within sites, classification accuracy did not suffer due to combination of datasets. Further multi-center analyses may benefit from use of the CD for generation of classification and outcome prediction models.

49
8:39
Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging in mild TBI patients – a Longitudinal Study
Jonathan I Sperl1, Xia Li2, Chitresh Bhushan2, Asha Singanamalli2, Ek T Tan2, Sumit N Niogi3, A. John Tsiouris3, Teena Shetty4, Pratik Mukherjee5, Joseph C Masdeu6, and Luca Marinelli2

1GE Global Research, Garching, Germany, 2GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY, United States, 3Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York City, NY, United States, 4Hospital for Special Surgery, New York City, NY, United States, 5University of California, San Francisco, CA, United States, 6Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, United States

Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) allows for studying microscopic changes in human brain tissue. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), this may include axonal stretching, shearing, or swelling. Particularly in mild TBI cases, effects can be subtle and standard imaging modalities fail. We study DKI in 68 mild TBI patients with normal structural imaging in a series of four exams over a 90-day period. Using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) we observed increased kurtosis five to ten days post-injury followed by decreased kurtosis three months later. Diffusion tensor metrics such as fractional anisotropy in this study lack the sensitivity to track microstructural changes.

50
8:51
Acute white matter abnormalities in sport-related concussion: A DTI study
Sourajit Mitra Mustafi1,2, Jaroslaw Harezlak1,3, Kevin M Koch1,4, Andrew S Nencka1,4, Timothy B Meier1,4, Andrew J Saykin1,2, Micheal McCrea1,4, Thomas W McAllister1,5, and Yu-Chien Wu1,2

1Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University, 4The Medical College of Wisconsin, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University

In the present study, we use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to detect acute white matter alterations in football players after sport-related concussion.  DTI scans were performed on 30 male football players who had acute concussion (24-48 hours post-injury).  Another 28 matched contact-sport players were recruited as controls.  Mean diffusivity (MD) increased significantly in concussive group compared to the contact-control group. Long fibers including corpus callosum, corona radiata, and longitudinal fasciculus were more vulnerable than the rest of the brain white matter. Within the concussed group, axial diffusivity (AD) demonstrated positive correlation with symptom severity indicating potential axonal changes/damage.

51
9:03
Long Term Changes in White Matter Following Sport-Related Concussion Measured by Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor Imaging: 6 months follow up
L. Tugan Muftuler1, Daniel V. Olson2, Melissa A. Lancaster3, and Michael A. McCrea1

1Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Department of Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Department of Psychiatry, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

We investigated chronic white matter changes in high school and collegiate football players with history of sport-related concussion using diffusion kurtosis tensor imaging. Results demonstrated that the symptoms normalized after one week but, mean diffusivity remained significantly low in concussed football players. These findings have implications for determination of recovery following concussion.

52
9:15
Diffusion Tensor Imaging Reveals Persistent Effects on White Matter Microstructure in High School Football Players with History of Sports-Related Concussion
Ikbeom Jang1, Yukai Zou2, Eric A Nauman2,3,4, and Thomas M Talavage1,2

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Purdue University, 3Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, 4Basic Medical Sciences, Purdue University

Diffusion Tensor Imaging has been considered a promising and sensitive imaging technology to detect subtle changes in white matter for people with mild traumatic brain injury. Although many studies have examined the immediate and near-term brain changes associated with sports-related concussions, the potential long-term consequences have been less-frequently investigated. In this study, a retrospective analysis was conducted on a subset of the Purdue Neurotrauma Group database to characterize the relationship between history of concussion and white matter diffusion properties.

53
9:27
Alterations in Brain Functional Connectivity and Global Cerebral Blood Flow in Collegiate Football Athletes over a Single Football Season
David C Zhu1, Peter Seidenberg2, Tim Bream2, Alexa Walter2, Xiaoxiao Bai2, Brian Johnson3, Hans Breiter4, Thomas M Talavage5, and Semyon Slobounov2

1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States, 2Penn State University, University Park, PA, United States, 3Philips Healthcare, 4Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States

There has been growing concern over sports-related brain injuries and their long-term effects. However, the cumulative effect on the brain of sub-concussive hits is still poorly understood. Eighteen male collegiate student football athletes completed multi-modal MRI scans before and after a football season. We found significant changes of functional connectivity to the default-mode network, along with significant increase of cerebral blood flow both globally and at the postcentral gyrus. These changes point to the need for further investigation of the long-term development of brain networks in the presence of sub-concussive hits, and the potential relationship with brain vascular modification.

54
9:39
Combined DTI-derived metrics capture acute structural alterations in sports-related mild TBI (mTBI)
Arun Venkataraman1, Samuel B Tomlinson2, Steven Meyers3, Jeffrey J Bazarian4, and Jianhui Zhong5

1School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, United States, 2School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, 3Radiology, University of Rochester, 4Neurology and Public Health, University of Rochester Medical Center, 5Center for Brain Imaging, University of Rochester

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a source of considerable cost to society. Measures have been taken to increase awareness of possible injury, with safety precautions following suit. Despite this vigilance, the possibility of underdiagnosis is a reality. In this abstract, we seek to explain DTI-derived metrics and their application in the clinical setting. Tract based spatial statistics (TBSS), brain segmentation, and network analysis were applied to TBI and healthy cohorts to derive metrics that could aid in the diagnosis of mild TBI (mTBI), and provide a mechanism for quantification of severity and risk stratification.

55
9:51
Evaluation of Myelin Damage in Diffuse Traumatic Brain Injury using ViSTa-MWI
Joon Yul Choi1, Ji-Won Baek1, Jongho Lee1, and Junghoon Kim2,3

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2CUNY School of Medicine, The City College of New York, New York, NY, United States, 3Moss Rehabilitation Research Institute, Elkins Park, PA, United States

This study investigated myelin damage in subacute moderate to severe TBI using ViSTa-MWI. The results showed widespread reductions of MWF in patients, consistent with pathology involving diffuse axonal injury. Furthermore, the extent of myelin damage was strongly correlated with measures of injury severity and cognitive impairment, demonstrating its clinical relevance.

56
10:03
White matter changes and correlations with cognitive functions in semi-acute mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI): A hybrid diffusion imaging study
Sourajit Mitra Mustafi1, Chandana Kodiweera2, Jaroslaw Harezlak3, Laura A Flashman4, Thomas W McAllister5, and Yu-Chien Wu1

1Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Dartmouth College, Lebanon, NH, United States, 3Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and New Hampshire Hospital, Lebanon, NH, United States, 5Department of Psychiatry, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN, United States

In the present study, we used multi-shell Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI) to study changes in white matter after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI).  From HYDI data, an array of diffusion metrics was computed including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), neurite orientation distribution and density (NODDI), and return-to-origin (P0) of the q-space analysis.  We study between group differences in diffusion metrics and within-group correlations with outcomes of cognitive functions.  In addition, we tested the group effects (i.e., interaction or moderation) on the correlations between diffusion metrics and cognitive functions. 


Oral

Tractography & Fiber Modeling

Room 313BC Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Geoff Parker & Chantal Tax

57
8:15
A novel anatomy-based constrained global tractography
Achille Teillac1,2, Fabrice Poupon3, Jean-François Mangin3,4, and Cyril Poupon1,2

1Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France, 2CEA/DRF/I2BM/NeuroSpin/UNIRS, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 3CEA/DRF/I2BM/NeuroSpin/UNATI, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 4http://cati-neuroimaging.com/, Orsay, France

Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is still the unique tool capable of probe the structure of the brain connectivity in vivo. Although some great advances have been made in the past decade, reconstructed tractograms often lack of anatomically accuracy. The introduction of anatomical priors has become a promise land to tackle this issue, so in this work, we propose a general spin-glass-based global tractography framework constrained by anatomical priors to better represent the sharp turns of fibers entering a gyrus and connecting to the pial surface.

58
8:27
Mesh-based anatomically-constrained tractography for effective tracking termination and structural connectome construction
Chun-Hung Yeh1, Robert Elton Smith1, Thijs Dhollander1, and Alan Connelly1,2

1The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia, 2The Florey Department of Neuroscience, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

This study introduces a novel diffusion MRI streamlines tractography framework called mesh-based anatomically-constrained tractography (MACT) that incorporates high-resolution surface models of various brain tissues as more accurate anatomical constraints in the fibre-tracking process. By detecting intersections between streamlines and tissue surfaces, MACT can effectively provide meaningful track terminations and inter-areal connections by associating streamlines with the structural labels of the intersected surfaces. This therefore minimises uncertainties caused by heuristic mechanisms of assigning streamlines to labelled structures in common image-based approaches. Methods that investigate the tractogram-based structural connectivity should benefit from the improved connectome reconstruction using the proposed technique.

59
8:39
Topography preserving tractography for mapping human brain pathways
Dogu Baran Aydogan1 and Yonggang Shi1

1Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Topographical organization is an integral property of brain’s neural pathways. In this work we propose a novel approach to quantify the topographic preservation of fiber bundles obtained using dMRI based tractography. For that we used the well known organization of the somatosensory pathway. In our study we compared the tractograms obtained using our recently developed tractography algorithm with MRtrix's iFOD1 and iFOD2 probabilistic techniques. We believe topographical organization is critical to take into consideration for tractography research for both validation purposes as well as for developing better performing tractography algorithms.

60
8:51
Characterization of the brainstem connectivity and its microstructure using diffusion MR microscopy at ultra-high field (UHF) with strong gradients
Justine Beaujoin1,2,3, Christophe Destrieux4, Jérémy Bernard1,3, Fabrice Poupon5, Jean-François Mangin2,3,6,7, and Cyril Poupon1,2,3,7

1UNIRS, CEA/I2BM/NeuroSpin, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2Université Paris-Saclay, Orsay, France, 3FLI / Noeud Paris-Sud, Orsay, France, 4Laboratoire d'Anatomie, Faculté de Médecine/CHRU, Tours, France, 5UNATI, CEA/I2BM/Neurospin, France, 6CEA NeuroSpin / UNATI, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 7http://cati- neuroimaging.com/, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

The brainstem is a crossroad of the major motor and sensitive pathways but its structure is challenging to image. In this work, we demonstrate that ultra-high field(11.7T) / ultra-high gradients(780mT/m) diffusion-weighted MRI and diffusion MRI microscopy enable to map not only its finer structures, but also its fine connectivity revealed by HARDI-based tractography with the mapping of the structural connectivity of the locus ceruleus. We also assessed the enhanced contrast brought by diffusion multicompartmental models such as NODDI that reveals the microstructure of the brainstem structures, thus allowing to go a step forward in the undertstanding of its anatomo-functional organization.

61
9:03
Microstructure-Informed Tractography of the Human Optic Radiation In Vivo
Roey Schurr1, Yiran Duan2, Anthony M. Norcia2, Shumpei Ogawa3,4, Jason D. Yeatman5, and Aviv Mezer1

1Edmond and Lily Safra Center for Brain Sciences, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel, 2Department of Psychology, Stanford University, CA, United States, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Atsugi City Hospital, Kanagawa, Japan, 4Department of Ophthalmology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan, 5Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Accurate identification of the Optic Radiations (OR) in vivo has great clinical significance in pre-surgical planning. Yet traditional tractography algorithms based on diffusion MRI often fail to recover the full extent of the OR. Post-mortem histology studies show that the OR has a consistent signature of high myelination compared to adjacent white matter tracts. We therefore propose to use quantitative T1-mapping, which is sensitive to myelin, to eliminate candidate fascicles with highly variable T1 profiles. We introduce a fully automatic novel framework that integrates diffusion MRI with T1-mapping, and use it to reconstruct the OR in 62 healthy subjects.

62
9:15
Using diffusion MRI and tractography to identify macaque vertical occipital fasciculus
Hiromasa Takemura1,2, Franco Pestilli3, Kevin S Weiner4, Georgios A Keliris5,6, Sofia M Landi7, Julia Sliwa7, Frank Q Ye8, Michael A Barnett4, David A Leopold8, Winrich A Freiwald7, Nikos K Logothetis5, and Brian A Wandell4

1Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, Suita-shi, Japan, 2Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita-shi, Japan, 3Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, United States, 4Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 5Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 6Department of Biomedical Science, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 7The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, United States, 8Neurophysiology Imaging Facility, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

We evaluated the ability of diffusion MRI-based tractography to identify macaque vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF), an important but little-studied white-matter tract connecting dorsal and ventral visual cortex. We analyzed four macaque diffusion MRI datasets with different resolution. The high-resolution post-mortem dataset reliably detects the macaque VOF, in a consistent manner with previous invasive anatomical studies. Lower resolution in vivo data showed qualitatively consistent results, but the estimated tract endpoints are restricted to sulcus. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the need for high-resolution diffusion MRI to identify certain critical  white matter tracts.

63
9:27
Impact of acquisition strategies and spherical deconvolution algorithms on brain connectivity mapping in early multiple sclerosis
Carmen Tur1, Francesco Grussu1, Ferran Prados1,2, Thalis Charalambous1, Sara Collorone1, Niamh Cawley1, Baris Kanber1,2, Daniel R. Altmann1,3, Sébastien Ourselin1,4, Frederik Barkhof1,5, Jonathan D. Clayden6, Ahmed T. Toosy1, Claudia A.M. Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,7,8, and Olga Ciccarelli1

1UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square MS Centre, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 2Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 3London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Medical Statistics Department, University of London, London, United Kingdom, 4Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, UCL, United Kingdom, 5Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 6UCL GOS Institute of Child Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 7Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Italy, 8Brain MRI 3T Mondino Research Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Italy

Multi-shell, multi-tissue (MSMT) constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) allows precise white matter tract reconstructions in healthy brains. However, its implications for connectivity mapping in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Here we compare MSMT-CSD versus single-shell single-tissue (SSST)-CSD algorithms over different clinically-feasible diffusion-weighted protocols regarding their ability to reconstruct connectivity metrics that distinguish patients with a first inflammatory-demyelinating episode (n=19) from controls (n=12). Methodical analysis of data from time- and directionality-matched protocols showed that a greater angular resolution improves results and is preferable to choosing multi-tissue-CSD algorithms. Given similar angular resolution, all algorithms perform similarly, producing highly reproducible brain connectivity metrics. 

64
9:39
Toward interrogating relationships between grey and white matter measures using Fixel Track-Weighted Imaging and Fixel-Based Analysis
Robert E Smith1, David Raffelt1, David N Vaughan1,2, Fernando Calamante1,3, and Alan Connelly1,3

1The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Heidelberg, Australia, 2Department of Neurology, Austin Health, Melbourne, Australia, 3Department of Medicine (AH/NH), The University of Melbourne, Australia

Neuroimaging studies assessing white and grey matter are most typically performed as independent analyses. The relationships between white and grey matter abnormalities are therefore poorly understood. We present a novel framework for interrogating relationships between quantitative measures derived from grey matter analysis, and diffusion MRI-based, fibre-specific white matter measures.

65
9:51
Streamlet Tractography
Matthew George Liptrot1,2, Sune Darkner1, Aasa Feragen1, and Francois Lauze1

1Department of Computer Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark

Streamlet tractography is a novel approach that aims to combine the benefits of both streamline and global tractography approaches. In contrast to requiring individual streamlines to successfully propagate from seed to target regions to register as a connection, here short streamlines - streamlets - are initially generated from each white-matter voxel, and then seed-to-target connectivity is assessed by evaluating connectivity between these streamlets. In this way, streamlet generation can adapt to the local environment, whilst seed-to-target connectivity is assessed at the global level. Furthermore, the proposed framework permits the inclusion of previous results and alternative data sources.

66
10:03
Spherical Deconvolution of Non-Spherically Sampled Diffusion MRI Data
Jan Morez1, Jan Sijbers1, and Ben Jeurissen1

1Vision Lab, Dept. of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

Multi-tissue spherical deconvolution of multi-shell diffusion MRI data allows for simultaneous estimation of the white matter fiber orientation distribution function and the apparent densities of cerebrospinal fluid and grey matter. Current spherical deconvolution approaches require that the q-space samples are distributed across shells. Here we propose a new algorithm that allows one to perform spherical deconvolution on data obtained with non-spherical sampling schemes. The algorithm is demonstrated on real data with both spherical and cartesian sampling schemes.


Oral

Relaxation Methods

Room 314 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Charles Springer, Jr. & Pinar Özbay

67
8:15
Accelerated MR Parameter Mapping Exploiting Model-Based Simultaneous Multi-Slice Reconstruction with Hankel Subspace Learning: Application to T1 Quantification
Sugil Kim1,2, Suhyung Park2, and Jaeseok Park2

1Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Biomedical Imaging and Engineering Lab, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, Republic of

MR parameter mapping has been potentially of great value in diagnosing pathological diseases, but is difficult to be translated to clinical applications due to prohibitively long imaging time. It was recently shown in [1-4] that simultaneous multi-slice (SMS) imaging is highly efficient in reducing imaging time while well maintaining SNR. In this work, we propose a novel, model-based SMS reconstruction approach with Hankel subspace learning (Model-based SMS-HSL) for highly accelerated MR parameter mapping under the hypothesis that the null space in the spatial dimension, which filters out slices of no interest, is time-invariant in the parameter dimension while the dimension of temporal basis, which is found from signal evolution models, is limited. 

68
8:27
Single Breath-hold Abdominal T1 Mapping using 3-D Cartesian Sampling and Spatiotemporally Constrained Reconstruction
Felix Lugauer1, Jens Wetzl1, Christoph Forman2, Manuel Schneider1, Berthold Kiefer2, Dominik Nickel2, and Andreas Maier1

1Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany, 2MR Applications Predevelopment, Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany

Volumetric T1 mapping in the abdomen is desirable for whole liver assessment of hepatic diseases. In case of breath-hold imaging, accurate but time-consuming methods that sample the relaxation curve (IR or Look-Locker) are restricted to few slices only. To address these limitations, sparse Cartesian sampling with spatiotemporal incoherence is utilized to render 3-D Look-Locker within a single breath-hold possible. We demonstrate feasibility in both phantom and in-vivo measurements. The proposed method shows high agreement with a 2-D reference acquisition and enables an accurate mapping for a wide T1 range, including very low values due to its high temporal resolution.

69
8:39
Accelerating High Resolution Hyperpolarized 13C T2 Mapping Using a Local Low Rank plus Sparse Reconstruction
Eugene Milshteyn1,2, Galen D. Reed3, Cornelius von Morze1, Zihan Zhu1,2, Jeremy W. Gordon1, and Daniel B. Vigneron1,2

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, UCSF and University of California, Berkeley, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3HeartVista Inc., Los Altos, CA, United States

Hyperpolarized 13C probe development has allowed in vivo monitoring of different physiological processes relating to various diseases, including cancer and diabetes. Each new probe is typically characterized with polarization and T1 measurements, but T2 is also an important parameter for optimal sequence design, including progressive flip angle schemes. To improve the spatiotemporal resolution of T2 mapping sequences and subsequent multi-exponential analysis, this project investigated using a local low rank plus sparse reconstruction for 2-fold acceleration of in vivo T2 mapping with the bSSFP sequence.

70
8:51
Ultrafast T2 mapping using echo-split GRASE acquisition and parametric POCSMUSE reconstruction
Mei-Lan Chu1,2, Hing-Chiu Chang3, Koichi Oshio4, and Nan-kuei Chen1,2

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 3Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 4Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Japan

Our novel ultrafast T2 mapping framework, which uniquely integrates echo-split GRASE acquisition and parametric POCSMUSE reconstruction, has the following major advantages. First, parametric T2 map and high-quality multi-contrast images can be derived from a single set of single-shot GRASE data, with inherently low susceptibility to motion artifacts. Second, contamination of stimulated and other high order echoes is minimized in the echo-split GRASE scans. Third, T2 relaxation times can be accurately measured by the parametric POCSMUSE algorithm, which incorporates multiplexed parallel MR reconstruction and multi-echo-pathway signal modeling into a unified procedure.

71
9:03
Ultrafast compartmental relaxation time mapping with linear algebraic modeling
Yi Zhang1, Xiaoyang Liu1,2, Jinyuan Zhou1,3, and Paul A. Bottomley1

1Division of MR Research, Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States

Image contrast afforded by tissue longitudinal (T1) and transverse (T2) relaxation times is central to the success of modern MRI. Here, a recently-proposed ‘spectroscopy with linear algebraic modeling’ (SLAM) method is adapted to dramatically accelerate relaxation time imaging at 3 Tesla in phantoms, the abdomens of six volunteers and in six brain tumor patients. SLAM is validated by omitting up to 15/16ths (94%) of the data acquired retroactively from inversion recovery and multi-echo spin-echo sequences, and proactively applied to accelerate abdominal and brain tumor T1 and T2 measurements by up to 16-fold in humans. 

72
9:15
Variable Flip Angle Radial Turbo Spin Echo Technique for Abdominal T2 Mapping
Mahesh Bharath Keerthivasan1, Manojkumar Saranathan2, Jean-Philippe Galons2, Diego R Martin2, Ali Bilgin1,2, and Maria Altbach2

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

The estimation of T2 relaxation times within lesions can provide a quantitative method of classifying abdominal neoplasms. Accelerated T2 mapping approaches have been proposed using the Radial TSE (RADTSE) sequence, where high resolution images at multiple TEs are reconstructed from data acquired in a single breath hold. However, the slice coverage for TSE based breath-held imaging is SAR restricted, motivating the need to reduce the refocusing flip angle. We present a variable refocusing flip angle RADTSE sequence designed to optimize the signal evolution for T2 mapping in the abdomen with reduced SAR, thereby increasing the slice coverage. 

73
9:27
Robust VFA relaxometry by Continuous Saturation of Magnetization Transfer (CSMT) effects with Non-selective Multi-Band pulses.
Rui Pedro A. G. Teixeira1,2, Anthony N. Price1,2, Ana A. Baburamani1, Shaihan J. Malik1, and Joseph V. Hajnal1,2

1Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Variable Flip Angle (VFA) relaxometry methods have recently been shown to be sensitive to magnetization transfer (MT) induced bias. Common description of this effect relies on a two-pool model (restricted macromolecular pool & visible free water pool). Current practice to restrict influence of MT consists in stretching of RF pulse durations in order to minimize/counter-balance the effect of macromolecular exchange for different flip angle measurements. This work proposes to minimize the estimation bias by using constant saturation MT pulses that simultaneously excite the free-water pool and saturate the restricted-pool creating constant RF-saturation conditions independently of the flip angle (FA) applied.

74
9:39
Mitigating the Effect of Magnetization Transfer in Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Tom Hilbert1,2,3, Tobias Kober1,2,3, Tiejun Zhao4, Tobias Kai Block5,6, Zidan Yu5,6, Jean-Philippe Thiran3, Gunnar Krueger2,3,7, Daniel K Sodickson5,6, and Martijn Cloos5,6

1Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3LTS5, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Siemens Medical Solution USA, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 5New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York, NY, United States, 6Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 7Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Inc., Boston, MA, United States

Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) is a powerful technique for the quantification of relaxation parameters, and ideally provides correct estimates independent from the sequence used. In this work, we show that the quantification can be influenced by the pulse duration or, equivalently, the pulse bandwidth. This behavior, which we hypothesize to be related to magnetization transfer (MT) effects, is shown for the PnP-MRF sequence. We propose a first approach to encode MT effects in the MRF sequence and to model MT effects in the reconstruction, showing that this mitigates the bias in the resulting relaxation estimates.


75
9:51
Clinically viable FAST-T2 based whole brain myelin water content mapping: T1 validation and initial MS lesion study
Thanh D. Nguyen1, Yihao Yao1, Pascal Spincemaille1, Eric Morris2, Susan A. Gauthier2, and Yi Wang1

1Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 2Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

The objectives of this study were to validate the accuracy of FAST-T1 mapping required for myelin water content (MWC) mapping, and to demonstrate the feasibility of fast MWC mapping in MS patients. FAST-T1 provides whole brain T1 map in 3 min, which was in excellent agreement with that obtained with the reference IR-FSE method. MWC mapping in 20 MS patients showed a consistent increase in water content in MS lesions (10.7% on average), accompanied by 62.8% increase in T1 and 44.6% decrease in MWC when compared to the contralateral NAWM.

76
10:03
Quantitative BOLD With Interleaved Acquisitions for Estimation of Extravascular $$$R_2’$$$ and Intravascular $$$R_2$$$ With Phase-Sensitive CSF Suppression
Hyunyeol Lee1, Cheng Li1, Erin K. Englund1, and Felix W. Wehrli1

1Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

In the qBOLD technique, the accuracy of local deoxygenated blood volume and hemoglobin oxygen saturation (Yv) maps is potentially degraded due to high coupling of the two parameters in the model. As an alternative, the QUIXOTIC method measures local Yv by selectively capturing venular spins via T2-prepared velocity-selective-spin-labeling. However, CSF signals, if not suppressed, may impair accuracy of venular blood T2 estimation. In this work, extravascular R2’ and intravascular Rmapping methods are interleaved to reduce estimation uncertainty in the qBOLD model while the accuracy of preliminary venular T2 estimates from the latter is further enhanced via phase-sensitive CSF suppression. 


Oral

System Imperfections: Measurement & Correction

Room 315 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Adrienne Campbell-Washburn & Florian Wiesinger

77
8:15
Model-based Gradient Impulse Response Harvesting
Bertram Jakob Wilm1, Benjamin Emanuel Dietrich1, Jonas Reber1, Johanna Vannesjo2, Alen Mujkanovic1, and Klaas Paul Pruessmann1

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

Concurrent field monitoring is currently limited to observation times in the order of 100 ms. However, for many purposes it is desirable to determine field dynamics continuously without interruption. To address this need we propose model-based gradient impulse response function (GIRF) harvesting, where GIRFs are continuously updated during the MR experiment. From the harvested GRIFs and the known input to the gradient chains, continuous gradients are obtained. The model-based approach allows to robustly determine continuous gradient fields with high precision. The method is demonstrated by stabilizing a gradient-demanding EPI scan.

78
8:27
Measurement of Small-Tip RF Pulses using Gradient Reversal
Vanessa Landes1 and Krishna Nayak1

1University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

We present a simple pulse sequence for measuring RF pulses in the small-tip regime. In a uniform phantom, results matched closely (<4% difference) with a pick-up RF coil over a broad range of RF pulse parameters, with one outlier (6.1% difference). In non-uniform phantoms and in-vivo, this method combined with an outer-volume suppression (OVS) pre-pulse produced accurate (<3% difference) measurements compared to a pick-up RF coil. Speed and lack of additional hardware could make the proposed method ideal for RF pre-distortion correction.

79
8:39
Thermal Variation and Temperature-Based Prediction of Gradient Response
Benjamin Emanuel Dietrich1, Jennifer Nussbaum1, Bertram Jakob Wilm1, Jonas Reber1, and Klaas Paul Pruessmann1

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University of Zurich and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Under the assumption that a gradient system is linear and time-invariant (LTI), accurate gradient field waveforms can be predicted by gradient response functions. However, time-invariance can be violated due to heating of system components. Temperature sensors can be used to assess heating of the gradient coils. To assess the predictability of gradient response function based on temperature measurements, the temperature dependence of gradient response functions is analyzed using an NMR probe based field camera and optically connected temperature sensors. From this data a prediction model is generated and tested for its application in image reconstruction.

80
8:51
Effects of RF pulse profile and within-slice phase dispersion on accuracy of MR fingerprinting with balanced SSFP readout
Su-Chin Chiu1, Te-Ming Lin2, Jyh-Miin Lin3,4, Hsiao-Wen Chung5, Cheng-Wen Ko6, Martin Büchert7, and Michael Bock7

1National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Radiology, Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 5Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, 6Computer Science and Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 7Radiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

To investigate the effects of within-slice phase dispersion and RF pulse profile on quantitative relaxation mapping using MR fingerprinting with balanced steady-state free precession readout, simulations based on Bloch equations were performed assuming uniform distributions of off-resonance frequency (widths from 0, 1.0, to 2.0 Hz) and imperfect slice profiles of sinc-shaped RF pulses without and with side lobes.  Results showed that slight within-slice phase dispersion by 1 to 2 Hz resulted in prominent T2 under-estimations, particularly at large T2 values.  Slice profile imperfection led to under-estimations of T1, which became greater as regional off-resonance frequencies increased.

81
9:03
A New Background Field Removal Method Using Region Adaptive Kernel for Human Brain MRI
Jinsheng Fang1, Lijun Bao1, and Zhong Chen1

1Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China

we propose a new background field removal method by using region adaptive kernel (REAK) based on local energy distribution. Experimental results on simulation data and in vivo human data demonstrated that our method has good performance on suppressing the susceptibility artifacts caused by large susceptibility variations, such as over boundary regions of brain skull, venous vessels and paranasal sinuses. This can facilitate the susceptibility map reconstruction and achieve more accurate QSM approximate to the results of COSMOS, which is helpful for the QSM technique and its application in the clinical medicine.

82
9:15
Influence of the gradient delay correction on self-navigated motion resolved reconstruction with golden angle stack-of-stars acquisition
Xucheng Zhu1, Mariya Doneva2, Peder E.Z. Larson1,3, and Michael Lustig1,4

1Bioengineering, UC Berkeley-UCSF Graduate Program in Bioengineering, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Philips Research Europe, Hamburg, Germany, 3Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States

Gradient delay often leads to misalignment of k-space data, which induces artifacts on reconstructed images. As many self-gated motion correction methods largely depend on central k-space data, misalignment might affect motion state estimation and reconstruction. In order to acquire robust motion states and improve motion resolved reconstruction, we propose a workflow incorporating gradient delay correction, robust motion extraction, and motion resolved reconstruction. We tested our method on in vivo volunteer data, and demonstrate the improvement over a reconstruction that does not account for these delays.

83
9:27
Image Reconstruction with Integrated Gradient-Nonlinearity Correction and Constrained Spatial Support
Shengzhen Tao1, Joshua D Trzasko1, Paul T Weavers1, Yunhong Shu1, John Huston III1, Erin M Gray1, and Matt A Bernstein1

1Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

Due to engineering limitations, the spatial-encoding gradient fields in MRI are not exactly linear across the entire field-of-view. If not properly accounted for during reconstruction, the gradient-nonlinearity (GNL) causes image distortion and artificial signal intensity change. Conventionally, the GNL effects are corrected after image reconstruction using image-domain interpolation, followed by intensity correction using the Jacobian-determinant of the distortion field. Images corrected using this method can suffer from noise amplification at regions with strong GNL distortion. Here, we develop a model-based reconstruction method with integrated GNL correction and constrained spatial support, and demonstrate reduced noise amplification effect using this method.

84
9:39
Accelerated Imaging of Metallic Implants Using a Double-Peak-Model Constraint
Xinwei Shi1,2, Evan Levine1,2, Hans Weber1, and Brian A. Hargreaves1,2

1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Multi-Spectral Imaging (MSI) enables MRI near metallic implants, but suffers from prolonged scan times. Model-based reconstruction accelerates MSI by enforcing a signal model along the spectral dimension to reduce the number of unknowns in image reconstruction. The previous signal model assumes that spins in one voxel have the same off-resonance frequency, which tends to fail where the off-resonance field changes rapidly. Here we propose a more flexible MSI signal model that allows multiple frequencies within a voxel, and demonstrate improvements with both simulated and in-vivo data. 3x net additional acceleration above partial-Fourier and parallel-imaging alone (20x in total) was achieved. 

85
9:51
Absolute MR Thermometry from Multi-Echo GRE with B0-Correction
Patrick C McDaniel1, Mark Spatz1, Bastien Guérin2,3, Patricia Ellen Grant4,5, Lawrence L Wald2,3,6, and Elfar Adalsteinsson1,6

1Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States, 2Athinoula A Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 3Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 4Radiology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 5Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 6Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States

MR thermometry offers the potential to obtain absolute and relative temperature measurements on a voxelwise basis, but is affected by B0 offsets. Since precise (<1°C) temperature measurements are important for simulation validation in phantom experiments, and since realistic phantoms and models have regions of high ΔB0 , there is a need for accurate, B0-robust temperature mapping methods. In this work, we propose such a method using a multi-TE GRE acquisition and validate it in phantom experiments. 

86
10:03
Uniform Spatiotemporal Excitation Despite Extreme B0 Inhomogeneity Using Dynamically-Driven Multi-Coil Arrays
Mohan Lal Jayatilake1, Christoph Juchem 2, Michael Mullen3, Lance DelaBarre3, Gregor Adriany4, Robin de Graaf5, and Michael Garwood3

1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, MN, United States, 2Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Radiology, Columbia University in the City of New York, NY, United States, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, MN, United States, 4Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minnesota, United States, 5Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, NY, United States

Developments of new imaging strategies that tolerate extreme B0 inhomogeneity can reduce size and cost of MRI magnets; but with conventional MRI methods, a highly uniform B0 is still required to obtain high quality images. Previously we demonstrated spatiotemporal excitation of spins in the presence of large B0 inhomogeneity when driving a multi-coil array with the dynamic multi-coil technique known as DYNAMITE. In that work, tolerance to B0 inhomogeneity began to degrade when the frequency variation exceeded +/-40 kHz, which is insufficient for imaging with a small magnet. Here we present a technique to substantially extend the range of B0 inhomogeneity tolerance of this approach when using RF pulses based on the principle of offset-independent adiabaticity (OIA).


Oral

Mostly Muscle

Room 316A Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Steven Baete & David Bluemke

87
8:15
Increased muscle BOLD following exercise training in older adults
Jill M Slade1, Anne Tonson2, David Hurley1, Mitchell Rozman1, George S Abela3, and Ronald A. Meyer2

1Radiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, United States, 2Physiology, Michigan State University, 3Medicine, Michigan State University

Functional MRI (BOLD) of skeletal muscle was used to evaluate changes in microvascular function before and after aerobic exercise training in older adults. Peak BOLD responses increased by ~30% after exercise training, supporting the use and sensitivity of BOLD MRI to assess changes in microvascular function.

88
8:27
Improved Muscle Microstructure Analysis with Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Advanced Tissue Modeling
Nagesh Adluru1, Richard Kijowski 2, and Fang Liu2

1Waisman Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Studies on musculoskeletal systems can benefit by quantitative mapping of the tissue microstructure. Parameters from traditional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may serve as bio-markers for assessing muscle fiber health. While these parameters are sensitive to changes of muscle fiber orientation, length and tension, they are non-specific to the changes of microstructure and microcomposition of muscle fibers. In this study, we proposed to use multi-shell diffusion weighted imaging acquisition with advanced diffusion and micro tissue modeling to improve in-vivo muscle fiber analysis and demonstrated the feasibility of applying these methods on in-vivo human thigh muscle imaging.

89
8:39
13C/31P MRS biomarkers of disease progression and response to gene therapy in a mouse model of Pompe disease
Celine Baligand1, Gary A. Todd2, Brittany Lee-McMullen3, Ravneet S. Vohra4, Barry J. Byrne2, Darin J. Falk2, and Glenn A. Walter5

1Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, C.J. Gorter Center for High-field MRI, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States, 3Department of Genetics, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States, 5Department of Physiology and Functional Genomics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States

With the emergence of rAAV-based gene therapy clinical trials in patients with glycogen storage disorders such as Pompe disease, there is a pressing need for early and non-invasive markers to assess treatment efficacy. While 13C-MRS has been used for detection of glycogen in muscle, its clinical implementation remains limited, due to its low natural abundance and inherent low sensitivity. 31P-MRS has higher sensitivity and can probe intermediates of glucose/glycogen metabolism. We sought to identify new biomarkers of Pompe disease progression in muscle using 13C/31P-MRS and 1H-HR-MAS in the mouse model of the disease, and tested their sensitivity to rAAV therapy.

90
8:51
Dynamic PCr and pH imaging of the human lower leg muscle during exercise at 3T
Oleksandr Khegai1, Guillaume Madelin1,2, Ryan Brown1,2, and Prodromos Parasoglou1,2

1Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R), Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

Dynamic phosphorous MRSI is an established non-invasive method for studying muscle metabolism. It allows quantification of the post-exercise phosphocreatine resynthesis rate, which provides insights into various physiological and pathological conditions. Due to low SNR, 31P imaging experiments are typically limited by long acquisition times relative to the metabolic recovery. We developed an imaging method to measure localized phosphocreatine resynthesis and pH changes in muscles of the lower leg following exercise at 3T with a high temporal resolution of 6 s required for an accurate estimation of quantitative phosphocreatine recovery rates.


91
9:03
Dynamic interleaved NMR measurements of perfusion, deoxymyoglobin and phosphorylated metabolites during ischemic and exercise paradigms in the calf and thigh muscles
Alfredo Liubomir Lopez Kolkovsky1,2, Benjamin Marty1,2, Bertrand Coppa1,2, Eric Giacomini1, and Pierre G Carlier1,2

1NMR Laboratory, Institute of Myology, Paris, France, 2CEA, DRF, I²BM, MIRCen, Paris, France

NMR allows to investigate multiple aspects of physiological parameters like regional perfusion, blood and tissue oxygenation, intracellular pH or high-energy phosphate metabolism. In the past, interleaved multi-parametric multi-nuclear dynamic NMR imaging and spectroscopy of skeletal muscle was developed on prototype scanners. Here we developed an interleaved pulse sequence combining NMR acquisitions of a perfusion image, 1H deoxy-myoglobin and 31P spectra on a clinical system without any hardware modifications from the customer. We successfully evaluated this sequence in the ischemic calf muscle and exercising quadriceps muscle. Nevertheless, using a surface coil for pulsed-ASL measurements remains a limitation at this time.

92
9:15
Dynamic Diffusion Tensor Imaging in Normal and Compartment Syndrome Calf Muscle with MEDITI
Eric Edward Sigmund1,2, Steven Hubert Baete1,2, Karan Patel1,3, Di Wang1,3, Ricardo Otazo1,2, Prodromos Parasoglou1,2, and Jenny Bencardino1

1Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Center for Advanced Imaging and Innovation (CAIIR), New York, NY, United States, 3NYU Tandon School of Engineering

We describe measurement of skeletal muscle kinematics with a multiple echo diffusion tensor imaging (MEDITI) in clinical scanners.  This approach allows characterization of the microstructural dynamics in healthy and diseased muscle.  Combining the accelerated MEDITI directional encoding with a radial k-space trajectory and compressed sensing reconstruction allows spatially resolved DTI with a continuous  temporal resolution of 16 s.  Using an MR-compatible ergometer, post-exercise recovery of DTI metrics in calf muscle were quantified in a pilot cohort of 2 volunteers and 4 subjects with chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS).  Results indicate anisotropic exercise response and recovery with kinetics differing from relaxation contrast. 

93
9:27
Compressed Sensing accelerated time-resolved 3D phase contrast MRI of the lower leg muscles during active dorsi- and plantarflexion
Lukas M. Gottwald1, Valentina Mazzoli1,2,3, Eva S. Peper1, Qinwei Zhang1, Bram F. Coolen4, Pim van Ooij1, Gustav J. Strijkers4, and Aart J. Nederveen1

1Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 3Orthopaedic Research Lab, Radboud UMCN, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering & Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Time-resolved 3D phase-contrast MRI can be applied to quantify muscle contraction. 3D coverage with sufficient spatiotemporal resolution (~3x3x5mm3, 160ms) can only be achieved by interleaved acquisitions during many repetitions of a motion task, resulting in long scan times (>10min). In this study we have developed an accelerated protocol, using k-space undersampling and compressed-sensing reconstruction, which was applied on the lower leg of 4 volunteers performing a foot plantar-dorsal flexion motion task.  Muscle velocities during the motion cycle of fully-sampled and accelerated protocols were compared. Acceleration was successful up to 6.4X with comparable velocities, which confirmed the benefit of this approach.

94
9:39
Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Functional Anatomy of the Oblique Muscles in Patients with Primary Oblique Overaction
Qianwen Gong1,2, Longqian Liu1,3, and Miroslaw Janowski2,4

1Department of Optometry and Visual Science, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Ophthalmology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China, 4NeuroRepair Department, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre PAS, Warsaw, Poland

The cause of primary eye movement abnormality is unknown. The functional MRI of superior and inferior oblique muscles was instrumental to investigate the cause of overaction. We have shown similar size of superior oblique muscle in patients and controls in the resting state, while the MRI performed during gazes revealed differences in the contractility, what suggests the abnormal innervation as a cause of primary superior oblique muscles. In contrast, the inferior oblique muscle was larger in resting state, without a difference in contractility what indicates the hypertrophy as a basis for primary inferior oblique muscle overaction. 

95
9:51
An MRI-based assessment of the correlation between cerebral white matter changes, muscle structure, and muscle function in myotonic dystrophy
Daniel Thedens1, Cheryl Smith2, Peg Nopoulos3, Richard Shields4, and Laurie Gutmann2

1Radiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States, 2Neurology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States, 3Psychiatry, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States, 4Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States

The purpose of this work was to study subjects with myotonic dystrophy (DM1) utilizing MRI to assess correlations between global cerebral white matter abnormalities, muscle structure, and muscle function. MRI-based measures of white matter (fractional anisotropy), muscle structure (volume, fat fraction, T2 mapping) along with muscle function testing demonstrated several significant correlations. The combination of neuroimaging and muscle structure assessment with MRI holds considerable promise towards elucidating the relationships between CNS abnormalities and neuromuscular dysfunction. 

96
10:03
A Flexible Technique for Flow-Sensitive Fat-Suppressed High-Resolution Peripheral Nerve Imaging
Valentina Taviani1, Miyoshi Mitsuharu2, Kang Wang3, Kevin King4, Suchandrima Banerjee1, Sandip Biswal5, Shreyas Vasanawala5, Daehyun Yoon5, and Robert Peters4

1Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 2Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare Japan, Hino, Japan, 3Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Madison, WI, United States, 4Global MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 5Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

We developed a flow-sensitive 3D fast spin echo pulse sequence with Dixon-based water-fat separation and compressed sensing for robust and efficient peripheral nerve imaging. Outer volume suppression allows shorter scan times by limiting spatial encoding of the FOV to the anatomy of interest without aliasing concerns. In addition, it improves the performance of spectrally-selective fat suppression methods, that can be advantageous for very high resolution imaging but are typically hampered by B0 inhomogeneity, by allowing shimming over smaller regions. Preliminary data showed good delineation of peripheral nerves in different anatomies, with adequate resolution and clinically feasible acquisiton times.


Oral

Female Pelvis, Fetal & Placental Imaging

Room 320 Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Gabriele Masselli & Evis Sala

97
8:15
Amide proton transfer magnetic resonance imaging of uterine endometrial cancer: Association with histologic grade
Yukihisa Takayama1, Akihiro Nishie2, Osamu Togao2, Yoshiki Asayama2, Kousei Ishigami2, Yasuhiro Ushijima2, Daisuke Okamoto2, Nobuhiro Fujita2, Kenzo Sonoda3, Jochen Keupp4, and Hiroshi Honda2

1Department of Radiology Informatics and Network, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Kyushu University, 3Department of Gynecology & Obstetrics, Kyushu University, 4Philips Research

The histologic grade of endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMCA) is one of the important factors in choosing a treatment plan. Currently, needle biopsy or surgical resection is necessary to diagnose the histological grade; a less invasive procedure is strongly desired. In this study, we evaluated the utility of amide proton transfer (APT) imaging in estimating the histologic grade of EMCA. APT signal intensities (SIs) of EMCA increased in accordance with the progression of histologic grade. APT SIs of high-grade EMCA were significantly higher than those of low-grade EMCA. APT imaging has potential as a biomarker for histologic grade of EMCA.

98
8:27
The prognostic power of early and late phase DCE-MRI parameters in locally advanced cervix cancer.
Kjersti Vassmo Lund1,2, Trude Golimo Simonsen2, Gunnar B. Kristensen3,4,5, and Einar K. Rofstad2

1Dept og Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 2Dept. of Radiation Biology, Institute of cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 3Dept. of Gynecological Cancer, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 4Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 5Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway

DCE-MRI can provide prognostic information on locally advanced cervix carcinomas.  Most studies have emphasis on the early phase of the Signal Intensity Time Curve (SITC). The purpose of this study was to explore the prognostic value of the late phase of the SITC and to reveal any added value to that of parameters from the early phase. Both the early phase parameter LETV and the late phase parameter TVIS was associated with overall survival. The association was independent of clinical factors like tumor volume, FIGO stage and lymph node status. TVIS did not provide any added prognostic value to LETV.

99
8:39
Histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion MRI in predicting chemoradiotherapy response in cervical cancer
Jose Angelo Udal Perucho1, Elaine Yuen Phin Lee1, Wing Chi Lawrence Chan2, Nanjie Gong3, and Queenie Chan4

1Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Department  of  Health  Technology  and  Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, 3University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States, 4Philips Healthcare, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Histogram analysis of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) could be a promising quantitative approach in predicting tumour response to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in cervical cancer. We retrospectively studied twenty-five patients with cervical cancer who had paired IVIM MRI examinations before and at week-4 of treatment. We observed that histogram skewness of true diffusion coefficient (D) prior to treatment and that a large increase in the 90th percentile of D following CRT were predictive of better CRT response. 

100
8:51
A One-Step Biomarker Quantification Methodology for DCE-MRI of Complex Ovarian Masses: Capturing Kinetic Pattern from Early to Late Enhancement
Anahita Fathi Kazerooni1,2, Mahnaz Nabil3, Hamidreza Haghighat Khah4, and Hamidreza Saligheh Rad1,2

1Quantitative MR Imaging and Spectroscopy Group, Research Center for Molecular and Cellular Imaging, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 2Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, 3Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin Branch, Qazvin, Iran, 4Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Shohada-e-Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Accurate characterization of sonographically-indeterminate ovarian masses before surgery is crucial for proper disease management. While DCE-MRI has emerged as a problem-solving technique, accurate parameter estimations from semi-quantitative or PK analysis are dependent on multiple steps, including proper protocol design, motion reduction, selection of physiology-based PK model and AIF, which discourages development and reliability of computer-aided diagnostic procedures. Here, we aimed to develop a one-step pre-processing and quantification classification scheme based on a five-parameter Sigmoid model, capturing early- to late-enhancement kinetics, including washout as a previously overlooked parameter for ovarian masses, to generate accurate differentiation of complex ovarian masses.

101
9:03
Ex vivo MRI evaluation of vulvar cancer to predict resection margins in fresh wide local excision specimens: a pilot study
Jan Heidkamp1, Petra Zusterzeel2, Andor Veltien1, Arie Maat3, Ilse Van Engen-Van Grunsven3, and Jurgen Fütterer1

1Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 3Pathology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands

Currently there’s no accurate and topical peroperative information available on the margin status of wide local resection specimens containing vulvar cancer.  In this pilot study we performed a qualitative image evaluation of ex vivo 7T MR images acquired of fresh specimens of the vulva containing vulvar cancer using different MRI sequences. High resolution T2 weighted images obtained the highest score for image quality, visibility of the tumor, and visibility of the transition between the epidermis and the resection surface.

102
9:15
Assessment of uterine artery hemodynamics in normal pregnancy with 4D Flow MRI
Eileen Hwuang1, Marta Vidorreta1, Nadav Schwartz1, John A Detre1, Daniel Licht2, and Walter RT Witschey1

1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States

In vivo imaging of uterine artery blood flow during remodeling is potentially valuable in assessing placental function during pregnancy. We present 4D flow MRI of the uterine arteries, demonstrating inter- and intrasubject heterogeneity in vessel anatomy and hemodynamics. This high spatial resolution, multi-location approach potentially addresses the limitations of Doppler ultrasound in quantifying pulsatility and resistance indices as clinical biomarkers of placental health.

103
9:27
In-utero non-contrast MR angiography of the fetal vasculature using a double-echo radial sampling scheme
Uday Krishnamurthy1,2, Brijesh K Yadav1, Pavan K Jella2, Swati Mody2, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade3,4, FeiFei Qu2, Anabela Trifan2, Ewart M Haacke1,2, Sonia S Hassan3,4, Roberto Romero4, and Jaladhar Neelavalli1,2

1Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Obstetrics and Gynecology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 4Perinatology Research Branch, NICHD/NIH/DHHS, Detroit, MI, United States

To show that the isotropic gradient delay issue can be addressed by a simple shift of the readout-window . We also report the use of a fully flow-compensated, readout-shifted 2D radial gradient echo sequence to perform non-contrast MRA of the human fetus in-utero

104
9:39
Feasibility of glucose CEST in the human placenta
Jie Luo1, Yang Ji2,3, Esra Abaci Turk1, Iris Y Zhou2, Drucilla J. Roberts4, Patricia Ellen Grant1, and Phillip Zhe Sun2

1Fetal-neonatal Neuroimaging and Developmental Science Center, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, MA, United States, 3Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Electronic Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, People's Republic of China, 4Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, MA, United States

Placental glucose transfer is essential to sustain fetal development, yet there has been no report attempting to measure glucose transport across the human placenta with MRI-based approaches. Emerging glucose chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) imaging is uniquely sensitive to glucose, which has been explored in tumor imaging. Herein, we have demonstrated glucoCEST MRI is a valid tool to monitor glucose perfusion in ex vivo human placenta, laying the groundwork for in vivo glucoCEST in human placenta.

105
9:51
Parametric Mapping of Oxygen Activity in Human Placenta across Gestation using in utero BOLD imaging
Vidya Rajagopalan1,2, Vince Schmithorst, Julie Coloigner, Jessica Wisnowski, Matthew Borzage, Hollie Lai, Skorn Ponrartana, Ashok Panigrahy, and Stefan Bluml

1Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Rudi Schulte Research Institute

We present here, for the first time, parametric maps of oxygen activity in normal human placenta using in utero functional MR imaging. Our method highlights anatomical and gestational age dependent patterns in placental activity. These maps can be used to gain insight into normative placental function and identifying insufficient or abnormal placental functioning at various points in gestation.


106
10:03
An exploration of quantitative physiological multi-modal in-vivo imaging of the human placenta
Jana Hutter1,2, Paddy J Slator3, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh4, Rui P Azeredo Gomes Teixeira1, Anthony N Price1, Ana Dos Santos Gomes4, Laura McCabe4, Sophie Arulkumaran4, Mary Rutherford4, and Joseph V Hajnal1

1Biomedical Engineering Department, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for the Developing Brain, London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

The crucial role of the placenta in successful pregnancies is the transfer of oxygen within functional units – cotyledons. However, current screening falls short of visualizing this in-vivo. This study explores a multi-model in-vivo MRI acquisition able to visualize and depict a range of spatial and temporal processes and the underlying micro-structure. Diffusion characteristics such as Mean Diffusivity and fractional anisotropy, quantitative T2* maps, temporal characteristics and the depiction of vasculature allow insights and can be applied to a range of research questions.


Combined Educational & Scientific Session

Combining fMRI with Advanced Neurotechniques

Room 316BC Monday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Yihong Yang & Xin Yu

8:15
Overview of Cutting Edge Neurotechniques
Anna Devor1,2

1Neurosciences and Radiology, UCSD, La Jolla, CA, United States, 2MGH/Harvard, Charlestown, MA, United States

The BRAIN Initiative targets a wide range of tools for sensing, tagging, and manipulation of multiple electrical, molecular/chemical, and connectivity parameters in the working brain. Combining these tools with fMRI measurements may accelerate our progress towards understanding the brain function in health and disease, open new avenues to guide the development of treatments, and build a stronger physiological foundation for human noninvasive imaging. 

8:45
Challenges of Combining fMRI with other Neurotechniques
Albrecht Stroh1

1Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Mainz, Germany


107
9:15
Chemo-fMRI: a DREADD-based approach to unravel the brainwide substrates of neuromodulation
Andrea Giorgi1,2, Giacomo Maddaloni1, Alberto Galbusera2, Sara Migliarini1, Marta Gritti3, Raffaella Tonini3, Massimo Pasqualetti1,2, and Alessandro Gozzi2

1Biology Department, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 2Functional Neuroimaging Laboratory, Center for Neuroscience and Cognitive Systems, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rovereto, Italy, 3Neuroscience and Brain Technologies Department, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Genova, Italy

Notable examples of the combined use of optogenetics an fMRI (i.e. “opto-fMRI”) have been recently published, revealing the possibility to map the brainwide substrates modulated by focal neuronal population. However, opto-fMRI is complicated by the use of invasive cranial implants, and the need to control the insidious contribution of heat-induced hemodynamic–responses. Here we show that “chemo-fMRI”, e.g. the combined us of DREADD-based chemogenetics and fMRI, permits to overcome these limitations, by enabling non invasive brainwide mapping of tonically-stimulated neuromodulatory systems. Chemo-fMRI mapping of serotonin-producing neurons is described as an illustrative example of the power of this novel investigational approach.

108
9:27
Detecting orientation selective deep brain stimulation using BOLD fMRI
Lauri J Lehto1, Julia P Slopsema2, Matthew D Johnson2, Artem Shatillo3, Benjamin A Teplitzky2, Lynn Utecht1, Gregor Adriany1, Silvia Mangia1, Alejandra Sierra3, Walter C Low4, Olli Gröhn1,3, and Shalom Michaeli1

1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland, 4Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States

Spatial selectivity is of high importance for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). Here we used BOLD fMRI to demonstrate for the first time that axon-orientation selective stimulation can be achieved in the rat’s corpus callosum by steering the stimulus phase of the independently driven channels in a tripolar DBS electrode. Pronounced angular dependence of the BOLD fMRI on the orientation of electric field gradient was detected. As expected based on simulations, the maximal (or minimal) BOLD response was observed when the induced dipole field was parallel (or perpendicular) to the axonal tract, respectively. 

109
9:39
Functional MRI evaluation of a novel approach to neuromodulation: Targeted delivery of GABA via focused ultrasound-mediated disruption of the blood-brain barrier
Nick Todd1, Tao Sun1, Yongzhi Zhang1, Chanikarn Power1, Chanikarn Power1, Michael Arcaro2, Sam Patz1, Margaret Livingstone2, and Nathan McDannold1

1Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

Here we present a novel approach to non-invasive neuromodulation that affects neuronal activity by delivering neurotransmitter chemicals to targeted areas of the brain. This is achieved by using focused ultrasound to transiently open the blood-brain barrier in a targeted brain region such that a systemically injected neuroactive chemical such as GABA or glutamate will leak out of the vessels and into the brain parenchyma only at the intended site. We demonstrate the proof of concept in a rodent model by delivering GABA to the somatosensory cortex to suppress activation from hindpaw stimulation.

110
9:51
Optogenetically-evoked somatosensory inputs enhance sound processing in the auditory system
Celia M. Dong1,2, Alex T.L. Leong1,2, Russell W. Chan1,2, Xunda Wang1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2

1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Brain-wide cross-modal interactions are important for building an accurate perception of the external world. Yet, whether and how somatosensory inputs influence the auditory processing remains unclear. Our recent study showed that low frequency optogenetic stimulation of somatosensory thalamus induced activation in auditory cortex (AC), but did not explore the functional effects on auditory system. This study investigated whether propagation of low frequency inputs from somatosensory system influences auditory processing. The results demonstrated that low frequency long-range propagation from somatosensory system enhanced auditory responses in most auditory structures, including lateral lemniscus, inferior colliculus, medial geniculate body and AC.

111
10:03
Simultaneous fMRI with GCaMP6-mediated neuronal and astrocytic calcium signal recording
Maosen Wang1,2, Yi He1,2, and Xin Yu1

1High Field Magnetic Resonance Department, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tuebingen, Germany, 2Graduate Training Centre of Neuroscience, International Max Planck Research School, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

Neurovascular coupling is the basis of the BOLD fMRI, however, the mechanisms of the neurovascular coupling remains elusive. By simultaneous cell-type specific Ca2+ recording with BOLD fMRI, it allowed us to study the cellular specific coupling events through the neuron-glia-vessel network. This work showed neuronal Ca2+ and evoked astrocytic Ca2+ signal were positively correlated to the fMRI signal, but an intrinsic astrocytic Ca2+ signal was negatively correlated to the fMRI signal in the cortex. It indicated a novel neuron-glia-vascular coupling event mediated through the intrinsic astrocytic calcium signal (details mechanistic study in another abstract: ID 4475).


Plenary Session

Gadolinium Deposition

Organizers: Peter Caravan, Ph.D. & Winfried Willinek, M.D.

Plenary Hall Monday 10:45 - 12:15

10:45
Gadolinium Safety & Deposition: Past, Present, & Future
Michael F Tweedle1

1Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

11:15
Gd Safety & Deposition: Impact on Practice, European Perspective
Harriet Thöny

11:45
How Does Gd Enter the Brain, When the BBB is Intact?
Shinji Naganawa

12:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Other

Gold Corporate Symposium: Siemens Healthineers

Plenary Hall Monday 12:15 - 13:45 (no CME credit)


Traditional Poster: YIA

Exhibition Hall 31-36 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Diffusion

Exhibition Hall Monday 13:45 - 14:45 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Body: Breast, Chest, Abdomen, Pelvis

Exhibition Hall Monday 13:45 - 14:45 (no CME credit)

Study Groups

MR Safety & High Field Study Groups

Room 323ABC Monday 13:45 - 15:45 (no CME credit)


Study Groups

Cardiac MR Study Group

Room 317AB Monday 13:45 - 15:45 (no CME credit)


Educational Course

Advanced Imaging of Pain

Organizers: Jenny T. Bencardino, M.D., Eric Y. Chang, M.D., Christine Chung, M.D. & Philip Robinson, M.D.

Room 316A Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Emily McWalter & Edwin Oei

13:45
Update on MRI Imaging of Low Back Pain
Lawrence Neil Tanenbaum1

1Imaging, Radnet, New York, NY, United States

DWI is a powerful addition to the arsenal of MR imaging techniques for the detection of bone marrow tumor dissemination, improving sensitivity to involvement in a variety of tumor types (2).  DWI increases confidence in monitoring treatment response and assisting in the differentiation of treatment related changes from tumor   Distinguishing between benign and malignant etiologies of vertebral fracture with MRI is problematic, particularly if only one vertebra is affected. The value of DWI in discriminating between osteoporotic and metastatic vertebral fractures is controversial and by consensus insufficiently reliable (4-6).   DWI is useful for differentiation of degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities (7-9). Symptomatic degenerative vertebral endplate signal changes (Modic type 1) can be difficult to differentiate from acute spondylodiscitis using conventional MRI techniques. Several studies have shown that DWI adds value in differentiating degenerative and infectious endplate abnormalities. The role of MRS in identifying the painful disc and PET MR in localizing back pain will be discussed

14:15
MR Imaging of Brachial Plexus
Kimberly Katz Amrami1

1Mayo Clinic


14:45
Current Concepts on MR Neurography
Gustav Andreisek

MR Neurography has stepped out from being an emerging technique into clinical retort routine. This lecture will review current concepts on MR neurography and will provide an impression on how it may be used on a day-to-day basis.

15:15
MR US Fusion Guided Intervention for Pain Syndromes
Christopher Burke

Ultrasound (US) systems equipped with position sensors can acquire three-dimensional spatial data allowing registration with previously acquired magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for fused real-time sonographic imaging.  Co-registration and fusion of alignment involves sequential algorithmic transformations minimizing the error between the output and target image.  An electromagnetic field generator is used to track transducer orientation to simultaneously map real-time US with corresponding anatomy on pre-acquired MR.  The potential utility of this technology in the treatment of various pain syndromes in particular certain joint, tendon and perineural therapies will be described.

15:45
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Power Pitch

Pitch: Body MRI Quantitative

Power Pitch Theater A - Exhibition Hall Monday 13:45 - 14:45 Moderators: Edwin VanBeek & Patrick Bolan (no CME credit)

112
13:45
Accelerated Segmented Diffusion-Weighted Prostate Imaging for Higher Resolution, Higher Geometric Fidelity, and Multi-b Perfusion Quantification
Pelin Aksit Ciris1, Jr-yuan George Chiou2, Daniel Glazer2, Shelley Hualei Zhang2, Tzu-Cheng Chao3, Bruno Madore2, and Stephan Ernst Maier2,4

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Akdeniz University, Antalya, Turkey, 2Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Computer Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City, Taiwan, 4University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

113
13:45
Towards validation and non-invasive interrogation of the hypoxia-driven insulin resistance hypothesis
Scott Charles Beeman1, Gordon Smith2, Joel Richard Garbow1, and Joseph JH Ackerman1,3

1Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Department of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Department of Chemistry, Washington University in St. Louis

114
13:45
Measuring temperature in brown adipose tissue using the proton chemical shift
Clemens Diwoky1, Renate Schreiber1, and Rudolf Zechner1

1Institute of Molecular Biosciences, University of Graz, Graz, Austria

115
13:45
Development of a Noninvasive Beta Cell Functional Assay Using a Novel Zinc-Sensitive MRI Contrast Agent in Non-Human Primates
Catherine D. G. Hines1, Veronica Clavijo-Jordan2,3, Liza T Gantert1, Stacey Conarello4, Christian Preihs2,5, Sarah Chirayil2, Rachel Ortiga4, Shu-An Lin1, Michael Klimas6, A. Dean Sherry2,3,5,7, and Jeff Evelhoch6

1Translational Imaging Biomarkers, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, United States, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Radiology, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Pharmacology, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, United States, 5VitalQuan, LLC, Dallas, TX, United States, 6Translational Biomarkers, Merck Research Laboratories, West Point, PA, United States, 7Chemistry, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, United States

116
13:45
Feasibility of Estimating Placental Oxygen Metabolism in Pregnant Women $$$in$$$ $$$vivo$$$: Initial Experience
Ana E Rodríguez-Soto1, Michael C Langham1, Nadav Schwartz2, and Felix W Wehrli1

1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

117
13:45
Free-breathing R2* Characterization of the Placenta During Normal Early Gestation Using a Multiecho 3D Stack-of-Radial Technique
Tess Armstrong1,2, Dapeng Liu1, Thomas Martin1,2, Alto Stemmer3, Yutaka Natsuaki4, Sherin U. Devaskar5, Carla Janzen6, Teresa Chanlaw5, Rinat Masamed1, Daniel Margolis7, Kyunghyun Sung1,2, and Holden H. Wu1,2

1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Physics and Biology in Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany, 4Siemens Healthcare, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Pediatrics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Obstetrics and Gynecology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

118
13:45
Respiratory $$$\alpha$$$-mapping of cystic fibrosis at 1.5T
Orso Pusterla1,2, Grzegorz Bauman1,2, Sylvia Nyilas3, Philipp Madörin1, Bernd Jung4, Michael Ith4, Enno Stranzinger4, Urs Frey5, Philipp Latzin3, and Oliver Bieri1,2

1Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 3Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University Children's Hospital of Bern, Bern, Switzerland, 4University Institute for Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland, 5Department of Pediatric Pneumology, University Children's Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

119
13:45
5D MRI for late enhancement dynamics in lung fibrosis
Maria Teodora Antuaneta Buzan1,2, Julien Dinkel3, Christopher Rank4, Claus Peter Heussel2, Marc Kachelrieß 4, Robert Grimm5, and Andreas Wetscherek4,6

1Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology with Nuclear Medicine, Thoraxklinik at Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Institute for Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Munich, Germany, 4Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany, 5Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany, 6Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

120
13:45
Quantification of short-T2* Signal Components in the Liver using Radial 3D UTE Chemical Shift-Encoded MRI
Ante Zhu1,2, Diego Hernando2,3, Kevin M. Johnson2,3, and Scott B. Reeder1,2,3,4,5

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 5Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

121
13:45
REnal Flow and Microstructure AnisotroPy (REFMAP) MRI in Normal and Peritumoral Renal Tissue
Andrea Liu1, Artem Mikheev2, Henry Rusinek2,3, William Huang4, Hersh Chandarana2,3, and Eric Edward Sigmund2,3

1NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States, 3Center for Advanced Imaging and Innovation (CAIIR), New York, NY, United States, 4Urology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, United States

122
13:45
Addressing Metabolic Heterogeneity in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma with Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Yue Zhang1, Durga Udayakumar1, Ling Cai2, Zeping Hu2, Payal Kapur3, Eun-Young Kho2, Andrea Pavía-Jiménez4, Michael Fulkerson1, Alberto DiazdeLeon1, Qing Yuan1, Ivan E Dimitrov5, Takeshi Yokoo1, Jin Ye6, Matthew Mitsche6, Hyeonwoo Kim6, Jeffrey McDonald6, Yin Xi1, Ananth J Madhuranthakam1, Robert E Lenkinski1, Jeffrey A Cadeddu7, Vitaly Margulis7, James Brugarolas8, Ralph J Deberardinis2, and Ivan Pedrosa1

1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Children's Medical Center Research Institute, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Pathology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 5Philips Medical Systems, Cleveland, OH, United States, 6Molecular Genetics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 7Urology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 8Internal Medicine & Kidney Cancer Program, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

123
13:45
Liver Fat Reduction Following Bariatric Weight Loss Surgery is Greater in the Right Lobe of the Liver
Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy1, Tanya Wolfson2, Cheng William Hong1, Alexandra Schlein1, Yesenia Covarrubias1, Jennifer Cui1, Ethan Z Sy1, Adrija Mamidipalli1, Gavin Hamilton1, Scott B Reeder3, and Claude B Sirlin1

1Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, and Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI, United States

124
13:45
In Vivo Biochemical and Histological Validation of Proton Density Fat Fraction as a Quantitative Biomarker of Hepatic Steatosis
Scott B Reeder1,2,3,4,5, Curtis N Wiens1, Nathan Artz1,6, Jeffrey B Schwimmer7, Rashmi Agni8, Rao Watson8, Tanya Wolfson9, Anthony Gamst10, Guilherme Campos11,12, Santiago Horgan13, Luke Funk12, Garth Jacobsen13, Jacob Greenberg12, Alexandra Schlein14, Yesenia Covarrubias14, Jonathan C Hooker14, Michael S Middleton14, Gavin Hamilton14, Benjamin Ratliff1,3, Alan B McMillan1, Diego Hernando1,2, and Claude B Sirlin14

1Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 4Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 5Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 6Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, 7Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, 8Pathology, University of Wisconsin, 9San Diego Super Computer Center, University of California, San Diego, 10Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, 11Surgery, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, United States, 12Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, 13Surgery, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 14Radiology, University of California, San Diego

125
13:45
Hepatic MRI-PDFF is positively correlated with R2* across a range of fat spectral models
Cheng William Hong1, Adrija Mamidipalli1, Jonathan C Hooker1, Gavin Hamilton1, Tanya Wolfson2, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy1, Michael S Middleton1, Scott B Reeder3, Rohit Loomba4, and Claude B Sirlin1

1Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Departments of Radiology, Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, and Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4NAFLD Research Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

126
13:45
Anatomical and functional deficits of the placenta identified by MRI in a rat model of preeclampsia
Emily Alexandria Waters1, Pamela Monahan2, Chad R Haney1, Michael Kevin Fritsch3, Thomas J Meade4, and Kelly E Mayo2

1Center for Advanced Molecular Imaging, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States, 2Molecular Biosciences, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States, 3Pathology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Chemistry, Molecular Biosciences, and Neurobiology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States


Power Pitch

Pitch: Highlights of Multiparametric Acquisition & Reconstruction

Power Pitch Theater B - Exhibition Hall Monday 13:45 - 14:45 Moderators: Martijn Cloos & Mariya Doneva (no CME credit)

127
13:45
Relaxation in Polar Coordinates: Analysis and Optimization of MR-Fingerprinting
Jakob Assländer1,2, Daniel K Sodickson1,2, Riccardo Lattanzi1,2, and Martijn A Cloos1,2

1Dept. of Radiology - Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Dept. of Radiology - Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

128
13:45
Quantification of Flow by Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Sebastian Flassbeck1, Simon Schmidt1, Mathies Breithaupt1,2, Peter Bachert1, Mark E. Ladd1, and Sebastian Schmitter1,3

1Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Institute for Forensic Medicine and Traffic Medicine, Germany, 3Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig and Berlin, Germany

129
13:45
Applications of Low Rank Modeling to Fast 3D Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF)
Dan Ma1, Eric Y. Pierre2, Debra McGivney1, Bhairav Mehta1, Yong Chen1, Yun Jiang1, and Mark Griswold1

1Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia

130
13:45
Magnetic Resonance Fingerprint Compression with Multiple Channel Transmission
Riccardo Lattanzi1,2, Bei Zhang1, Florian Knoll1, Jakob Assländer1, and Martijn Cloos1

1Radiology, Center for Advanced Imaging Innovation and Research (CAI2R) and Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Sackler Institute of Graduate Biomedical Sciences, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

131
13:45
Intra-Voxel Spatial Resolution Using Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting
Thomas Amthor1, Karsten Sommer1, Peter Koken1, Jakob Meineke1, and Mariya Doneva1

1Philips Research, Hamburg, Germany

132
13:45
Dictionary approach to partial volume estimation with MR Fingerprinting: Validation and application to brain tumor segmentation
Anagha Deshmane1, Debra McGivney2, Chaitra Badve3, Vikas Gulani2,3, and Mark Griswold2

1Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Radiology, University Hospitals, Cleveland, OH, United States

133
13:45
Mitigation of Spiral Undersampling Artifacts in Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) by Adapted Interleave Reordering
Josef Pfeuffer1, Argyrios Kechagias1, Craig H. Meyer2, Gregor Körzdörfer1, and Mathias Nittka1

1Application Development, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, United States

134
13:45
Fat Signal Fraction Determination Using MR Fingerprinting
Jason Ostenson1,2 and E. Brian Welch1,3,4

1Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Program in Chemical and Physical Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University

135
13:45
Accelerated Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting using Soft-weighted key-Hole (MRF-SOHO)
Gastao Cruz1, Andreia S. Gaspar1, Tom Bruijnen2, René Botnar1, and Claudia Prieto1

1Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Center for image sciences, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

136
13:45
Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting - Evaluation of Brain Gliomas in Comparison to a Conventional Advanced Tumor Protocol - Preliminary Study
Siegfried Trattnig1,2, Wolfgang Bogner1, Bernhard Strasser1, Peter Bär1, Simone Kitzer1, Pavol Szomolanyi1, Matthias Nittka3, Wolfgang Marik4, Martin Zalaudek1, Markus Schreiner1, and Elisabeth Springer1

1Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Center, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 3Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany, 4Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

137
13:45
Joint estimation of arterial input function and tracer kinetic parameters from under-sampled DCE-MRI
Yi Guo1, Sajan Goud Lingala1, R Marc Lebel2, and Krishna S Nayak1

1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2GE Healthcare, Calgary, AB, Canada

138
13:45
Highly accelerated DCE imaging with integrated T1 mapping
R Marc Lebel1,2,3, Yi Guo4, Sajan Goud Lingala4, RIchard Frayne2,3, and Krishna S Nayak4

1GE Healthcare, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Radiology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 3Seaman Family Centre, Calgary, AB, Canada, 4Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

139
13:45
Calibrationless Parallel Imaging in Multi Echo/Contrast Data
Berkin Bilgic1, Bo Zhao1, Itthi Chatnuntawech2, Lawrence L Wald1, and Kawin Setsompop1

1Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2National Nanotechnology Center, Pathum Thani, Thailand

140
13:45
Accelerated Cardiac Diffusion Tensor Imaging Using a Joint Low-Rank and Sparsity Constraint
Sen Ma1,2, Christopher Nguyen1, Anthony Christodoulou1,3, Daniel Luthringer4, Jon Kobashigawa3, and Debiao Li1,2

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Heart Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Department of Pathology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States

141
13:45
An open-source hardware and software system for video-gated MRI
Nicolai Spicher1, Stephan Orzada2, Stefan Maderwald2, Markus Kukuk1, and Mark E Ladd2,3

1University of Applied Sciences and Arts Dortmund, Dortmund, Germany, 2Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany, 3Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany


Oral

Cerebrovascular Disease: Intracranial & Extracranial

Room 310 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Ian Marshall & Danny Wang

142
13:45
4D Flow MRI for Assessment of Venous Pressure in Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas
Leonardo A Rivera Rivera1, Zachary Clark2, Kevin M Johnson1,2, Patrick Turski1,2, and Oliver Wieben1,2

1Dept. of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, MADISON, WI, United States, 2Dept. of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are vascular malformations that can present aggressively. Venous hypertension is the pathophysiologic mechanism thought to be responsible for aggressive presentation. 4D flow MRI has demonstrated success generating pressure maps from velocity data in vessels. In this work we measure relative pressure in the dural sinuses in DAVFs patients using 4D flow MRI. Results support the hypothesis that DAVFs result in venous hypertension which may be the mechanism ultimately leading to aggressive presentation. 4D flow MRI allows blood flow directionality assessment along the dural sinuses, which helps to detect retrograde flow and classify the severity of DAVFs.

143
13:57
Enhanced detection of cerebral arterial system with USPIO-enhanced MRI
Yulin Ge1, Jean-Christophe Brisset2, Saifeng Liu3, and E. Mark Haacke3

1Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, 3Wayne State University

Although small arterial system plays a key role in delivering oxygen and glucose to brain tissue, the in vivo detection is still challenging. Using a low dose of ultra-small-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide (USPIO) contrast agent, it will induce susceptibility contrast in the arterial blood, which enhances the small arteries visibility on susceptibility weighted imaging. This study has demonstrated its feasibility in human brain. Such technique has potential to unveil underlyingmicrovascular abnormalities in neurovascular diseases that cannot be done in vivo with any other conventional method in use today.

144
14:09
T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST) and Arterial Spin Labeling MRI elucidate discrepant hemo-metabolic mechanisms underlying elevated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in moyamoya and sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients
Jennifer M Watchmaker1, Meher R Juttukonda1, Larry T Davis1, Allison O Scott1, Carlos C Faraco1, Melissa C Gindville2, Lori C Jordan2, Petrice M Cogswell1, Angela L Jefferson3, Howard S Kirshner4, and Manus J Donahue1,4,5

1Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Vanderbilt Memory & Alzheimer's Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, 4Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Psychiatry, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging (TRUST-MRI) was performed in patients with intracranial stenosis due to moyamoya for determination of whole-brain oxygen extraction fraction (OEF). Elevated OEF was observed in this group compared to controls. In15O PET studies in individuals with intracranial stenosis, it has been shown that OEF increases regionally when cerebral blood volume (CBV) is inadequate to maintain cerebral blood flow (CBF) over a normal range, and importantly that regionally elevated OEF and CBV may be prognostic for recurrent stroke risk. This work has motivated the development and application of TRUST-MRI for use in patients with intracranial stenosis at risk for stroke. 

145
14:21
4D MR Angiography with Pseudo-Continuous Arterial Spin Labelling Combined with CENTRA-Keyhole (4D-PACK): Visualization of Distal Cerebral Arteries in Moyamoya Disease
Osamu Togao1, Akio Hiwatashi1, Makoto Obara2, Koji Yamashita1, Ryotaro Kamei1, and Hiroshi Honda1

1Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo, Japan

In the present study, we demonstrated the clinical utility of 4D-MR angiography with pCASL combined with CENTRA-keyhole (4D-PACK) in Moyamoya disease by comparing with a well-established pulsed ASL-based 4D-MRA called contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi-phase angiography (CINEMA). 4D-PACK provided higher CNRs than CINEMA in distal MCA branches in later phases indicating that 4D-PACK enables better visualizations of distal cerebral arteries supplied by collaterals vessels during a long transit time. This could be due to higher flow signal obtained with pCASL and less saturation effect after labeling. 4D-PACK can be a non-invasive clinical tool in assessing hemodynamics in Moyamoya disease.

146
14:33
Probing the BOLD-CVR response to progressive hypercapnia in patients with uni-lateral carotid artery occlusions
Alex Bhogal1, Jeroen C.W. Siero1,2, Hans Hoogduin1, Peter R Luijten1, Jeroen Hendrikse3, and Jill B De Vis4

1Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Spinoza Center for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 3Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, 4University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands

We examine the BOLD-CVR response to a progressively increasing vascular stimulus between individuals with carotid artery occlusions and healthy, age/gender-matched controls. Using this paradigm, we aim to understand finer-scale interactions between impaired versus healthy cerebral hemispheres at different vascular stimulus magnitudes.

147
14:45
Analysis of cerebrovascular watershed areas in patients with high-grade carotid artery stenosis using DSC-based time-to-peak maps
Vanessa Griese1, Stephan Kaczmarz1, Anne Kluge1,2, Kim van de Ven3, Michael Helle4, Hendrik Kooijman-Kurfuerst4, Claus Zimmer1, Christian Sorg 1,5, Jens Göttler1, and Christine Preibisch1,5,6

1Neuroradiology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 2Radioonkology and Radiotherapy, Charité Berlin, Berlin, Germany, 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands, 4Philips Research, Hamburg, Germany, 5TUM Neuroimaging Center (TUM-NIC), Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany, 6Neurology, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany

Internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) is one of the leading causes for thromboembolic and hemodynamic cerebral infarction. Here, we present data from an ongoing clinical MRI-study in patients with asymptomatic, high-grade ICAS and healthy controls. Our major aim was to establish a method to delineate individual watershed areas in patients and controls using MRI-based dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) time-to-peak (TTP) maps, also including the anatomical information of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) to define individual vascular territories. Watershed areas were enlarged and shifted in many of the vascular territories of stenosed carotid arteries, being verified by ss-pCASL in a subgroup. 

148
14:57
Effective collateral circulation may related with better perfusion restoration after carotid endarterectomy (CEA): a pilot territory ASL (tASL) study
Tian-ye Lin1, Yue-lei Lv1, Zhi-chao Lai2, Hui You1, Bo Hou1, Bing Wu3, Jian-xun Qu3, Chang-wei Liu2, and Feng Feng1

1Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Vascular surgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3GE Healthcare, MR Research China, Beijing, Beijing, People's Republic of China

Flow territories normalization was observed in patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA). To investigate whether collateral flow associated with the redistribution of blood we performed 3D ASL and tASL on 25 patients prior to (PRE) and after (POST) surgery. Collateral flow was read as the presence of arterial transit artifact (ATA) on 3D ASL images. Alteration of flow territories was determined by comparing the PRE and POST tASL images. Our study demonstrated that good collateral compensation shown in ASL was associated with normalization of tASL flow territories after CEA.

149
15:09
One-sided hypoperfusion is associated with contralateral attention deficits in asymptomatic high-grade carotid stenosis patients.
Jens Goettler1, Stephan Kaczmarz1, Rachel Nuttall1, Vanessa Griese1, Hendrik Kooijman2, Michael Helle2, Kim van de Ven3, Claus Zimmer1, Kathrin Finke4, Christian Sorg1, and Christine Preibisch1

1Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2Philips Healthcare, Hamburg, Germany, 3Philips Healthcare, Best, Netherlands, 4Neuro-cognitive Psychology Unit, Department Psychologie, Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität, Munich, Germany

Patients with clinically asymptomatic, high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis (ICAS) often show cognitive impairments, such as memory dysfunction and attention deficits. However, it is still unclear whether these symptoms are caused by potentially reversible cerebral hypoperfusion or rather by a general unchangeable vascular damage. Here, 17 patients with one-sided high-grade, asymptomatic ICAS and 26 age-matched healthy controls underwent an MRI scan, including pCASL to assess brain perfusion, and a computer-based visual attention test. Patients show distinct unilateral cerebral hypoperfusion being significantly associated with contralateral attention deficits. Data indicate that chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in high-grade ICAS impairs cognitive function.  

150
15:21
Saccular intracranial aneurysm wall permeability and shear stress distribution: a further insight into rupture pathogenesis
Xian Liu1, Yu Chen1, Haikun Qi1, Peng Liu2, Yunduo Li1, Xiaole Wang1, Le He1, Qiang Zhang1, Zhensen Chen1, Rui Li1, Youxiang Li2, Chun Yuan3, and Huijun Chen1

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute and Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between aneurysm wall permeability and the hemodynamic conditions of intracranial aneurysm (IA). The results showed that hot spot of IA wall permeability was spatially related with significantly lower wall shear stress magnitude and higher oscillatory shear index, which suggests the pathology of IA might be an interaction of both factors, and IA wall permeability could be a potential method for IA rupture risk assessment.

151
15:33
Investigation of zero TE ASL MRA in the follow-up after endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysm at 1.5T
yan song 1, Peng Qi, Juan Huang, Sheng Jiao, Tan Guo, Min Chen, Daming Wang, Jing Zhang, Bing Wu, and Zhe lin Luo

1Beijing Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China

 It is necessary to follow up the intracranial aneurysms treated with coil or/and stent for recanalization or remnant. TOF MRA, though performed well, is susceptible to metallic artifact and flow artifact. ASL MRA with zero TE acquisition has potential advantages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of ASL MRA by comparing with TOF MRA, using DSA as gold standard. It was demonstrated that ASL MRA featured significantly better consistency with DSA for aneurysm remnant diagnosis and led to superior image quality in the presence of intra-stent lumen as compared to TOF at 1.5T.


Oral

Acquisition & Analysis of High Spatio-Temporal fMRI

Room 311 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Peter Koopmans & Andrew Stenger

152
13:45
Accelerated rank-constrained FMRI data reconstruction informed by external temporal measures
Mark Chiew1, Nadine N Graedel1, Jostein Holmgren2, Dean Fido1, Catherine E Warnaby1, and Karla L Miller1

1FMRIB Centre, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Institute of Psychology, University of Oslo

Reconstruction of highly under-sampled FMRI data using low-rank constraints can suffer from loss of fidelity at high acceleration factors, or when signals are relatively weak. We introduce a method for improving reconstruction fidelity using external constraints, i.e., informative signals that are not data-derived. We show that this improves FMRI reconstruction quality in a number of conditions, including detecting subtle latency shifts between brain regions, and improving resting state network characterization using simultaneously acquired EEG information. We further show that this approach works with noisy or approximate constraints, and the derived benefit is commensurate with the information content they provide.

153
13:57
Submillimeter 9.4 T fMRI of the human auditory cortex with tones, ripples, and real life sounds
Valentin G. Kemper1, Elia Formisano1, Sudhir Ramanna2, Essa Yacoub2, and Federico De Martino1,2

1Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, MN, United States

This study demonstrates auditory human fMRI conducted at 9.4T field strength and submillimeter resolution for the first time. Tonotopic maps were measured robustly and reliably. Further, cortical regions with preference for natural sound categories were delineated. We generated ripple control sounds that closely match low level acoustical properties of natural sounds in four natural sound categories, such that the original category is not recognizable. We show that, in areas preferring speech sounds over other natural sounds, ripple control sounds of speech elicit stronger responses than ripple control sounds of non-speech. This indicates tuning to the low-level acoustical properties of speech.

154
14:09
Ultra-high resolution blood volume fMRI and BOLD fMRI in humans at 9.4 T: Capabilities and Challenges
Laurentius Huber 1, Desmond H Y Tse2, Kashyap Sriranga2, Christopher Wiggins3, Kâmil Uludağ2, Peter A Bandettini1, Benedikt A Poser2, and Dimo Ivanov2

1SFIM, NIMH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2MBIC, Maastricht University, Netherlands, 3Scannexus, Maastricht, Netherlands

FMRI at ultra-high field strengths of 9.4 T allows functional imaging with submillimeter spatial resolutions. CBV sensitive VASO-fMRI has been suggested to be weighted towards locally specific microvasculature changes close to neural activity changes. Hence, we sought to combine the high physiological specificity of CBV-fMRI with the high signal-to-noise ratio of 9.4 T imaging. In our experiments, we could identify and discuss numerous technical challenges of CBV-fMRI at 9.4 T regarding constraints of RF fields and VASO contrast generation. With the application of advanced imaging methods, we show promising functional results with clearly visible cortical depth-dependent activity patterns.

155
14:21
Revealing the high frequency brain networks with multiband multi-echo fMRI data
Wenchao Yang1, Burak Akin1, Fei Wang1, Jürgen Hennig1, and Pierre LeVan1

1Dept. of Radiology · Medical Physics, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

The high frequency networks are hard to be observed with standard fMRI data. Those networks were submerged in the non-BOLD signal and could not be observed with standard fMRI methods. In this work, Multiband Multi-echo (MBME) sequence is used to sample brain fluctuations in high frequency (TR=0.75).By using acquired 8 echoes, T2* and I0 (initial intensity) values are calculated and fluctuations in the brain were separated into BOLD and non-BOLD. Results showed that there is an improved detection in several high frequency networks like LECN, dDMN, Language and high Visual networks by using the separated BOLD signal. 

156
14:33
Empirical Mode Decomposition and Frequency Characteristics of the Default Mode Network on Group fMRI Resting-State Data
Dietmar Cordes1,2, Muhammad Kaleem3, Xiaowei Zhuang1, Karthik Sreenivasan1, Zhengshi Yang1, and Virendra Mishra1

1Cleveland Clinic Lou Ruvo Center for Brain Health, LAS VEGAS, NV, United States, 2University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, United States, 3University of Management & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan

In this project, high-frequency contributions to functional connectivity of the Default Mode Network (DMN) are studied. Rather than relying on user-defined frequency bands, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is used to decompose the natural occurring frequency bands of the DMN. The novelty of our approach lies in the data-adaptive and user-independent decomposition of fMRI data using EMD, and identification of a resting-state network based on the frequency characteristics of intrinsic modes in the data, instead of using wavelet- or windowed-Fourier-transform methods. Results are shown for multiband MB8 resting-state data of a group of 22 healthy subjects.

157
14:45
An in vivo study of BOLD laminar responses as a function of echo time and magnetic field
Irati Markuerkiaga1, Lauren J Bains1, Jose P Marques1, and David G Norris1,2

1Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 2Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen, Germany

In this study we evaluate the echo time of laminar BOLD responses of the human primary visual cortex at 1.5 and 7T. It is often assumed that lower magnetic field strengths are increasingly biased towards the signal arising from larger veins located towards the pial surface. In this study (performed with an isotropic resolution of 0.75mm) we found similar shaped laminar profiles at 1.5 and 7T.

158
14:57
Frequency signature of cortical laminar fMRI
Maria Guidi1, Irati Markuerkiaga2, Lauren Bains2, Laurentius Huber3, Harald E. Möller1, and David G. Norris2

1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Donders Centre for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 3NIMH, Bethesda, MD, United States

The nature of spontaneous oscillations in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response is in the focus of current research. For resting-state network studies, the low-frequency band (0.01-0.1 Hz) is usually taken to be relevant for neuronal activity. However, this statement is based on low-resolution functional data, where the effect of the draining vasculature cannot always be characterized. This study investigates the distribution of the amplitude of resting-state BOLD fluctuations using a sub-millimeter resolution and shows that the low-frequency band is dominating at all cortical depths, but most of its power is located at the pial surface.

159
15:09
Topographic Mapping of Resting State fMRI Data
Eleanor Barratt1, Michael Asghar1, Matthew Brookes1, and Susan Francis1

1School of Physics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

Task-based fMRI can provide robust somatotopic mapping of digits of the hand. Resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) provides the ability to parcellate brain areas based on their connectivity. Here, we use simultaneous multislice to acquire high spatial resolution fMRI resting state data with a short TR to determine whether we can topographically map connectivity within the sensorimotor cortex.  Seed based locations of the index finger (Digit 2) and little finger (Digit 5) are defined from somatotopic travelling wave and finger tapping tasks, and used to demonstrate significant topographic mapping in rs-fMRI data.  

160
15:21
Tonotopic mapping in the in vivo mouse via high resolution fMRI
Guilherme Blazquez Freches1, Cristina Chavarrias1, and Noam Shemesh1

1Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal

The rodent auditory system has been a popular research subject for electrophysiological studies for its complexity, fine tuning and adaptability. More recently, some studies on auditory Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in rats have surfaced, aiming to unravel this system’s intricacies by capturing whole brain activity noninvasively. Auditory mapping in the mouse could be highly valuable given its importance vis-à-vis transgenic models and optogenetics. This study provides the first tonotopic mapping in the in vivo mouse via high resolution fMRI. We demonstrate robust activation in the auditory pathway, and specific tonotopy in several prominent regions along the pathway.  

161
15:33
MB-SWIFT functional MRI during deep brain stimulation in rats
Lauri Juhani Lehto1, Djaudat Idiyatullin1, Jinjin Zhang1, Lynn Utecht1, Gregor Adriany1, Michael Garwood1, Olli Gröhn1,2, Shalom Michaeli1, and Silvia Mangia1

1Center for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland

Commercial electrodes used for Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) cause severe artefacts in conventional echo based MRI. Here we show near artefact free functional MRI during DBS in rats using Multi-Band SWeep Imaging with Fourier Transformation (MB-SWIFT) which allows acquisition at virtually zero-TE. MB-SWIFT showed strong responses in the somatosensory cortex while stimulating the ventromedial. The amplitude and extent of activation recorded with MB-SWIFT were similar with SE-EPI, although activation was flip angle dependent reflecting the possible influence of blood inflow. MB-SWIFT is a promising modality for fMRI in the presence of DBS leads or other severe susceptibility differences.


Oral

Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Imaging & Spectroscopy

Room 312 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Angus Lau & Rolf Schulte

162
13:45
Chemical Shift Imaging of pH with Hyperpolarized [2-13C,D10] Diethylmalonic Acid
David Korenchan1,2, Celine Taglang1, Cornelius von Morze1, Joseph Blecha1, Jeremy Gordon1, Peder Larson1,2, Henry VanBrocklin1, John Kurhanewicz1,2, David Wilson1, and Robert Flavell1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States

Imaging tumoral pH may aid in characterizing aggressiveness, metastasis, and therapeutic response. The study of hyperpolarized (HP) 13C chemical shift-based probes addresses some of the limitations of previously reported ratiometric methods, including HP 13C bicarbonate. We report the development of HP [2-13C,D10] diethylmalonic acid as a pH imaging agent, which exhibits a significant 13C chemical shift difference over the physiologic pH range. We demonstrate that this compound can be copolarized with tert-butanol to accurately measure pH in phantom studies. Furthermore, this HP compound showed high in vivo SNR in a murine model of prostate cancer.

163
13:57
Long-lasting, liquid-state 13C hyperpolarization > 20 % generated in an MRI system within seconds enables fast 13C imaging
Andreas Benjamin Schmidt1, Stephan Berner1, Waldemar Schimpf1, Christoph Müller1, Thomas Lickert2, Niels Schwaderlapp1, Stephan Knecht1, Jason Skinner1, Anna Dost1, Philipp Rovedo1, Jürgen Hennig1, Dominik von Elverfeldt1, and Jan-Bernd Hövener1,3

1University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg, Germany, 3German Consortium for Cancer Research (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany

Current methods for the production of hyperpolarized 13C-tracers require a dedicated, complex and costly polarizer device. Here we present, for the first time, 13C-hyperpolarization >20% and ex-vivo 13C-MRI without an external polarizer, but by using the hardware of an MRI system instead: a simple, low-cost (≈1000€) setup was built and high-field spin-order-transfer sequences were exploited to transfer the spin-order of parahydrogen to 13C;the implementation on any multinuclear MRI system appears feasible. The tracer is produced near the application site and subsequent 13C-MRI is possible without transfer of the sample, at a fraction of the cost and complexity of external polarizers.

164
14:09
Hyperpolarized Nuclear Spin Singlets. Opportunities for Polarization Storage. What Limits Their Lifetimes?
Alexej Jerschow1, Yuning Zhang1, Xueyou Duan1, Vladimir Sychrovsky2, and James Canary1

1New York University, New York, NY, United States, 2Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic

Hyperpolarization techniques have offered the prospect of higher sensitivity and fast imaging, as well as tracking of metabolism in real-time. Nuclear spin singlet states allow the storage of polarization for an extended period of time. Here we present results on the limiting factors for nuclear singlet state lifetimes, and methods by which they can be determined in organic molecules, which is important for designing appropriate contrast agents, or hyperpolarization techniques that track metabolites.

165
14:21
Metabolic imaging of neuroinflammation in the cuprizone mouse model for Multiple Sclerosis using hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate
Caroline Guglielmetti1,2,3, Chloe Najac2, Annemie Van der Linden3, Sabrina Ronen2,4, and Myriam Chaumeil1,2

1Department of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Surbeck Laboratory of Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Bio-Imaging Lab, Department Pharmaceutical, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 4Surbeck Laboratory of Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA, United States

Our study demonstrates that metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate can detect increased hyperpolarized lactate production in vivo in highly inflammatory white matter lesions in a preclinical model of Multiple Sclerosis. Increased lactate production was associated with the presence of pro-inflammatory macrophages upregulating pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, as well as regional inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, providing a likely mechanism for a decrease subsequent flux of pyruvate towards the Krebs cycle. Our study demonstrates that metabolic imaging of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate has high potential for in-vivo detection and monitoring of neuroinflammation levels during demyelination and remyelination.

166
14:33
Effects of 3-MPA on in vivo hepatic metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C] pyruvate
Emine Can1, Hikari A.I. Yoshihara1,2, Jessica A.M. Bastiaansen1,2, Rolf Gruetter3,4, and Arnaud Comment1

1Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Laboratory for Functional and Metabolic Imaging, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Radiology, University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland

Ex vivo and in vivo studies on liver metabolism using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate report do not agree on whether hyperpolarized bicarbonate metabolite production results from pyruvate oxidation or gluconeogenesis. This study tested the ability of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate to probe gluconeogenesis in the liver of intact rats. While conversion to hyperpolarized bicarbonate was detected in the liver of fasted rats, treatment with the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase inhibitor 3-mercaptopicolinc acid resulted in 7-fold lower levels. This result supports the notion that hepatic gluconeogenic metabolism can indeed be directly probed in vivo with hyperpolarized pyruvate.

167
14:45
[2-13C]dihydroxyacetone as a real-time, in vivo sensor of acute hepatic and renal metabolic response after a fructose and glucose challenge
Irene Marco-Rius1, Cornelius Von Morze1, Renuka Sriram1, Peng Cao1, Gene-Yuan Chang2, Eugene Milshteyn1, Robert A. Bok1, Michael A. Ohliger1, David Pearce2, John Kurhanewicz1, Peder E. Z. Larson1, Dan B. Vigneron1, and Matthew Merritt3

1Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, United States

Hyperpolarized [2-13C]dihydroxyacetone was used to investigate the hepatic and renal metabolic response to acute intravenous administration of glucose or fructose in rats in vivo. 13C-MR spectra were acquired before, 10 minutes and 80 minutes after the carbohydrate solution delivery. Changes in the metabolic products phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) were detected after fructose injection, while no metabolic perturbation was detected after the glucose injection. The observed effects possibly include ATP depletion and changes in the unlabelled pool sizes of glycolytic intermediates.

168
14:57
Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Evaluation of Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in a Murine Model
Celine Baligand1, Hecong Qin2, Aisha True-Yasaki2, Jeremy W. Gordon2, Cornelius VonMorze2, Justin DeLos Santos2, Joy P. Walker3, David M. Wilson2, Robert L. Raffai3, John Kurhanewicz2, David H. Lovett4, and Zhen J. Wang2

1Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, C.J. Gorter Center for High-field MRI, Leiden, Netherlands, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Department of Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Department of Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Persistent oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction have been implicated across diverse forms of acute kidney injury and in the transition to chronic kidney disease. We show that HP 13C metabolic MR can be used to noninvasively assess the altered renal redox capacity and mitochondrial PDH activity following ischemic reperfusion injury. Such an imaging approach can potentially enhance the prediction and monitoring of progressive kidney injury.

169
15:09
Towards Quantitative Cardiac First-Pass Perfusion Imaging using Hyperpolarized [13]-Urea
Maximilian Fuetterer1, Julia Busch1, Sophie M. Peereboom1, Lukas Wissmann1, Constantin von Deuster1, Nikola Cesarovic2, Miriam Lipiski2, Christian T. Stoeck1, and Sebastian Kozerke1

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University and ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Division of Surgical Research, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Hyperpolarized [13C] urea perfusion imaging using velocity-selective excitation is qualitatively and semi-quantitatively compared with clinically used [1H] Gadolinium first-pass perfusion imaging in healthy pigs. Higher contrast-to-noise ratios and comparable sensitivity for semi-quantitative perfusion measures over myocardial sectors can be achieved with [13C] urea. Arterial input sampling in the ascending aorta using a second imaging slice with conventional excitation is proposed. Feasibility of accurate absolute myocardial blood flow quantification using [13C] urea is demonstrated. 

170
15:21
Measurement of metabolic changes in acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice using hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate
David Martin1, Hikari AI Yoshihara1,2, Emine Can2, Roger Hullin1, and Jessica AM Bastiaansen3

1Division of Cardiology, University Hospital Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Institute of Physics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, Hospital Lausanne (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland

Chemotherapy cocktails containing doxorubicin produce irreversible cardiotoxic side effects that may progress to heart failure, which can only be avoided through dose limitation of the chemotherapeutic agents. Increasing evidence suggest that cardiac dysfunction caused by doxorubicin is triggered by an energetic deficit and alterations in mitochondrial metabolism. We quantified metabolic changes in vivo in a mouse model of acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity using hyperpolarized 13C MRS.

171
15:33
Imaging c-Myc: Identification of metabolic phenotypes using MRSI of hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate to [1-13C]lactate flux in glioblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts.
Richard Mair1,2, Alan Wright1, Colin Watts2, and Kevin Brindle1

1CRUK Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2Division of Neurosurgery, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Cambridge, United Kingdom

Heterogeneity at both a genomic and phenotypic level is extant within glioblastoma.  We hypothesised that imaging of the flux from hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate to [1-13C]lactate may inform upon this heterogeneity. We used patient derived orthotopic xenograft cohorts to identify differential lactate labelling and have related this to both glycolytic enzyme and c-Myc expression.


Oral

Diffusion Acquisition & Reconstruction

Room 313A Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Berkin Bilgic & Stefan Skare

172
13:45
Diffusion Weighted Imaging using a Dixon based Single Shot Turbo Spin Echo
Xinzeng Wang1, Holger Eggers2, Marco C. Pinho1,3, Ivan Pedrosa1,3, Robert E. Lenkinski1,3, and Ananth J. Madhuranthakam1,3

1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Philips Research, Hamburg, Germany, 3Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

Diffusion weighted imaging using single-shot turbo spin-echo (DWI-SShTSE) is increasingly used due to its robustness to geometric distortions, but often suffers from incomplete fat suppression at 3T using spectrally-selective fat suppression methods (SPIR/SPAIR etc.) in challenging areas with large field inhomogeneities. STIR can improve the fat suppression but at the expense of reduced SNR. In this work, we developed a multi-echo Dixon DWI-SShTSE sequence with shared field map between lower and higher b-values for uniform fat suppression without using image navigator and increasing scan times. We also demonstrated its robustness to the phase variations due to diffusion gradients.

173
13:57
Kt-dSTEAM: high resolution diffusion-weighted imaging of the ex vivo human brain using B1+ homogenized STEAM at 9.4T
Francisco J. Fritz1, Desmond H Y Tse1, Shubarthi Sengupta1, Tim K. Loderhose1, Bram Kraaijeveld1, Svenja Caspers2, Benedikt A. Poser1, and Alard Roebroeck1

1Cognitive Neuroscience Department, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 2Institut für Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany

The investigation of entire human brains post mortem with diffusion MRI is an important research tool. However, the achievable resolutions and contrast are limited by gradient performance, RF-field inhomogeneity and strongly reduced T2 and diffusivity.  Here, a diffusion-weighted STEAM sequence was modified to enable the use of kT-points B1+ homogenization and 3D segmented EPI readout. The resulting kT-dSTEAM sequence allows for high resolution (1000μm, 500μm and 400μm isotropic) diffusion-weighted imaging the entire human brain with homogenous contrast at 9.4T.

174
14:09
High resolution whole brain diffusion MRI at 7 Tesla using RF parallel transmission
Xiaoping Wu1, Edward J. Auerbach1, An T. Vu2, Steen Moeller1, Christophe Lenglet1, Sebastian Schmitter1,3, Pierre-Francois Van de Moortele1, Essa Yacoub1, and Kamil Ugurbil1

1Radiology, Medical School, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, United States, 2Center for Imaging of Neurodegenerative Diseases, VA Healthcare System, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, Germany

A major component of the Human Connectome Project (HCP) in the WU-Minn consortium is multiband (MB)-accelerated whole-brain diffusion MRI (dMRI) at both 3T and 7T. Although having some advantages over 3T dMRI in inferring connectivity, the 7T acquisition suffers from RF nonuniformity and is limited to MB2 acceleration because of SAR. Here, we demonstrate the utility of RF parallel transmission (pTx) for 7T HCP-type dMRI with ~1-mm isotropic resolution. Our results demonstrate that pTx can significantly improve RF uniformity across the entire brain and enable higher slice acceleration relative to single transmit configurations, thereby holding great potential for acquiring high quality, high resolution and high efficiency dMRI data.

175
14:21
Fast high-resolution diffusion MRI using gSlider-SMS, interlaced subsampling, and SNR-enhancing joint reconstruction
Justin P. Haldar1 and Kawin Setsompop2

1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2A. A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States

We describe a new approach that enables in vivo whole brain diffusion MRI with simultaneously high spatial resolution (660 µm isotropic voxels) and high angular diffusion encoding resolution (64 orientations at b=1500 s/mm2 and 4 b=0 s/mm2 images) in only 15 minutes.  This is achieved by combining the gSlider-SMS acquisition strategy with constrained image reconstruction techniques that enable denoising (exploiting the fact that the diffusion images are smooth with correlated edge locations) and interlaced data subsampling (achieved by exploiting the same correlated edge constraints used for denoising, as well as through the use of q-space smoothness constraints).  

176
14:33
Faster Diffusion-Relaxation Correlation Spectroscopic Imaging (DR-CSI) using Optimized Experiment Design
Daeun Kim1 and Justin P. Haldar1

1Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

We propose a new experiment design method to accelerate the recent novel diffusion-relaxation correlation spectroscopic imaging (DR-CSI) experiment.  DR-CSI acquires imaging data across a range of different b-value and echo time combinations.  This enables new insights into tissue microstructure, but the contrast encoding can be slow.  Our experiment design approach selects a small subset of the most informative observations to acquire using results from estimation theory.  We demonstrate with ex vivo mouse spinal cord MR data that the new experiment design approach enables DR-CSI to be accelerated by a factor of more than 2 without a substantial loss in quality. 

177
14:45
Accelerated k-q diffusion MRI reconstruction using Gaussian processes
Wenchuan Wu1, Peter J Koopmans2, Jesper Andersson2, and Karla L Miller2

1FMRIB, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2FMRIB, University of Oxford

Diffusion MRI commonly acquires multiple diffusion volumes (directions), which shares plentiful common features. In this work, we propose integrating Gaussian Processes into image reconstruction to utilize the shared information between diffusion volumes to reduce image artefacts associated with parallel imaging.


178
14:57
3D Multi-Band, Multi-Slab, and Multi-Shot High-Resolution Diffusion MRI
Iain P Bruce1, Hing-Chiu Chang2, Nan-Kuei Chen1,3, and Allen W Song1

1Brain Imaging and Analysis Center, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 2Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Hong Kong, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tuscan, AZ, United States

When diffusion MRI data is acquired with 3D multi-slab and/or multi-shot imaging techniques, scan times are often lengthy and phase variations between the acquired shots and/or slice-encoding planes of 3D slabs introduce severe motion artifacts in slice images. To accelerate the acquisition of high spatial resolution diffusion MRI volumes with high SNR and fidelity, we outline a 3D image reconstruction model that simultaneously accounts for both in-plane and through-plane motion artifacts in 3D multi-band, multi-slab and multi-shot diffusion data. Diffusion data acquired and reconstructed in this fashion can be acquired at sub-millimeter spatial resolution with high SNR in ~1-2min.

179
15:09
Improving angular resolution in multi-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion imaging using rotating single-shot acquisition (RoSA)
Qiuting Wen1, Mark Graham2, Ivana Drobnjak2, Hui Zhang2, and Yu-Chien Wu1

1Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, United States, 2University of College London

The rotating single-shot acquisition (RoSA) technique is proposed to accelerate multi-shot diffusion imaging acquisitions by acquiring one shot per diffusion direction. The RoSA approach utilizes similarity existing in diffusion-weighted contrast for image reconstruction. It has been successfully implemented with echo planar imaging (EPI). In this study, we use the RoSA approach to improve turbo spin-echo (TSE) based multi-shot sequences. In particular, we will demonstrate that with the same acquisition time, RoSA increases the diffusion angular sampling resolution by 3-fold compared to a Turboprop sequence.  

180
15:21
Combination of integrated dynamic shimming and readout-segmented echo planar imaging for diffusion-weighted MRI of the head and neck region at 3 Tesla.
Sven Stephan Walter1, Alto Stemmer2, Berthold Kiefer2, Konstantin Nikolaou1, Petros Martirosian3, Mike Notohamiprodjo1, and Sergios Gatidis1

1Department of Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany, 2Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen, Germany, 3Department of Experimental Radiology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany

The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible improvements in EPI-based DWI of the head/neck at 3 Tesla using a combination of readout-segmented EPI and dynamic shimming. We assessed ADC quantification in an anthropomorphic phantom and evaluated the presence of geometric distortions, signal losses, ghosting artifacts, and overall image quality in both, phantom and in-vivo data from 10 volunteers. We found that combining integrated shimming with readout-segmented EPI significantly improves images quality of EPI based DWI of the head/neck at 3 Tesla compared to the single techniques alone or conventional single-shot EPI.

181
15:33
Reduced Distortion in Diffusion Tensor MRI with Eddy Current Nulled Convex Optimized Diffusion Encoding (EN-CODE)
Eric Aliotta1,2, Kevin Moulin1, and Daniel B. Ennis1,2

1Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Biomedical Physics IDP, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Eddy currents distort images and confound diffusion tensor reconstruction. In this work, convex optimized diffusion encoding (CODE) was extended to include an eddy current nulling term (EN-CODE) to achieve minimum TE diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) without eddy current distortions. EN-CODE was evaluated in simulations and through imaging in phantoms and healthy subjects. EN-CODE achieves distortion reduction on par with the existing twice refocused spin echo (TRSE) technique with a substantially shorter TE. 


Oral

Neuro Morphometry & Quantitative Analysis

Room 313BC Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Konstantinos Arfanakis & Elizabeth Meyerand

182
13:45
Quality Assurance of Neuro-MRI within Multicenter Clinical Trials
Preethi Subramanian1, David P Poon1, Shivangi N Vora1, Sydney A Cearlock1, Xiangyu Yang1, Jun Zhang1, and Michael V Knopp1

1Wright Center of Innovation in Biomedical Imaging, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States

Volumetric analysis and quantification especially of dynamic MR sequences is increasingly invaluable for assessing treatment response and time to progression in the majority of clinical trials focusing on neuro-oncology. These innovative therapeutic trials rely heavily on consistent image acquisitions even in multi-center Phase 2/3 trials. We have developed a highly structured DICOM tag based, parameter driven, semi-automated QC approach that readily enables visualization of acquisition inconsistencies using a heat-mapping spectrum. As the imaging core laboratory for several NCI-NCTN clinical trials, we expanded the QC methodology to also enable constructive feedback education / training to help improve the quality of Neuro-MRI submissions.

183
13:57
Brain MR image intensity normalization in the presence of pathology
Hugo J Kuijf1, Mariëlle JA Jansen1, Mirjam I Geerlings2, and Max A Viergever1

1Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Department of Epidemiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Brain MR image intensities do not have a fixed tissue-specific value. Especially in longitudinal studies, where a subjects’ anatomy might change, pathology can arise, scanner software and hardware may be replaced, the resulting image intensities can differ widely. This thwarts subsequent post-processing or image analysis. Various image intensity normalization techniques exist, but are often evaluated on healthy subjects. In this work, we evaluate six normalization techniques on 25 image-pairs (five year interval) of subjects with brain pathology. Traditional methods (e.g. Gaussian and Z-Score) are clearly affected by the presence of pathology and perform less than more recent techniques.

184
14:09
Novel Design of a 3D-Printed Anthropomorphic Brain Phantom for Segmentation Validation in Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Anna Altermatt1,2, Francesco Santini1,3, Xeni Deligianni1,3, Stefano Magon2,4, Philippe Cattin1, Jens Wuerfel1,2, and Laura Gaetano2,4

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 2Medical Image Analysis Center (MIAC) AG, Basel, Switzerland, 3Department of Radiology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 4Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland

Precise brain phantoms are important for evaluating the quality of segmentation tools for brain MRI. Here we suggested the construction of a 3D physical brain phantom as gold standard to validate the performance of those tools. Folding patterns of grey and white matter compartments were replicated using 3D-printed models from a real structural brain scan. T1 and T2 intensities of these brain regions in a 3 Tesla MRI were mimicked by a 0.6% agar mixture containing the appropriate concentrations of the paramagnetic compounds Ferumoxide and Manganese chloride. With its 3D-printed brain-like design, the phantom showed to be a promising alternative to existing methods for MRI segmentation validation.

185
14:21
Traffic-Related Air Pollution Associated with Reduced Cortical Thickness and Altered White Matter Organization in a Longitudinally Studied, Pediatric Cohort
Kim M Cecil1, Travis Beckwith1, Mekibib Altaye2, Rachel Severs2, Christopher Wolfe2, Zana Percy3, Thomas Maloney1, Kimberly Yolton2, Grace LeMasters3, and Patrick Ryan2

1Radiology/Imaging Research Center, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 2Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, United States, 3University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, United States

Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is strongly associated with adverse cardiopulmonary health effects. Evidence suggests the developing brain may also be a target organ for particulate matter due to translocation either from the respiratory system or through the olfactory nerve. Using a pediatric cohort, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to TRAP during critical windows of brain development is significantly associated with changes in brain structure and organization. Children with high exposure levels at time of birth were associated with reductions in brain volume, cortical thickness, and diffusion abnormalities in white matter at 12 years compared with children at low exposure.

186
14:33
Investigating structural brain change with heart failure using voxel-based morphometry
Karsten Mueller1, Friederike Thiel1, Andrej Teren2,3, Frank Beutner2,3, Stefan Frisch4, Joachim Thiery3,5, Harald E. Möller1, Arno Villringer1,3,6, and Matthias L. Schroeter1,3,6

1Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Herzzentrum Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 3Leipzig Research Center for Civilization Diseases (LIFE), Leipzig, Germany, 4Department of Neurology, Center of Neurology and Neurosurgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany, 5Institute of Laboratory Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany, 6Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany

Heart failure is a multifactorial disease including a reduced pump efficiency leading to an insufficient oxygen supply for all body organs. However, the consequence of heart failure to brain structure is an important issue that needs further investigation. We used structural MRI with voxel-based morphometry to investigate a relationship between gray matter density and heart failure using ejection fraction and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide as markers for disease severity. These markers were found to be associated with decreased gray matter density in orbitofrontal and hippocampal brain regions indicating local gray matter abnormalities in these regions with heart failure.

187
14:45
PAM50: Multimodal template of the brainstem and spinal cord compatible with the ICBM152 space
Benjamin De Leener1, Vladimir Fonov2, D. Louis Collins2, Virginie Callot3,4, Nikola Stikov1,5, and Julien Cohen-Adad1,6

1NeuroPoly Lab, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Polytechnique Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRMBM UMR 7339, Marseille, France, 4CEMEREM, Hopital de la Timone, Pôle d’imagerie médicale, AP-HM, Marseille, France, 5Montreal Heart Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada, 6Functional Neuroimaging Unit, CRIUGM, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada

Template-based analysis of multi-parametric MRI data of the spinal cord sets the foundation for multi-center studies with minimum bias, thereby helping the discovery of new biomarkers of spinal-related diseases. In this study, we introduce a spinal cord MRI template, the PAM50, which is anatomically compatible with the ICBM152 brain template and uses the same coordinate system. The fusion of the PAM50 and ICBM152 templates facilitates group studies and multi-center studies of combined brain and spinal cord MRI and also allows the use of existing atlases of the brainstem compatible with the ICBM template.

188
14:57
Consistency of Inter-Database Cortical Thinning with Age
M. Ethan MacDonald1, Rebecca J. Williams1, Nils D Forkert1, Avery J.L. Berman1,2, Cheryl M McCreary1,3, Richard Frayne1,3, and Bruce Pike1

1Departments of Radiology and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Seaman Family MR Research Centre, Foothills Medical Centre, AB, Canada

This work investigates cerebral cortical thinning as a function of age, and how this relationship varies between four healthy subject databases, with a consolidated 1,382 subjects. Cortical thickness measurements of each subject were computed for 68 regions. Linear regression was used to determine the thinning rate for each region in each database as well as for the consolidated database. ANCOVA tests were run to test the effect of database. Correlation matrices were used to test the intra-relationship of locations between databases. Statistically significant correlations were found with age and differences were found between databases in all regions. 

189
15:09
A test-retest analysis of brain volume measurement techniques
Hugo J Kuijf1, Geert Jan Biessels2, Max A Viergever1, and Jaco JM Zwanenburg3

1Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Department of Neurology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Brain volume measurements should both be accurate and precise. Accuracy of brain segmentation techniques is well studied. With the availability of test-retest datasets, precision (low coefficient of variation (COV)) can be investigated. In this work, we studied the COV of the FSL, SPM, and CAT12 software packages on 120 3T brain MR images of three subjects (40 images each) and compare it to previous results of FreeSurfer on this dataset. CAT12 performs best on total gray matter, white matter, and brain volume; whereas FSL has the lowest COV for CSF. COV values should be considered when studying brain volume change.

190
15:21
Altered grey matter volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Jia Liu1, Taiyuan Liu2, Wenhui Wang2, Lun Ma2, Xiaoyue Ma2, Shaojie Shi2, and Meiyun Wang2

1Department of Radiology, Union Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology, Henan Provincial People's Hospital & the People's Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China

Our meta-analysis indicates that patients with T2DM have significantly and robustly reduced grey matter, mainly in the cortical-striatal-limbic networks. The meta-regression results suggest that T2DM patients with longer illness duration may have smaller grey matter volume in the right MTG. Our finding supports the notion that T2DM could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes, which may be correlated with cognitive impairment inT2DM patients. 

191
15:33
Volumetric T2-weighted and FLAIR Imaging of Spine with Uniform Fat Suppression in a Single Acquisition
Xinzeng Wang1, Joshua S. Greer1,2, Marco C. Pinho1,3, Robert E. Lenkinski1,3, and Ananth J. Madhuranthakam1,3

1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Bioengineering, UT Dallas, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

2D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (T2w-TSE), fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) with and without fat suppression are widely used in the clinical brain and spine protocols to improve diagnosis. However, FLAIR suffers from low SNR and long scan times. In this work, we developed a dual-acquisition 3D TSE sequence combined with dual-echo Dixon based approach to generate T2-weighted and FLAIR images of the spine with and without fat suppression in a single acquisition using the similar acquisition time as 2D FLAIR. Uniform fat/water separation was achieved using a shared-field-map and complex subtraction was used to generate FLAIR-like images without artifacts.


Oral

CEST: New Solutions & Old Problems

Room 314 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Kejia Cai & Mark Pagel

192
13:45
Amide proton transfer-weighted MRI signal as a surrogate biomarker to assess MGMT promoter methylation status in glioblastoma
Shanshan Jiang1,2, Xianlong Wang2, Yu Wang3, Hao Yu2, Tianyu Zou2, Yongxing Du2, Charles Eberhart4, Maria Adelita Vizcaino Villalobos4, Yi Zhang1, Hye-Young Heo1, Peter Van Zijl1, Zhibo Wen2, and Jinyuan Zhou1

1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Southern Medical University, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Pathology, Southern Medical University, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, 4Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

We explored the feasibility of using the APTW signal intensity as a surrogate biomarker to identify the methylation status of MGMT promoter in glioblastoma (GBM). Eighteen patients with newly diagnosed GBM were recruited and scanned. Results showed that the APTW signal intensities were significantly higher in the unmethylated MGMT promoter group than in the methylated MGMT promoter group. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for APTW to differentiate these two GBM groups was 0.857. Preoperative APTW imaging may assist in predicting the MGMT promoter methylation status in patients with GBM.

193
13:57
Dynamic Glucose Enhanced Imaging at 3T: First Human Data
Xiang Xu1,2, Akansha Sehgal1,2, Nirbhay N. Yadav1,2, Linda Knutsson1,3, John Laterra4, Martin Pomper1, Hailey Rosenthal1, and Peter C.M. van Zijl1,2

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2F. M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, 4Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States

Recently, it has been demonstrated that D-glucose has potential as an MRI contrast agent at 7T for imaging dynamic changes upon glucose infusion in brain tumors using chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI. Here we show first data for the possibility of translating such technique to 3T using pseudo-continuous wave saturation and extend the method to acquire a 3D volume (10 slices) for better brain coverage. We present dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) data from healthy volunteers and a brain tumor patient with a low grade glioma showing the feasibility of glucose enhanced imaging at clinical field strength. 

194
14:09
Effect of Osmolality on Dynamic Glucose Enhanced(DGE) MRI
Wonmin Choi1,2, Julius Juhyun Chung1,3, Tao Jin4, and Seong-Gi Kim1,2,3

1Center for Neuroscience Imaging Research, Institute for Basic Science (IBS), Suwon, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering Sungkyunkwan University (SKKU), Suwon, Korea, Republic of, 3Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences and Technology, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 4Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Dynamic glucose enhanced(DGE) MRI has shown promise in glucose metabolism studies. In recent studies, a hypertonic dextrose solution was used for reliable detection of glucose in the brain. However, the effects of the hypertonic solution on DGE signal have not been verified yet. This study aimed to investigate the signal contributions from non-glucose related components. We used hypertonic D-, L-glucose, and NaCl solution to identify osmolality effects. Our data show an osmotic shift of water between the extravascular and intravascular space, induced by administering D-glucose(50%), can highly affect the DGE signal but negligible contributions were observed from the intravascular space. 

195
14:21
Accelerated CEST Imaging with Parallel Blind Compressed Sensing
Huajun She1, Bian Li1, Joshua S. Greer1,2, Jochen Keupp3, Ananth Madhuranthakam1,4, Ivan E. Dimitrov1,5, Robert Lenkinski1,4, and Elena Vinogradov1,4

1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Bioengineering, UT Dallas, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Philips Research, Hamburg, Germany, 4Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 5Philips Healthcare, Gainesville, FL, United States

This work investigates accelerating CEST imaging using parallel blind compressed sensing (BCS). BCS method assumes a few functions are enough to represent the dynamic behavior. In CEST imaging, the Z-spectrum performs similar in the same compartment, which is suitable for BCS reconstruction. The traditional BCS method does not consider the coil sensitivity, which is complementary sparse information with spatial-temporal dictionary. The proposed method addresses the coil sensitivity information and the sparsity prior information in CEST and further improves the BCS method, demonstrating a better estimation of the CEST effect for both phantom and in vivo brain data.

196
14:33
Quantitative Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) Imaging with Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF)
Shuning Huang1, Ouri Cohen1,2, Michael T. McMahon3,4, Young R. Kim1,2, Matthew S. Rosen1,2,5, and Christian T. Farrar1,2

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3The Russel H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 4F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 5Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States

CEST MRI suffers from several limitations including long image acquisition times and the qualitative nature of the CEST contrast. Clinical translation of CEST MRI would benefit greatly from the development of quantitative and rapid CEST methods. Here we build on the recently developed Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) technique and report the first use of a fast CEST fingerprinting method for generating quantitative exchange rate and exchangeable proton concentration maps of L-Arginine phantoms and a permanent MCAO rat stroke model.

197
14:45
CEST Fingerprinting: A Novel Approach for Exchange Rate Quantification
Zhengwei Zhou1,2, Pei Han3, and Debiao Li1,2

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China

In this work, we developed a CEST fingerprinting technique for exchange rate quantification. This method utilizes CEST saturation with varying B1 amplitudes and durations to create uniqueness of signal evolution for different exchange rates. The acquired signal was matched to a predefined dictionary. Preliminary studies were performed in phantoms to show the feasibility.

198
14:57
Measuring APT contrast in the lung using CEST FT-phase MRI and a retrospective gating technique
Kyle M. Jones1, Carol A. Steum2, Charles C. Hsu3, Phillip H. Kuo2, Mark D. Pagel2, and Edward A. Randtke2

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 2Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 3Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

We have developed a CEST FT-phase MRI method that can measure endogenous Amide Proton Transfer (APT) contrast in lung tumors and other tissues that are affected by lung motion.  The method monitors the breathing cycle based on the relative phase angle between adjacent pixels, and selects a subset of images during the quiescent period between breaths.  The resulting MTRasym contrast of an oscillating egg white phantom, volunteers, and patients with lung tumors showed that CEST FT-phase MRI produced more precise quantitative assessments of APT. 

199
15:09
B1+ inhomogeneity mitigation in CEST using parallel transmission: pTxCEST
Nuno André da Silva1, Desmond H. Y. Tse2, Benedikt A Poser2, and N Jon Shah1,3,4

1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany, 2Faculty of Psychology and Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands, 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, JARA, Aachen, Germany, 4Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, and Monash Biomedical Imaging, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia

To demonstrate the benefits from the increased spectral bandwidth at ultra-high field (UHF) by using parallel transmission (pTx) to mitigate flip-angle inhomogeneity in chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging. A pTx basis pulse is homogenised by magnitude least-squares (MLS) optimisation and expanded to form a frequency-selective saturation pulse for CEST. The pTx saturation pulse was validated by both Bloch-McConnell simulation and in vivo imaging at 7T. Improved homogeneity in contrasts and relaxation-compensated CEST metrics were observed in our in vivo data when the pTx saturation pulse was used instead of the standard CP-mode Gaussian pulse.

200
15:21
Understanding concomitant effects between CEST and ASL contrast.
Francisco Torrealdea1,2, Marilena Rega3, Mohamed Tachrount1, Magdalena Sokolska4, and Xavier Golay1

1Institute of Neurology, UCL, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Medical Imaging, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Nuclear Medicine, UCLH, London, United Kingdom, 4Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, UCLH, London

This study aims to assess the relationship between brain perfusion and CEST measurements. For this purpose, an oxygen-carbogen challenge experiment was designed in order to compare CEST measurements of the rat brain in low and high perfusion conditions. 

Comparison of the CEST with CBF measurement show strong correlation (p<0.005 with Spearman Rho=0.976). From the results of the study it is notable that blood perfusion is a strong modulator of the observed CEST signal in the rat brain.


201
15:33
CEST Signals of Lipids
Steffen Goerke1, Moritz Zaiss1,2, Dario Longo3, Francesca Garello4, Enza Di Gregorio4, Johannes Breitling1, Mark E Ladd1, and Peter Bachert1

1Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Department of High-field Magnetic Resonance, Max-Planck-Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 3Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Turin, Italy, 4Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy

In this study, lipids were identified to be an important contributor to the upfield chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) signals of brain tissue. This finding can explain the pronounced CEST image contrast between gray and white matter observed in healthy volunteers.


Oral

New Perspectives in DSC & DCE

Room 316BC Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: David Buckley & Joel Garbow

202
13:45
D2O Perfusion MRI of Brain Tumor on a Mouse Model: A Preliminary Study
Pei-Lun Yu1, Sheng-Min Huang1, Cheng-He Li1, Sheng-Yan Wu 1, Chi-Shiun Chiang1, Kung-Chu Ho2, and Fu-Nien Wang1

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, 2Nuclear Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan

Recently, deuterium oxide (D2O) has been proposed as an alternative contrast agent on rodent brain perfusion by monitoring the attenuation of 1H signal. Since D2O is a highly diffusible contrast agent, the revealed information of Gd chelates and D2O are different. In this study, we aimed to re-investigate the perfusion information carried by D2O with advanced spatial resolution. We speculated that D2O slowly diffused into tumor area and continuously exchanged with tissue water until a balanced concentration. Inside the tumor region, the heterogeneity shown by D2O and Gd-DTPA are somewhat different.

203
13:57
Measuring transmembrane water exchange in rat brain cortical cells in normal and pathological conditions
Ruiliang Bai1, Charles S. Springer, Jr.2, Dietmar Plenz3, and Peter Basser1

1Section on Quantitative Imaging and Tissue Sciences, DIBGI, NICHD, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 3Section on Critical Brain Dynamics, LSN, NIMH, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States

Knowledge of transmembrane water exchange kinetics is invaluable for the correct interpretation of many MRI experiments, e.g., DCE-MRI, diffusion MRI, etc. Here we quantitatively studied the transmembrane water exchange  in organotypic cultures from rat brain cortex with an MR relaxation contrast agent. In normal states, we determined the equilibrium cellular water efflux rate constant [kio] is 2.15 (± 1.28) s-1 at 34 (± 1)  °C. In the likely cell-swollen state induced by Ouabain perfusion, we, for the first time, quantitatively measured a global increase of the intracellular volume fraction (~104%) together and a large decrease of kio (~64%). 

204
14:09
Anisotropic cerebral vascular architecture causes orientation dependency in cerebral blood flow and volume measured with spin echo dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging
Jonathan Doucette1,2, Luxi Wei1,3, Christian Kames1,2, Enedino Hernández-Torres1,4, Rasmus Aamand5, Torben E. Lund5, Brian Hansen5, and Alexander Rauscher1,4

1UBC MRI Research Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Engineering Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 3Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 5Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and MINDLab, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Cerebral white matter tissue perfusion measured with gradient echo dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging exhibits a strong dependency on the angle between white matter fibres and the main magnetic field. Here, we investigate how spin echo DSC depends on the orientation of white matter and explain orientation effects by a model of diffusion within a magnetically inhomogenous environment created by a vascular bed with isotropic and anisotropic components. We found that the change in $$$R_2$$$ value for the SE DSC is 20% larger in WM fibres perpendicular to $$$B_0$$$ than for those parallel, compared with 100% larger in GRE DSC.

205
14:21
Simultanous-multi-slice and Alternating Multi-echo Measurement Sequence (SAME) for Perfusion Imaging
Elias Kellner1, Marco Reisert1, Benedikt A Poser2, Irina Mader3, Valerij G Kiselev1, and Michel Herbst1

1Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht Brain Imaging Centre (MBIC), Maastricht University, 3Department of Neuroradiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany

In this work, we combine simultaneous multi-slice acquisition with a multi-echo readout, dedicated to dynamic susceptibility-contrast perfusion imaging (DSC). With this approach, multiple spin and gradient echo images can be obtained at short repetition times to determine both T2 and T1 effects of contrast agent in a robust and stable manner.

206
14:33
Full Brain Vasculature Analysis using Gradient/Spin-Echo Multi-band EPIK: Tumour Evaluation with MR-PET
Nuno André da Silva1, N Jon Shah1,2,3, Rute Lopes1,4, Ezequiel Farrher1, and Seong Dae Yun1

1Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4, Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University, JARA, Aachen, Germany, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Systems Engineering, and Monash Biomedical Imaging, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, 4Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Biophysics, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal

Perfusion weighted imaging (PWI) using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging is a widely used technique in tumour imaging. The use of multi-echo DSC, gradient and spin echo (GESE), allows one to obtain vasculature information. However, trade-off between number of echoes, spatial resolution and brain coverage is required. In this work, the use of EPI with keyhole (EPIK) combined with multi-band is proposed to obtain a whole brain multi-echo GESE-DSC in clinically relevant acquisition times. The method was applied in a cohort of brain tumour patients in a MR-PET scanner enabling localisation of the tumour based on metabolic information from PET.

207
14:45
Comparison of Ferumoxytol based Cerebral Blood Volume estimates using Multi-Echo T2* and Ultrashort Echo Time T1 Imaging
Leonardo Rivera Rivera1, Tilman Schubert2, Patrick A Turski2, and Kevin M Johnson1

1Dept. of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Dept. of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Intracranial vascularity is modified in a wide array of diseases including cancer, various forms of dementia, and stroke.  Steady state imaging with Ferumoxytol provides unique opportunities to estimate cerebral blood volume (CBV). In this work, we investigate the correlation between relaxometry changes measured utilizing ultrashort echo time variable flip angle (UTE-VFA) R1 and a multi-echo R2* approaches. Initial results from 8 healthy volunteers shows a high degree of correlation of R1 with R2* measures and improved performance in and around vessels. This, and opportunities to probe disease induced disagreements, suggests potential value in combined R1 and R2* measures. 

208
14:57
The effects of intra-voxel contrast agent diffusion on the analysis of DCE-MRI data in realistic tissue domains
Ryan Thomas Woodall1, Stephanie L Barnes1, Anna G Sorace2, David A Hormuth II1, C Chad Quarles3, and Thomas E Yankeelov1

1Biomedical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, United States, 2Dell Medical School, The University of Texas at Austin, TX, United States, 3Barrow Neurological Institute, AZ, United States

Standard compartmental models for quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) typically assume active delivery of contrast agent that is instantaneously distributed within the extravascular extracellular space within each imaging voxel. The goal of this study is to determine the error accumulated in the estimated pharmacokinetic parameters when these assumptions are not satisfied. Using finite element methods to model contrast agent arrival and diffusion throughout realistic tissue domains (obtained from histological stains of tissue sections from a murine cancer model), it was rigorously determined that parameterization error is highest in regions of low vascularity, and lowest in well-perfused regions.

209
15:09
A Robust Reconstruction Method for Quantitative Perfusion MRI: Application to Brain Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast (DSC) Imaging
Cagdas Ulas1,2, Pedro A. Gomez1,2, Jonathan I. Sperl2, Christine Preibisch3, Marion I. Menzel2, Axel Haase4, and Bjoern H. Menze1

1Department of Computer Science, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 2GE Global Research, Munich, Germany, 3Department of Neuroradiology, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany, 4Zentralinstitut für Medizintechnik, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany

We propose a robust reconstruction model for dynamic perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from undersampled k-space data. Our method is based on a joint penalization of the pixel-wise incoherence on temporal differences and patch-wise dissimilarities between spatio-temporal neighborhoods of perfusion image series. We evaluate our method on dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC)–MRI brain perfusion datasets and demonstrate that the proposed reconstruction model can achieve up to 8-fold acceleration by yielding improved spatial reconstructions and providing highly accurate matching of perfusion time-intensity curves, thus leading to more precise quantification of clinically relevant perfusion parameters over two existing reconstruction methods.

210
15:21
Automated renal motion correction using fat-images derived from Dixon reconstruction of DCE MRI
Anneloes de Boer1, Tim Leiner1, and Nico van den Berg1

1University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

In renal dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) MRI respiratory motion of the kidneys necessitates registration of the dynamics. Since image contrast varies during contrast agent passage, automatic registration is challenging. We show that on Dixon-derived fat-images this contrast change is virtually absent. Therefore, we propose to perform automated image registration using fat-images and apply the resulting transformation to the water-images. We applied this method to DCE data of 10 patients and show its superiority over a conventional registration approach. Pharmacokinetic fits to a two-compartment model yielded realistic values for renal perfusion and filtration.

211
15:33
Motion correction for 3D free-breathing renal DCE-MRI using tracer kinetic model-driven registration
Dimitra Flouri1,2, Daniel Lesnic2, Constantina Chrysochou3, Philip Kalra3, and Steven P Sourbron1

1Division of Biomedical Imaging, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, 2Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom, 3University of Manchester, Salford, United Kingdom

Tracer-kinetic model driven motion-correction is a highly effective strategy for 2D free-breathing DCE-MRI. In this study we address the challenge of translation to 3D by improving computational efficiency and evaluating performance in the presence of ghosting artefacts. Results in 8 patient cases show that the optimised algorithm is feasible in realistic computation times and effectively removes between-frame breathing motion despite significant within-frame artefacts. Quantitative evaluation against reference measurements shows a reduction of the bias, but precision is limited by within-frame artefacts and will require an integrated motion-correction and image reconstruction strategy.


Oral

MS: Cutting Edge Methods

Room 320 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Nivedita Agarwal & Yukio Miki

212
13:45
Metabolic counterparts of sodium accumulation in Multiple Sclerosis: A whole brain 1H-MRSI and 23Na-MRI study
Maxime Donadieu1,2,3, Adil Maarouf1,4, Yann Le Fur1,4, Soraya Gherib1,4, Elisabeth Soulier1,4, Lauriane Pini1,4, Stanislas Rapacchi1,4, Sylviane Confort-Gouny1,4, Maxime Guye1,4, Jean Pelletier5, Bertrand Audoin5, Wafaa Zaaraoui1,4, and Jean-Philippe Ranjeva1,4

1Aix-Marseille University, CNRS, CRMBM UMR 7339, Medical School of Marseille, Marseille, France, Metropolitan, 2AP-HM, CHU Timone, Department of Imaging, CEMEREM, Marseille, France, 3Siemens Healthineers, Saint-Denis, France, Metropolitan, 4AP-HM, CHU Timone, Department of Imaging, CEMEREM, Marseille, France, Metropolitan, 5AP-HM, CHU Timone, Department of Neurology, Marseille, France, Metropolitan

To determine the metabolic counterparts of cerebral total sodium accumulations in patients with Multiple Sclerosis, we acquired fast 3D-1H-EPSI and Density-adapted 3D-UTE 23Na MRI at 3 Tesla covering the whole brain in 21 patients and 20 volunteers. Patients showed increased 23Na and decreased NAA, Glx and Cho levels. Stepwise analyses highlights association of 23Na accumulations with i) decreased NAA and Glx levels and increased Cho levels within GM, ii) with decreased NAA and increased Cho levels within NAWM and T2 lesion compartments. Clinical status of patients assessed by MSFC was correlated to GM and NAWM 23Na, NAA and Glx levels.

213
13:57
MS lesions demonstrating a QSM hyperintense-rim have more myelin loss compared to those without a QSM hyperintense-rim
Yihao Yao1, Thanh D. Nguyen2, Sneha Pandya2, Sandra Hurtado Rúa3, Amy Kuceyeski4, Yi Wang2,5, and Susan A. Gauthier6

1Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science & T, Wuhan, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States, 3Department of Mathematics, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH, 4Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medicine Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute, New York, NY, United States, 5Biomedical Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, United States, 6Department of Neurology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

Iron causes proinflammatory activation of microglia near the rim of white matter MS lesion. This is chronic inflammation with associated myelin tissue damage. We propose to use quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) to assess chronic inflammation, as hyperintense rim on QSM can be unequivocally interpreted as iron. We use myelin water fraction (MWF) to measure myelin. We have found that MS lesions with hyperintense rims on QSM have lower MWF and higher susceptibility compared to lesions without hyperintense rims on QSM (p<0.01). Hyperintense rim on QSM may provide a biomarker for tissue injury due to iron associated chronic inflammation.

214
14:09
Combining QSM and MWF in multiple sclerosis: a marker for the inflammatory state of MS lesions?
Carsten Stueber1,2, Alexey Dimov1, Kofi Deh1, Thanh Nguyen1, Yi Wang1, and David Pitt2

1Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY, United States, 2Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. In particular, excess iron is considered to play an essential role in lesion activity. In this study, we combine iron-reflecting quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and myelin water fraction (MWF) with histology in post-mortem tissue. Our results show that elevated iron concentrations at the lesion rim reflect pro-inflammatory microglial activity, suggesting to use QSM to determine levels of lesion inflammation and MWF for detecting ongoing demyelination.

215
14:21
Glutamate-Sensitive CEST in Cortical Gray Matter: Application to Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis
Kristin P. O'Grady1,2, Adrienne N. Dula3,4,5, Bailey D. Lyttle1,2, Benjamin N. Conrad2, Bailey A. Box1,2, Siddharama Pawate6, Francesca R. Bagnato6, and Seth A. Smith1,2,7

1Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Vanderbilt University Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Stroke Institute, Seton Dell Medical School, Austin, TX, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Seton Dell Medical School, Austin, TX, United States, 5Department of Neuroscience, University of Texas, Austin, TX, United States, 6Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

Altered glutamate regulation in gray matter (GM) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS), but such pathology in GM is subtle and difficult to detect using conventional MRI techniques. In this work, we apply a quantitative, glutamate-sensitive chemical exchange saturation transfer (GluCEST) MRI technique at 7.0T to gain new insights into molecular changes underlying GM pathology and their relationship to cognitive impairment in MS. We found significant differences in cortical GM GluCEST contrast between healthy controls and patients with MS, and in some cortical regions, GluCEST contrast correlates significantly with measures of cognitive impairment.

216
14:33
Using myelin water and diffusion basis spectrum imaging to differentiate demyelination, inflammation, oedema and axonal damage in subjects with multiple sclerosis
Irene Margaret Vavasour1, Peng Sun2, Shannon H Kolind1,3, David KB Li1, Alex L MacKay1,4, Sheng-Kwei Song2, Robert Carruthers3, and Anthony L Traboulsee3

1Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2Radiology, Washington University, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Medicine (Neurology), University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 4Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada

This study compared myelin water fraction (MWF), intra/extracellular water geometric mean T2 (ieGMT2) and diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI)-derived measures in multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions and normal appearing white matter. 14 MS subjects were scanned with 48-echo T2 relaxation and DBSI sequences. Significant correlations were found for MWF vs radial diffusivity, MWF vs fiber fraction, and ieGMT2 vs restricted fraction. Lesions showed changes consistent with decreased myelin and axons. Enhancing lesions also showed increased oedema. By quantitatively distinguishing and tracking inflammation, axon and myelin injury, DBSI and myelin water imaging can inform us of the pathological processes involved in MS.

217
14:45
Corticosteroid Treatment Fails to Prevent Long-term Axonal Loss Assessed by Diffusion Basis Spectrum Imaging
Tsen-Hsuan (Abby) Lin1, Jie Zhan2, Chunyu Song3, Michael Wallendorf4, Peng Sun1, Anne H Cross5,6, and Sheng-Kwei Song1,3,6

1Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 2Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Jiangxi, People's Republic of China, 3Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 4Biostatistics, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, United States, 5Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States, 6The Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, United States

Glucocorticoids are commonly used to treat acute optic neuritis. Herein, we employed longitudinal diffusion basis spectrum imaging (DBSI) to examine and compare optic nerve integrity in EAE with PBS or Dexamethasone treatment. Our results indicate that anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids alone is not sufficient to prevent eventual axonal loss in mice, and may have relevance for treatment of MS exacerbations with corticosteroids. DBSI could serve as an outcome measure to monitor longitudinal disease progression and to help stratify treatments.

218
14:57
Multiple sclerosis lesions are softer than surrounding white matter: An MR elastography study
Curtis L Johnson1, Christian A Thompson1, Brian M Sandroff2, Thomas A Edwards3, Elizabeth A Hubbard3, Rachel E Klaren3, Hillary Schwarb4, Bradley P Sutton4, Lara A Pilutti5, and Robert W Motl6

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, United States, 2Kessler Foundation, East Hanover, NJ, United States, 3Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 4Beckman Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, United States, 5Interdisciplinary School of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 6Department of Physical Therapy, University of Alabama at Birgmingham, Birmingham, AL, United States

Mechanical properties of the brain measured with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) have proven sensitive to tissue health in neurological conditions, including multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we use high-resolution MRE to examine the mechanical properties of focal lesions in subjects with MS to determine if they exhibit viscoelastic signatures that differ from surrounding white matter. In a sample of fourteen subjects, we found that lesions are significantly softer than surrounding white matter. This finding suggests MRE is sensitive to tissue disruption localized to focal lesions, and may provide novel measures of tissue health in the assessment of MS.

219
15:09
Investigation of outer and inner cerebellar MTR abnormalities in different MS clinical subtypes
Rebecca Sara Samson1, Manuel J Cardoso2,3, Nils Muhlert1,4, Varun Sethi1,5, Özgür Yaldizli1,6, Maria A Ron1, Ferran Prados 1,2, Sebastian Ourselin2,3, David H Miller1,7, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,8,9, and Declan T Chard1,7

1UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square MS Centre, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Dementia Research Centre, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 4Division of Neuroscience and Experimental Psychology, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Department of Neurology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 6Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland, 7National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, United Kingdom, 8Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 9Brain MRI 3T Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy

Histopathology has demonstrated extensive grey matter (GM) damage in MS, and an association with meningeal inflammatory factors has previously been suggested. We applied a method to subdivide the cerebellar GM (CGM) into inner and outer regions, and investigated for magnetization transfer ratio (CGM-MTR) abnormalities in MS subtypes compared to healthy controls (HC). Outer was lower than inner CGM-MTR in all groups including HC. Outer and inner CGM-MTR reductions were observed in progressive MS subtypes. Stronger correlations of outer than inner CGM-MTR with clinical scores were observed, suggesting that outer CGM-MTR may reflect more clinically relevant pathology, particularly in progressive MS.

220
15:21
High Spatial Resolution Mapping of Trans-Capillary Water Exchange in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis
Ian Tagge1, Manoj Sammi1, Rebecca Spain2, Dennis Bourdette2, Randy West2, John Grinstead1,3, Katherine Powers1, Xin Li1, Charles Springer1, and William Rooney1

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Neurology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 3Siemens Medical Solutions, Portland, OR

DCE-MRI data were acquired from 14 healthy control (HC) and 16 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis subjects on a 7T MRI instrument to investigate difference in brain blood vessel properties. The Shutter-Speed Paradigm was used to map blood volume fraction and trans-capillary water exchange kinetics. Our finding suggest abnormalities in brain blood vessel properties suggestive of impaired metabolism in secondary progressive MS. 

221
15:33
Improving white matter lesion conspicuity in multiple sclerosis using patient-specific optimization of 3D FLAIR
Refaat E Gabr1, Amol S Pednekar2, Koushik A Govindarajan1, Xiaojun Sun1, Roy F Riascos1, María G Ramírez1, Khader M Hasan1, John A Lincoln3, Flavia M Nelson3, Jerry S Wolinsky3, and Ponnada A Narayana1

1Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States, 2Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3Neurology, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, United States

Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging is widely used in multiple sclerosis (MS) scan protocols for its good lesion to tissue contrast. Optimization of 3D FLAIR acquisition parameters for the individual patient could further improve lesion conspicuity. In this work, tissue contrast between lesions and white matter for 3D FLAIR was optimized in the same scan session based on fast measurement of the relaxation times and proton density. Results on 16 MS patients show ~30% improved lesion contrast with the patient-specific acquisition parameters compared to the fixed-parameter 3D FLAIR sequence. 


Combined Educational & Scientific Session

Studying the Value of MRI

Organizers: Vikas Gulani, M.D., Ph.D. & James G. Pipe, Ph.D.

Room 315 Monday 13:45 - 15:45 Moderators: Vikas Gulani & James Pipe

13:45
Studying Value in MRI: A US Perspective
Yoshimi Anzai1

1University of Utah Health

The current healthcare transformation provides a perfect opportunity for the entire MR community to deliberate the value of MRI. It is essential to understand what each stakeholder wants or needs from MR or information obtained from MRI.  A focused MR protocol with shorter scan time, reduced costs and accurate, timely, and actionable diagnosis are just a few examples.  The challenges provide strong motivation and incentives for us to make strategies for developing high-value MRI.  By doing so, imaging will become the value center, not the cost center, for the health system and patient care spectrum. 

13:49
Studying Value in MRI: A South Korean Perspective
Jeong Min Lee1

1Seoul National University Hospital

In summary, MR allows a high detection and characterization rate in the abdomen, without ionizing radiation. Also, abbreviated noncontract MRI protocol can be used for screening several abdominal diseases. To further increase the value of MRI, the additional effort for increasing compliance of patients for MR examination by incorporating free breathing sequences or shortening examination time, and increasing awareness of its superiority to CT in imaging many of the abdominal organs would be necessary. 

13:53
Opening Remarks

222
13:57
Cost-Utility Analysis of Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, Abbreviated and Standard MRI for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Surveillance
An Tang1,2, Boyan Fan1, Joshua Bérubé1, Milena Cerny1, Damien Olivié1, Jeanne-Marie Giard3, Luigi Lepanto1,4, and Jean Lachaine5

1Radiology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 2Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal (CRCHUM), Montreal, QC, Canada, 3Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada, 4Health Technology Assessment Unit, 5Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmacoeconomics, University of Montreal, Montreal

Current clinical practice guidelines recommend ultrasound (US) every 6 months for surveillance of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in at-risk patients. Despite higher sensitivity, there is uncertainty regarding the role of MRI for HCC surveillance, whether as an add-on or replacement test. Our results indicate that surveillance with standard MRI followed by CT if technically inconclusive provided the highest level of effectiveness. However, CT followed by MRI was more cost-effective than alternative surveillance strategies using a threshold of $50,000 per QALY gained. Further, lower cost of abbreviated MRI will be required to be used as a first-line imaging technique for surveillance. 

223
14:01
Optimizing MRI for Focal Liver Lesions: Are All Our Sequences Really Necessary?
Sara Dastmalchian1, Nicholas Fulton2,3, Majid Chalian2,3, Ozden Kilinc1, Mark Griswold4, Vikas Gulani2,3, and Karin Herrmann2,3

1Department of Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Department of Radiology, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Department of Radiology, University hospitals Cleveland medical center, Cleveland, OH, United States, 3University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, United States, 4Case Western University

In this proof-of-concept study, our aim was to determine an optimal minimum number of MRI sequences which allow confident characterization of liver lesions into benign versus malignant categories with reasonable accuracy. We hypothesized that an abbreviated liver MRI protocol including single shot T2-weighted, pre and dynamic post-contrast T1-weighted images  has the potential to reduce overall scan time and throughput. If this can be performed without significant loss in diagnostic accuracy it may improve efficacy and be beneficial to current practice. 

224
14:05
Short 15-min surveillance-protocol multiphasic contrast enhanced MRI for hepatocellular carcinoma detection in cirrhosis
Takeshi Yokoo1, Gaurav Khatri1, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan1, David Fetzer1, Yin Xi1, and Ivan Pedrosa1

1Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

Patient with cirrhosis are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and routine surveillance imaging is recommended every 6 months.  While MRI has high sensitivity for HCC detection, its routine use is controversial due to its long exam time, high cost, and limited access. In this prospective study, we demonstrated that a short 15-min surveillance MRI has similar  HCC detection performance as the standard 45-min diagnostic MRI in patients with cirrhosis.  Therefore, a short surveillance MRI may allow for a more efficient and cost-effective alternative to the current standard-of-care MRI for HCC surveillance. 

225
14:09
Diagnostic performance of an abbreviated gadoxetic acid enhanced-MRI (AMRI) vs. ultrasound for detection of small HCC: pilot study.
Cecilia Besa1, Sara Lewis1, Mathilde Wagner1,2, Yujin Hoshida3, Ruth Carlos4, Claude B Sirlin5, and Bachir Taouli1

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Groupe Hospitalier Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France, 3Department of Medicine/Division of Liver Diseases, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States, 4Radiology, Division of Abdominal Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 5Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA, United States

In this study, we aim to test the diagnostic value of an abbreviated MRI (AMRI) using gadoxetic acid (with patient injected outside the MRI room) compared to ultrasound (US) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) detection in a population of patients with small HCC and controls. This study demonstrates that AMRI using T1WI obtained at the hepatobiliary phase (T1w-HBP), diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and T2WI has superior diagnostic performance for HCC detection compared to US. This could serve as the basis for a future study assessing AMRI for HCC screening/surveillance in patients with cirrhosis. 

226
14:13
Demonstrating the Clinical Feasibility of a Rapid Non-Contrast MRI Protocol for Detection and Quantification of Hepatic Steatosis and Iron Overload
B. Dustin Pooler1 and Scott B. Reeder1

1University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States

Many clinical scenarios necessitate evaluation for hepatic steatosis or iron overload without indication for a complicated MR exam. Emerging confounder-corrected chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) techniques can provide simultaneous estimation of liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2* as biomarkers of steatosis and iron overload, respectively. We have developed a highly focused CSE-MRI protocol which obtains these metrics in approximately 5 minutes of table time.  Our initial clinical experience has shown this protocol to be feasible for evaluation of patients ranging from pediatric to geriatric, with clinically significant disease detected in a large fraction of patients scanned to date.

14:17
Discussion

227
14:21
Contrast-enhanced Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) MR of the chest to evaluate for metastatic nodules in pediatric patients with malignancy undergoing abdomen MR staging and surveillance: a high-value alternative or adjunct to CT
Anshul Haldipur1, Evan James Zucker1, Joseph Y. Cheng1, and Shreyas S. Vasanawala1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Ultrashort Echo Time (UTE) MRI of the chest can be optimized for detection of metastatic lung nodules. In pediatric patients with a history of abdominal malignancies undergoing routine re-staging contrast-enhanced MRI exams, clinically significant metastatic lung nodules are detectable which, if diagnosed, could obviate or decrease the frequency of subsequent separate CT scans of the chest. Though cost of a chest CT is lower than an MRI, it is substantially more than the incremental cost of adding an additional sequence during already-scheduled MR Abdomen exams. Additionally, ionizing radiation is avoided, alleviating concerns about cumulative exposure following multiple serial follow-up examinations.

228
14:25
The use of MRI in the diagnosis of Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension
Christopher S Johns1, Andy J Swift1,2, Jens Vogel-Claussen3, David G Kiely4, and Jim M Wild1

1Academic Radiology, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom, 2Insigneo, Institute of In-Vivo Medicine, 3Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Germany, 4Pulmonary Vascular Disease Unit, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, United Kingdom

As surgical pulmonary endarterectomy significantly improves survival in patients with chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension it is important to correctly identify patients. Using cardiopulmonary MRI it is possible to screen for the presence of chronic thombo-emboli in all cases who can tolerate MRI, reducing the requirement for SPECT (and therefore patient radiation exposure). The same scan can also predict the presence of pulmonary hypertension, and due to a high specificity we can reduce the reliance upon an invasive test (right heart catheterisation) by around 50%.


229
14:29
Combined 3D Cine/4D Flow Accelerated Cardiac Imaging with Cloud Computing. Toward Streamlined and Fast Comprehensive Cardiac MRI Exam
Haonan Wang1, Peng Lai2, Piero Ghedin1, Shreyas S Vasanawala3, Anja C.S Brau2, and El-Sayed Ibrahim1

1GE Healthcare, Waukesha, WI, United States, 2GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 3Radiology, Stanford University, CA, United States

Currently, cine MRI is the gold standard for evaluating cardiac function. Nevertheless, in today’s practice, slices need to be acquired at different oblique, and 12-16 short-axis slices needs to be acquired for sufficient ventricular coverage. The same limits apply to hemodynamics-related assessment of valvular and vascular performance, for which multiple 2D oblique flow measurements need to be acquired. In this abstract, we present a combined 3D Cine/4D Flow accelerated cardiac imaging technique with cloud computing, which significantly reduces the scan and processing time, reduces the scan’s complexity, alleviates misregistration problems, and increases productivity.

230
14:33
5 Minute Comprehensive Knee MRI with 3D Double-Echo Steady-State (DESS)
Akshay S Chaudhari1, Bragi Sveinsson1, Jeff P Wood1, Dushyant S Thakur1, Kathryn J Stevens1, Chris F Beaulieu1, Marcus T Alley1, Curtis Abercrombie1, Garry E Gold1, and Brian A Hargreaves1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Knee MRI is performed commonly in the US for assessing acute injuries as well as degenerative diseases. However, current knee MRI protocols can require 25-30 minutes or more and cost approximately $1.1billion/year. In such instances, a short knee protocol could lower costs while increasing patient throughput, comfort, and access to care. In this study, we show that a five-minute double-echo steady-state (DESS) scan, with automatic T2 maps and fluid-nulled images, offers high efficacy and diagnostic utility compared to the standard knee protocol. These results suggest that a five-minute DESS scan could be used for comprehensive MRI of the knee. 

231
14:37
Targeted Rapid Knee MRI Exam using T2 Shuffling
Jonathan I Tamir1, Michael Lustig1, Valentina Taviani2, Marcus T Alley3, Becki Perkins3, Lori Hart3, Darla Mortensen3, and Shreyas S Vasanawala3

1Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA, United States, 2MR Applications and Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States, 3Radiology, Stanford University, CA, United States

We investigate the effectiveness of a targeted rapid pediatric knee MRI exam with total exam time of about 10 minutes. We aim to enable same-day MRI access, accommodating the abbreviated protocol between other scheduled patients. The protocol is based on T2 Shuffling, a four-dimensional acquisition that permits volumetric reconstruction of images with variable T2-contrast. Preliminary data for ten subjects referred for the targeted knee MRI exam is presented. Mean time from registration to exam completion averaged 48.5 minutes, with one outlier of 269 minutes due to technologist error in documentation. 

14:41
Discussion

232
14:45
Faster and more accurate staging of rectal cancer through a two-sequence MR protocol based on high-resolution T1-weighted post-contrast 3D SPGR imaging
Andreas M. Loening1, Marcus T. Alley1, and Shreyas S. Vasanawala1

1Dept. of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

A fast 10-min MRI protocol for rectal cancer staging based on a high-resolution T1-weighted post-contrast sequence was compared to a conventional 30-40 min protocol based on multiple planes of T2-weighted imaging. With IRB approval, 37 consecutive patients were retrospectively identified whose MRI rectal cancer staging studies contained the necessary sequences allowing creation of conventional and hypothetical fast protocols. Two blinded readers assessed each protocol for findings determining cancer stage. The fast 10-min MRI staging protocol was significantly more accurate for assessment of nodal disease and rectal cancer stage, and allowed significantly more confidence in assessment for transmural extension of tumor.

233
14:49
How Quick is our “Quick DWI” for Stroke?
Elaine Lui1, David Wang1, Nawaf Yassi2, Bruce Campbell2, and Patricia Desmond1

1Radiology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia, 2Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia

Stroke is an emergency. Although MRI is the imaging gold standard for the ischemic “core” in the hyperacute setting, MRI must be “quick” to remain relevant in the management pathway of this common disease. A “quick diffusion weighted imaging”(qDWI) protocol for acute stroke consisting of a single DWI sequence was implemented at our institution. qDWI reduced scan time by 84% compared to our conventional “Stroke” protocol, was 96.5% diagnostic, and with 90% not requiring further MRI. There was also a statistically significant quicker referral to scan time compared to the conventional “Stroke” MRIs. 

234
14:53
High-Resolution, Echo Planar Imaging on a Compact MRI Scanner: Applications in Stroke and Neuroimaging
Ek T Tan1, Paul T Weavers2, Erin M Gray2, Christopher J Hardy1, John F Schenck1, Matt A Bernstein2, Yunhong Shu2, Thomas KF Foo1, and John Huston2

1GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY, United States, 2Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

Rapid (six minutes and under) neuroimaging protocols can improve patient throughput and scanner utilization, especially when accelerated using the relatively fast EPI readout. However, susceptibility-related image distortion in EPI has limited its useful spatial resolution (2-2.5mm) conventional, whole-body 3T MRI. A 3.5-fold faster slew-rate head-only gradient on a novel low-cryogen compact 3T scanner can provide an effective platform for twofold-faster EPI that achieves higher spatial resolution (1mm). The utility of rapid (under one minute) single- and multi-shot T2-weighted EPI on the compact 3T is evaluated and compared to routine T2-FSE imaging in patients with brain tumors and stroke.

235
14:57
Accelerating multi-contrast imaging in neuro-exam with sharable information
Enhao Gong1, John Pauly1, and Greg Zaharchuk2

1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Neurological disorders results in great clinical challenges and high societal burdens. Currently multi-contrast MRI exams are frequently used for diagnosis because of the various tissue contrasts provides complementary diagnosis information to distinguish normal tissue from pathology. However, the cost of acquiring these multiple sequences is extensive scanning time, which significantly increases both the diagnosis cost and patients’ discomfort. Here we proposed a new approach to accelerate multi-contrast imaging by using Parallel Imaging, Compressed Sensing and sharable information. We validated the new approach with experiments on both patients and healthy subjects. We demonstrate that we can reduce the multi-contrast MRI scanning time significantly while preserving the diagnostic information.

236
15:01
Prediction of treatment response using baseline structural and functional MRI in first-episode antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia
Su Lui1, Lu Liu2, Yuan Xiao2, Bo Tao2, Biqiu Tang2, and Qiyong Gong2

1west china hospital of sichuan university, chengdu, People's Republic of China, 2west china hospital of sichuan university

Finding imaging biomarkers which could predict the treatment response is quite important to help the selection of therapy and save health resource.

15:05
Discussion

15:09
Closing Remarks


Traditional Poster: Musculoskeletal

Exhibition Hall 1532-1562 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Molecular Imaging

Exhibition Hall Monday 16:15 - 17:15 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Contrast Mechanisms

Exhibition Hall Monday 16:15 - 17:15 (no CME credit)

Study Groups

MR Engineering Study Group

Room 323ABC Monday 16:15 - 18:15 (no CME credit)


Study Groups

Hyperpolarized Media MR Study Group

Room 317AB Monday 16:15 - 18:15 (no CME credit)


Educational Course

MR Physics & Techniques for Clinicians

Organizers: Marcus T. Alley, Ph.D. & Bernd Jung, Ph.D.

Room 316BC Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Marcus Alley & Oliver Wieben

16:15
Spin Gymnastics 1 & 2
Walter Kucharczyk

This is non-mathematical overview of how MRI signals are generated, received, and encoded to form magnetic resonance images.

17:35
Image quality
Rafael O'Halloran1

1Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

We will take a graphical approach to explore key concepts of image quality and discuss how sequence parameters affect image quality using the idea of k-space. Using cartoons and images we will demonstrate how resolution, field-of-view, and SNR can be understood in terms of k-space coverage and sampling. The implications on image quality will be discussed and demonstrated with example images.

18:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Educational Course

Multiple Sclerosis: State of the Field in 2017

Organizers: Alex L. MacKay, D.Phil.

Room 315 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Alex MacKay & Rebecca Samson

16:15
Pathology of Multiple Sclerosis
Bruce D. Trapp1

1Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, United States

We describe postmortem characteristics of individuals with multiple sclerosis that have spinal cord demyelination, cortical demyelination, and an absence of cerebral white matter demyelination. Despite the paucity of cerebral white matter demyelination, cortical neuronal loss, cortical atrophy, and cerebral white matter MRI abnormalities were similar to those found in multiple sclerosis brains with abundant cerebral white matter demyelination. We identify myelinated axonal swellings as the pathological correlate of the focal white matter MRI abnormalities and establish that degeneration of cortical neurons and cerebral white matter demyelination can be independent events in individuals with “myelocortical multiple sclerosis.”

16:45
Role of MR in MS Diagnosis & Management
Yukio Miki1

1Osaka City University, Japan

MR imaging has been established as the most important tool for diagnosing multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition, this modality is increasingly being used to monitor disease activity, disease progression and therapeutic effects, and is therefore now recognized as an “imaging biomarker” for MS. Furthermore, MR imaging is also useful for diagnosing the side effects of pharmacotherapies. This lecture focuses on the role of MR imaging in the diagnosis and management in MS.

17:15
Role of MR in MS Clinical Trials
Anthony Traboulsee1

1Neurology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada


17:45
Advanced MR Techniques for Characterization of MS Pathology in Brain & Spine
Claudia Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1

1Queen Square MS Centre, UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom

In this teaching talk I will present how MRI can be used for investigating multiple sclerosis using advanced methods in the brain and spine.  Two distinct approaches are focusing on investigating microstructural characteristics or network-based damage.  Overall, the message will be that MRI is offering a widespread diversity of methods for assessing the multi-facet aspects of MS pathology.

18:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Educational Course

Pelvic MR Imaging

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 316A Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Yuliya Lakhman & Gabriele Masselli

16:15
Gynecologic MRI: Prognostication, Treatment Planning & Treatment Response
Kaori Togashi1 and Aki Kido1

1Department of Radiology, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan

The lecture will include the clinical usages of recent MR techniques for the assessment of gynecologic cancer patients.

16:45
Prostate MRI Image Interpretation
Jurgen Futterer1

1Radboudumc


17:15
Rectal Cancer-Shifting Paradigms-Predicting Complete Pathologic Response & Facilitating Non-Operative Management
Marc Gollub

This lecture will illustrate and teach the important concepts regarding post treatment assessment of rectal cancer after chemo-radiotherapy. Limitations, a key evolving concept will be stressed. T2, DWI and DCE will be included. At least 2 suggested systems for post treatment evaluation will be illustrated with discussion of their relative merits: mrTRG grading system and DWI + endoscopy systems. In particular, the growing trend towards Watch and Wait, AKA, non-operative management or organ sparing approaches will be discussed.

17:45
MR Urography
Bobby Kalb

Recent advances in sequence design and image processing have allowed for the simultaneous acquisition of dynamic perfusion imaging data (necessary for modelling of quantitative renal function) and also high-quality anatomic images of the renal and urothelial system (necessary for tumor diagnostics). A streamlined protocol allows for a more comprehensive evaluation of patient with diseases of the renal and urothelial system, optimizing management decisions through non-invasive diagnostics. 

18:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Power Pitch

Pitch: Cutting Edge fMRI

Power Pitch Theater A - Exhibition Hall Monday 16:15 - 17:15 Moderators: Nicholas Blockley & Eric Wong (no CME credit)

237
16:15
Cortical depth-dependent fMRI: heterogeneity across tasks, across participants, across days and along the cortical ribbon
Laurentius Huber 1, Daniel A Handwerker1, Andrew Hall1, David C Jangraw2, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo1, Maria Guidi3, Dimo Ivanov4, Benedikt A Poser4, and Peter A Bandettini1

1SFIM, NIMH, Bethesda, MD, United States, 2NIMH, United States, 3Max Planck Institute for human cognitive and Brain science, Leipzig, Germany, 4MBIC, Maastricht University, Netherlands

238
16:15
Simultaneous GCaMP6 based fiber photometry and fMRI in rats
Zhifeng Liang1,2, Yuncong Ma2, and Nanyin Zhang2

1Institute of Neuroscience, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, PA, United States

239
16:15
Optogenetic resting-state fMRI reveals thalamic modulation of long-range sensory networks
Alex T. L. Leong1,2, Xunda Wang1,2, Russell W. Chan1,2, Leon C. Ho1,2, Yongrong Qiu1,2, Celia M. Dong1,2, and Ed X. Wu1,2

1Laboratory of Biomedical Imaging and Signal Processing, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 2Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

240
16:15
Global signal regression alters the correlation between resting-state BOLD fluctuations and EEG vigilance measures
Maryam Falahpour1, Alican Nalci1, Chi Wah Wong1, and Thomas Liu1

1Center for functional MRI, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

241
16:15
What is the neurophysiological bases of resting state functional connectivity?
Hanbing Lu1, Saul Jaime2, Elliot A Stein1, Jose E Cavazos2, and Yihong Yang1

1National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, TX, United States

242
16:15
Functional Neuroimaging in the Brain using Magnetic Resonance Elastography
Samuel Patz1,2, Navid Nazari3, Paul E. Barbone4, Ben Fabry5, Dan Fovargue6, David Nordsletten6, and Ralph Sinkus6

1Radiology, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States, 4Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, MA, United States, 5Physics, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany, 6Biomedical Engineering, Kings College London, London, United Kingdom

243
16:15
Fully Automated Learning based Method for resting state fMRI Connectomics Analysis
Arathi Sreekumari1, Radhika Madhavan1, Rakesh Mullick1, Teena Shetty2, Pratik Mukherjee3, Joseph Masdeu4, Luca Marinelli5, and Suresh Emmanuel Joel1

1GE Global Research, Bangalore, India, 2Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, United States, 3University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Houston Methodist, Houston, TX, Houston, TX, United States, 5GE Global Research, Niskayuna, NY, United States

244
16:15
A Multiband Multi-Echo Simultaneous ASL/BOLD Acquisition for Resting State Functional Connectivity
Alexander D. Cohen1, Andrew S. Nencka1, and Yang Wang1

1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

245
16:15
The first two years of whole brain functional development can be separated into three distinct time periods
Weiyan Yin1 and Weili Lin2

1Department of Biomedical Engineering and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Research Imaging Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States

246
16:15
MRI Connectivity Predictors of Post-Surgical Seizure Outcome in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
Victoria L Morgan1, Dario J Englot2, Adam W Anderson3, Bennett A Landman4, Ahmet Cakir4, Baxter P Rogers1, and Bassel Abou-Khalil5

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 4Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 5Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

247
16:15
CEST fMRI at ultra-high magnetic field
Tangi Roussel1, Lucio Frydman2, Denis Le Bihan1, and Luisa Ciobanu1

1NeuroSpin, Commisariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

248
16:15
EPI-signal fluctuations at the cardiac frequency: A tissue-specific quantification of inflow, displacement and potential oxygenation effects over the cardiac cycle.
Olivia Viessmann1 and Peter Jezzard1

1FMRIB Centre, Nuffield Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom

249
16:15
The global resting-state fMRI signal is associated with opposite changes at subcortical structures regulating arousal.
Xiao Liu1,2, Jacco A de Zwart2, David A Leopold3, and Jeff H Duyn2

1Biomedical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, United States, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3National Institute of Mental Health, National Institues of Health, MD, United States

250
16:15
Functional connectivity is globally altered by schizophrenia-linked genes
Garth J Thompson1,2, Karen Perez De Arce3, Basavaraju G Sanganahalli1,2,4, Stephen M Strittmatter5, Thomas Biederer3, and Fahmeed Hyder1,2,4,6

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 2Magnetic Resonance Research Center (MRRC), Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 3Neuroscience, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, United States, 4Quantitative Neuroscience with Magnetic Resonance (QNMR) Core Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States, 5Cellular Neuroscience, Neurodegeneration, and Repair Program, and Departments of Neurology and Neurobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States, 6Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States

251
16:15
Population Receptive Field Mapping of Human Somatosensory Cortex at 7 T
Michael Asghar1, Rosa Sanchez-Panchuelo1, Denis Schluppeck2, and Susan Francis1

1SPMIC, School of Physics, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 2School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom


Power Pitch

Pitch: Quantitation, Prediction & Machine Learning in the Brain

Power Pitch Theater B - Exhibition Hall Monday 16:15 - 17:15 Moderators: Konstantinos Arfanakis & Justin Haldar (no CME credit)

252
16:15
Machine Learning Based Diagnosis of Early Parkinson's Disease using QSM
Seon Lee1, Joon Yul Choi2, Jeehun Kim2, Sun Won Park3, and Jongho Lee2

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 3Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul, Korea, Republic of

253
16:15
Reproduciblity of advanced MR metrics in a multi-site, multi-vendor study of mild traumatic brain injury
Andrew Scott Nencka1, Timothy Meier2, Yang Wang1, Yu-Chien Wu3, Brad Swearingen2, Robin Karr1, Melissa Koschnitzke2, Andy Saykin3, Michael McCrea2, and Kevin M Koch1

1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Radiology and Imaging Services, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN

254
16:15
Characteristic Changes of Volume and Shape of Subcortical Structures in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Lianqing Zhang1, Xinyu Hu1, Ming Zhou1, Lu Lu1, Xiaoxiao Hu1, and Xiaoqi Huang1

1Radiology Department, Huaxi MR Research Center (HMRRC),West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China

255
16:15
PARTIAL VOLUME ESTIMATION IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS LESION SEGMENTATION
Mário João Fartaria 1,2,3, Alexandra Şorega4, Tobias Kober1,2,3, Gunnar Krueger5, Cristina Granziera6,7, Alexis Roche1,2,3, and Meritxell Bach Cuadra2,3,8

1Advanced Clinical Imaging Technology, Siemens Healthcare AG, Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 3Signal Processing Laboratory (LTS 5), Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Radiology, Valais Hospital, Sion, Switzerland, 5Siemens Medical Solutions USA, Boston, MA, United States, 6Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 7Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 8Medical Image Analysis Laboratory (MIAL), Centre d'Imagerie BioMédicale (CIBM), Lausanne, Switzerland

256
16:15
Predictive cytological topography highlights regions of pathologically confirmed non-enhancing hypercellular tumor in glioblastoma patients
Sarah L Hurrell1, Elizabeth Cochran2, Sean D McGarry1, Amy L Kaczmarowski1, Jennifer Connelly3, Wade Mueller4, Scott D Rand1, Kathleen M Schmainda1, and Peter S LaViolette1

1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Pathology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 3Neurology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

257
16:15
Radiogenomics of 201 WHO grade 2 and 3 gliomas
Manabu Kinoshita1,2, Hideyuki Arita2, Masamishi Takahashi3, Yoshitaka Narita3, Yuzo Terakawa2, Naohiro Tsuyuguchi2, Yoshiko Okita2, Masahiro Nonaka2, Shusuke Moriuchi2, Junya Fukai2, Shuichi Izumoto2, Kenichi Ishibashi2, Yoshinori Kodama2, Kanji Mori2, Koichi Ichimura3, and Yonehiro Kanemura2,4

1Neurosurgery, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka, Japan, 2Kansai Molecular Diagnosis Network for CNS Tumors, Osaka, Japan, 3National Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, 4Osaka National Hospital, Osaka, Japan

258
16:15
Classification of Pediatric Brain Tumours using Apparent Diffusion Coefficient – a Multi-Centre Study
Jan Novak1,2, Niloufar Zarinabad1,2, Theodoros N Arvanitis3, Lesley MacPherson4, Daniel Rodriguez 5,6, Richard Grundy6, Dorothee Auer7,8, Tim Jaspan6, Shivaram Avula9, Laurence Abernethy9, Patrick Hales10, Ramneek Kaur10, Darren Hargrave11, Dipayan Mitra12, Simon Bailey13, Nigel Davies14, Christopher Clark10, and Andrew Peet2,15

1Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2Oncology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 3Institute of Digital Healthcare, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom, 4Radiology, Birmingham Children's Hospital, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 5Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 6The Children‘s Brain Tumour Research Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 7Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 8Department of Neuroradiology, Nottingham University Hospital Trusts, Nottingham, United Kingdom, 9Radiology, Alder Hey Children’s NHF Foundation Trust, Liverpool, United Kingdom, 10Developmental Imaging and Biophysics Section, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 11Haematology and Oncology Department, Great Ormond Street Children's Hospital, London, United Kingdom, 12The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle, United Kingdom, 13Sir James Spence Institute of Child Health, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom, 14Radiation Protection Services, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trus, Birmingham, United Kingdom, 15Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, University of Birmingham, BIRMINGHAM, United Kingdom

259
16:15
Exploiting radiogenomics data for personalised prediction of glioblastoma
Paul Blakeley1,2, Chia-Feng Lu2,3,4, Fei-Ting Hsu2,5, Li-Chun Hsieh2,5, Yu-Chieh Jill Kao2,3, Huai-Lu Chen1,2, Ping-Huei Tsai2,3,5, Hua-Shan Liu2,6, Gilbert Aaron Lee1,2, and Cheng-Yu Chen2,3,5

1Department of Medical Research, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 2Translational Imaging Research Center, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 3Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan, 4Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, 5Department of Medical Imaging, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, 6School of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan

260
16:15
Multiparameter MRI Predictors of Extreme Survival in Glioblastoma Multiforme
Natarajan Raghunand1, Olya Stringfield2, John Arrington3, and Robert A Gatenby3

1Cancer Imaging & Metabolism, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States, 2IRAT Shared Service, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States, 3Diagnostic Imaging & Interventional Radiology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States

261
16:15
Multi-Site Concordance of DSC-MRI Analysis for Brain Tumors:  Results of a NCI Quantitative Imaging Network DSC-MRI Collaborative Project
Kathleen M Schmainda1, Melissa A Prah1, Scott D Rand2, Mark Muzi3, Swati D Rane3, Xiao Da4, Yi-Fen Yen5, Jayashree Kalpathy-Cramer5, Thomas L Chenevert6, Dariya Malyarenko6, Benjamin Hoff6, Brian Ross6, Yue Cao7, Madhava P Aryal7, Bradley Erickson8, Panagiotis Korfiatis8, Laura Bell9, Leland Hu10, and Christopher Chad Quarles9

1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, WI, United States, 3Radiology, University of Washington, WA, United States, 4Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, MA, United States, 5Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 6Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 7Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States, 8Mayo Clinic, MN, United States, 9Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 10Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ, United States

262
16:15
Perfusion-supervoxels for DCE-MRI based tumor subregion assessment
Benjamin John Irving 1, Jolanta Mirecka1, Ana L Gomes2, Danny Allen2, Paul Kinchesh2, Veerle Kersemans2, Stuart Gilchrist2, Sean Smart2, Julia A Schnabel3, Sir J Michael Brady2, and Michael Chappell1

1Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Department of Oncology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

263
16:15
A New Combined Perfusion and Diffusion MRI Biomarker to Distinguish Pediatric High-Grade Glioma from Pilocytic Astrocytoma
Kathleen M Schmainda1, Melissa A Prah1, Jose A Palomares1, Mohit Maheshwari1, Sean Lew2, and Teresa Kelly1

1Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States

264
16:15
A ranking of pipelines for optimal co-registration of anatomical and diffusion weighted images of the cervical spinal cord
Stephanie Alley1, Francesco Grussu1, Marios C. Yiannakas1, Hugh Kearney1, Olga Ciccarelli1, Ferran Prados1,2, Sébastien Ourselin2, and Claudia AM Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott1,3,4

1UCL Institute of Neurology, Queen Square MS Centre, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Translational Imaging Group, Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Department of Brain and Behavioural Sciences, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy, 4Brain MRI 3T Mondino Research Center, C. Mondino National Neurological Institute, Pavia, Italy

265
16:15
Deep-Neural-Network based image diagnosis: comparing various image preprocessing strategies to achieve higher accuracy and understanding of the decision
Yasuhiko Tachibana1, Takayuki Obata1, Jeff Kershaw1, Yoko Ikoma1, Tokuhiko Omatsu1, Riwa Kishimoto1, and Tatsuya Higashi2

1Applied MRI Research, Department of Molecular Imaging and Theranostics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan, 2Department of Molecular Imaging and Theranostics, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan

266
16:15
Cerebellum Tissue Segmentation with Ensemble Sparse Learning
Jiawei Chen1, Li Wang1, and Dinggang Shen1

1Department of Radiology and BRIC, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, United States


Oral

Stroke & Vessel Wall Imaging

Room 310 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Linda Knutsson & William Copen

267
16:15
Alterations in brain structural connectivity in comatose cardiac arrest patients
Ona Wu1, Eric S. Rosenthal2, Gaston Cudemus-Deseda3, Brian L. Edlow2, Marjorie Villien1, Brittany B. Mills2, Joseph T. Giacino4, James L. Januzzi5, Ming Ming Ning2, W. Taylor Kimberly2, William A. Copen6, Pamela W. Schaefer6, and David M. Greer7

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 2Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 3Department of Cardiac Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States, 5Department of Medicine, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 6Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 7Department of Neurology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States

Cardiac arrest patients in coma after restoration of spontaneous circulation were prospectively studied to determine whether variability in structural connectivity can discriminate patients likely to recover consciousness from those who will not. Compared to healthy controls, cardiac arrest patients overall had significantly  lower values in the following structural connectivity parameters: global efficiency, clustering coefficient, and degree. Cardiac arrest patients who failed to recover alertness had a significantly lower global clustering coefficient compared to patients who woke up. Alterations in structural connectivity may play an important role in predicting recovery and guiding patient management decisions in comatose cardiac arrest patients.

268
16:27
ASPECTS Based Reperfusion Status on Arterial Spin Labeling Is Associated with Clinical Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients
Samantha J. Ma1, Songlin Yu2, David Liebeskind3, Dandan Yu4, Ning Li5, Xingfeng Shao1, Jeffrey Saver6, Noriko Salamon7, and Danny JJ Wang1

1Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Neurovascular Imaging Research Core and Department of Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 4Neuro-Intensive Care Unit, Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 5Biomathematics, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 6Neurology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 7Radiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, United States

An automatic scoring system for assessing reperfusion status based on arterial spin labeled (ASL) perfusion MRI was developed and evaluated for acute ischemic stroke patients who received thrombolysis and/or endovascular treatment. Reperfusion injury is considered to have the same detrimental effects as non-reperfusion, and we applied the ASPECTS model to address the existence of heterogeneity of hypo- and hyper-perfusion despite vessel recanalization. Our newly devised reperfusion scoring system is highly associated with patient functional outcome and provides a useful tool to complement other clinical methods for managing corresponding strategies after treatment.

269
16:39
Estimation of microstructure measures in stroke subjects with a rapid DSI acquisition
Ganesh Adluru1, Kyler Hodgson2, Jennifer Majersik3, Lorie Richards4, and Edward DiBella1,2

1Radiology and Imaging Sciences, University of Utah, Salt lake city, UT, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of Utah, Salt lake city, UT, United States, 3Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 4Occupational Therapy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States

Diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) is a promising tool for estimation of white-matter fiber structure.  DSI also allows for model-based estimation of several microstructure measures.  However, the long data acquisition time associated with DSI limits its application in stroke patients.  Here we combine a simultaneous multi-slice acquisition with an undersampled q-space acquisition and dictionary reconstruction to accelerate DSI.  The two complementary acceleration schemes allow for a rapid 5.5 minute DSI acquisition in stroke subjects.  We used generalized fractional anisotropy and microstructure measures computed from the NODDI model to evaluate the rapid DSI framework in stroke patients.

270
16:51
Highly sensitive pH mapping during ischemia using Total Fast-exchanging Protons (TFP) imaging
Jiadi Xu1, Kathryn Schunke1,2, Lin Chen1,3, Xiang Xu1, Yuguo Li1, Guanshu Liu1, Shuhui Cai3, Raymond C Koehler2, Jiangyang Zhang4, Peter C. M. van Zijl1, and Nauder Faraday2

1kirby Center / Radiology Department, Kennedy Krieger Institute / Johns Hopkins Univeristy, baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Anesthesiology/Critical Care Medicines, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen, People's Republic of China, 4Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, United States

Ischemia in a mouse stroke model was assessed by pH mapping using the on-resonance variable-delay multi-pulse (onVDMP) CEST scheme. In the method, an on-resonance binomial pulse train is applied at the water resonance to achieve high labeling efficiency for fast-exchanging protons. Since the CEST signal intensity for the total fast-exchanging protons is far greater than that of amide protons, high detection sensitivity is expected. The final stroke region determined by the method was verified by histologic analysis.

271
17:03
In-vivo Detection of Remote Neurodegeneration within Thalamic Nuclei after Stroke Using Iron Quantification with R2* Mapping
Grégory Kuchcinski1, Fanny Munsch2, Renaud Lopes1, Jason Su3, Antoine Bigourdan2, Brian K. Rutt3, Vincent Dousset2, Igor Sibon4, and Thomas Tourdias2

1Neuroradiology, Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, Lille, France, 2Neuroimagerie diagnostique et thérapeutique, Université de Bordeaux, CHU de Bordeaux, France, 3Richard M. Lucas Center for Imaging Radiology Department, Stanford University, United States, 4Unité neurovasculaire, Université de Bordeaux, CHU de Bordeaux, France

In stroke patients, remote thalamic alterations including iron deposition have been reported and attributed to the disruption of cortico-thalamic projections. Nevertheless, secondary thalamic degeneration has never been quantified so far in humans at the nucleus scale and its clinical impact is unknown. By using R2* mapping, we demonstrated (i) that iron accumulates with a focal distribution especially within the medio-dorsal nucleus and the pulvinar, (ii) that such focal thalamic iron accumulation is strongly linked to the initial stroke location, consistent with the known connectivity between thalamic nuclei and cortico-subcortical areas and (iii) is significantly impacting specific cognitive and emotional functions.

272
17:15
Evaluation of CSF Suppression Techniques for Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging
Petrice M. Cogswell1, Jeroen C.W. Siero2,3, Guillaume Gilbert4, Taylor Davis1, Allison O. Scott1, Katie Lants1, Helen B. Mahany1, Jennifer M. Watchmaker1, Jeroen Hendrikse2, and Manus J. Donahue1

1Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Spinoza Center for Neuroimaging, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 4MR Clinical Science, Philips Healthcare Canada, Markham, Canada

This work compares vessel wall SNR and CSF suppression from multiple approaches to determine optimal imaging parameters for intracranial VWI at the clinically-available field strength of 3T. T1-weighted TSE acquisition using variable refocusing angle pulse-train and DANTE preparation provides for blood and CSF suppression while maintaining adequate vessel wall SNR. The use of a variable refocusing pulse train with sweep of 40-120° provides improved performance compared to a sweep of 50-120°. Variation of the DANTE flip angle showed that a flip angle of 8° provides good CSF suppression with minimal SNR loss compared to flip angles of 10 and 12°. 

273
17:27
Visualization of Carotid Plaque: T1-SPACE vs. Compressed Sensing T1-SPACE
Sachi Okuchi1, Yasutaka Fushimi1, Tomohisa Okada2, Akira Yamamoto1, Tsutomu Okada1, Takayuki Yamamoto1, Katsutoshi Murata3, Yuta Urushibata3, and Kaori Togashi1

1Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 2Human Brain Research Center, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan, 3Siemens Japan K.K., Tokyo, Japan

Compressed sensing (CS) algorithm has been brought into MRI. CS realizes iterative reconstruction of images from incoherently under-sampled data, which leads to shorter acquisition time. A 3D T1-weighted fast spin echo (T1-FSE) scan has been often used for plaque imaging. We compared visualization of carotid plaque and internal carotid artery (ICA) between 3D T1-FSE imaging with SPACE and with a prototype CS SPACE. In the result, CS-T1-SPACE revealed an equivalent visualization compared with T1-SPACE in evaluation of carotid plaque and ICA. CS-T1-SPACE would be useful for the visualization of carotid plaque and ICA.

274
17:39
High-resolution MR vessel wall imaging after intra-arterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke
Arjen Lindenholz1, Irene C van der Schaaf1, Anita A Harteveld1, Bart H van der Worp2, Anja G Van der Kolk1, and Jeroen Hendrikse1

1Radiology, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands, 2Neurology and Neurosurgery, UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

Intra-arterial treatment (IAT) may damage the arterial vessel wall, which might lead to recurrent thrombosis and distal embolism.In this study the intracranial vessel wall was evaluated in patients with acute ischemic stroke after IAT using high-resolution vessel wall MRI. Thirteen patients underwent both 3T and 7T pre- and postcontrast vessel wall MRI to detect contrast-enhancing lesions. Significantly more enhancing vessel wall lesions and concentric enhancing lesions ipsilateral to IAT were found compared to the contralateral side. The higher number of concentric enhancing lesions ipsilateral to the IAT may be related to the presence of the thrombus and the performed IAT.

275
17:51
Determinants of Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Plaque Enhancement on 3D DANTE T1-SPACE Vessel Wall MRI and Relationship to Recurrent Stroke or TIA
Adam de Havenon1, Nabeel Chauhan1, Seong-Eun Kim2, J. Rock Hadley2, Ka-Ho Wong1, David Tirschwell3, Jennifer J. Majersik1, Dennis Parker2, and J. Scott McNally2

1Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 2Radiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Neurology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

Intracranial atherosclerotic enhancement on vessel wall MRI is associated with with symptomatic plaque, but there is insufficient data on the clinical characteristics associated with atherosclerotic enhancement on T1-weighted vessel wall MRI sequences or the relationship between atherosclerotic enhancement and recurrent stroke or TIA.  Our study demonstrates that intracranial atherosclerotic plaque enhancement detected on 3T vessel wall MRI with 3D DANTE T1-SPACE accurately predicts a high risk of early stroke or TIA recurrence, with a potentially modifiable risk factor: elevated serum hemoglobin A1c.

276
18:03
Characteristics of Morphology, Compositions and Distribution of Carotid Artery Atherosclerotic Plaques in Asymptomatic Elderly Population: A Three-Dimensional, Multicontrast Magnetic Resonance Vessel Wall Imaging Study
Ying Cai1, Le He2, Chun Yuan2,3, Huijun Chen2, Qiang Zhang2, Rui Li2, Cheng Li4, and Xihai Zhao2

1Department of Radiology, Yangzhou First People’s Hospital, Yangzhou, People's Republic of China, 2Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Zhongda Hospital, Medical School of Southeast University, Nanjing, People's Republic of China

This study investigated the morphology, compositions and distribution of carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques in asymptomatic elderly population using 3D multicontrast MR vessel wall imaging. The atherosclerotic plaques were found to be prevalent (62.1%) and more than 12% subjects had high risk plaques (HRP) in this study population. Among carotid arteries without luminal stenosis, the prevalence of plaque and HRP was 43.2% and 8.3%, respectively. Benefiting from the 3D vessel wall imaging with large longitudinal coverage, near 14% of subjects had plaques in either distal ICA or proximal CCA segment which cannot be captured by traditional 2D vessel wall imaging.


Oral

Microstructure

Room 311 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Susie Huang & Itamar Ronen

277
16:15
Time dependence of microscopic anisotropy in the mouse brain measured with double oscillating diffusion encoding (DODE) MRI
Andrada Ianus1,2, Sune N. Jespersen3,4, Daniel C. Alexander2, Ivana Drobnjak2, and Noam Shemesh1

1Champalimaud Neuroscience Programme, Champalimaud Centre for the Unknown, Lisbon, Portugal, 2Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience (CFIN) and MINDLab, Clinical Institute, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark, 4Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark

Time dependence of microscopic anisotropy measured with diffusion MRI can reveal the cellular eccentricity at different lengths scales, which is an important step towards the goal of non-invasive characterization of tissue microstructure. Diffusion sequences which vary the gradient orientation within one measurement can probe microscopic anisotropy, regardless of the macroscopic tissue configuration. Here we employ the newly proposed Double Oscillating Diffusion Encoding (DODE) sequences, consisting of two independent trains of oscillating gradients which can have different orientations, in order to measure the time dependence of microscopic anisotropy in the mouse brain.  

278
16:27
Comparison of Double Diffusion Encoding and NODDI
Grant Kaijuin Yang1,2, Qiyuan Tian1,2, Christoph Leuze2, and Jennifer McNab2

1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

In this study, we compare fractional eccentricity (FE) measured by double diffusion encoding (DDE) to NODDI estimates of neurite density and orientation distribution in six normal subjects and one subject with benign T2 hyperintensities. The results of the comparison support the hypothesis that FE is independent of fiber orientation and correlates strongly with intracellular volume fraction.

279
16:39
Diffusion tensor distribution imaging
Daniel Topgaard1

1Department of Chemistry, Lund University, Lund, Sweden

Diffusion MRI is an excellent method for detecting subtle changes of brain microstructure, but rarely gives unambiguous information about whether the observations originate from variations in cell density, size, shape, orientation, or any combination thereof. Capitalizing on our recent pulse sequences with data acquisition as a function of both the spherical and the conventional linear components of the diffusion encoding tensor b, we here introduce and demonstrate a method to quantify the composition of a heterogeneous voxel as a multidimensional distribution of diffusion tensors where the information about size, shape, and orientation is cleanly separated in the respective dimensions of the distribution. When transferred to a neuroimaging context, our method will allow for unconstrained estimation of fiber bundle orientation distributions and radial and axial diffusivities, as well as fractions of extracellular water and cerebrospinal fluid.

280
16:51
Validation of the two-pool diffusion model in post-mortem white matter using the CLARITY method
Jakob Georgi1, Markus Morawski2, Carsten Jäger1,2, and Harald E. Möller1

1Max-Planck-Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany, 2Paul-Flechsig-Institute for Brain Research, Leipzig, Germany

Water diffusion in tissues is known to be non-Gaussian. Moreover, two different water regimes have been found in brain tissue and assigned to a bulk-like compartment and water in contact with macromolecules. Here, we investigate the influence of membranes in post-mortem white matter, which are assumed to be responsible for the second pool observed in MR-diffusion measurements. Using a newly developed CLARITY method, which removes lipids from brain tissue while keeping the brain structure intact, we found that the slow compartment vanished while the mobility of the fast pool increased, which directly demonstrates the influence of membranes on water dynamics.

281
17:03
Intra- and extra-axonal axial diffusivities in the white matter: which one is faster?
Ileana Ozana Jelescu1, Nicolas Kunz1, Analina Raquel Da Silva1, and Rolf Gruetter1

1Centre d'Imagerie Biomédicale, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

The typical two-compartment model of diffusion in the white matter is associated with two plausible solutions, the choice between which relies on whether intra-axonal or extra-axonal axial diffusivity is faster. Here we use an intracerebroventricular perfusion of gadolinium in the rat brain to suppress the extra-cellular signal. Diffusion measurements before and after perfusion show a mild increase in axial diffusivity post-perfusion, which suggests intra-axonal diffusivity is higher than extra-axonal axial diffusivity. This can help solve the current indetermination in parameter estimation and allow diffusion models to regain their claimed specificity.

282
17:15
Universal power-law scaling of water diffusion in human brain defines what we see with diffusion MRI
Jelle Veraart1, Els Fieremans1, and Dmitry S Novikov1

1Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York University School of Medicine, New York City, NY, United States

Here we identify a universal power-law scaling behavior of the diffusion MRI signal on a clinical scanner. This specific functional form provides a defining signature of water confined within narrow sticks establishing that exchange between intra- and extra-axonal water is not relevant, and the fraction of fully restricted water is negligible in the clinically accessible regime. The observed scaling for the first time in vivo validates the key ingredient specific to the microstructural models of MRI signal from neuronal tissue and enables the in vivo quantification of  intra-axonal properties. 

283
17:27
Multi-compartment microscopic diffusion imaging with oscillating gradients: simulation validation and application in multiple sclerosis patients
Hua Li1,2, Enrico Kaden3, Daniel C. Alexander3, John C. Gore1,2, Bagnato R. Francesca1,2,4, and Junzhong Xu1,2

1Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States, 3Centre for Medical Image Computing, University College London, United Kingdom, 4Neuroimmunology Division/Neuroimaging Unit, Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, United States

Microscopic diffusion imaging using spherical mean technique (SMT) and oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) was applied in multiple sclerosis patients, along with computer simulation validation. The results suggested that there are significant decreases of axon volume fraction in multiple sclerosis patients compared with contralateral normal tissue.

284
17:39
Comparing in vivo MR g-ratio mapping methods: accuracy and precision at the group level
Isabel Ellerbrock1 and Siawoosh Mohammadi1,2,3

1Department of Systems Neuroscience, Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany, 2UCL Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Department of Neurophysics, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany

The g-ratio, the ratio between the inner and outer diameter of a myelinated axon, is of great neuroscientific interest because it is a relative measure of axonal myelination and functionally linked to conduction velocity. In vivo g-ratio mapping has been recently suggested using a flexible biophysical model that relates the microscopic g-ratio, only accessible by histology, to MRI biomarkers for the myelin and fiber compartment. This study investigates the question which MRI biomarker is optimal for MR g-ratio mapping concerning precision (determined by scan-rescan reproducibility) and accuracy (assessed by comparability to previous in vivo and the ex vivo results). 

285
17:51
Microstructure imaging from a dictionary of Monte Carlo signals: assessment on a rat model of Wallerian degeneration
Gaëtan Rensonnet1, Benoît Scherrer2, Simon K. Warfield2, Benoît Macq1, and Maxime Taquet1,2

1ICTEAM, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2Computational Radiology Laboratory, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

We estimate microstructural features of the nervous tissues from diffusion-weighted MRI by using sparse optimization techniques on a dictionary of pre-computed Monte Carlo signals, which more faithfully describe the complex diffusion process in the extra-axonal space of the white matter. The method is validated on synthetic data including single and crossing fibers and on an in vivo rat spinal cord model of Wallerian degeneration. We obtain in vivo microstructural estimates that can be directly related to histological evidence whereas the traditional closed-form formula models DIAMOND and NODDI yield results that are more challenging to interpret physically.

286
18:03
Diffusion compartment imaging reveals microstructural injuries in a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury
Benoit Scherrer1, Jianhua Qiu2, Jumana Hashim2, Onur Afacan1, Yaotang Wu1, Michael Marcotrigiano1, Simon K Warfield1, and Rebekah Mannix2

1Department of Radiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 2Division of Emergency Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States

Although about 30% of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) suffer prolonged symptoms after injury1, conventional anatomic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not proven useful in diagnosing or predicting outcomes after mTBI. In this work we evaluated a novel technique, diffusion compartment imaging (DCI), with a mouse model of mTBI that enables study of mTBI under controlled conditions. We compared DCI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) changes to histopathological observations in two injury conditions (with and without persistent functional deficits). Our results suggest that, unlike DTI, DCI detects specific evidence of traumatic axonal injury. Moreover, DCI detects changes only in mice with persistent functional deficits.


Oral

Velocity & Flow Imaging: Clinical Research

Room 312 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Jeremy Collins & Tino Ebbers

287
16:15
Multi-year 4D flow MRI Follow-Up Study of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Aortic Valve patients and Association between Wall Shear Stress and Aortic Diametric Growth
Ozair Rahman1, Alex Barker2, Carmen Blanken2, Emilie Bollache2, Michael Rose3, Pim Van Ooji2, Jeremy Collins2, James Carr2, Chris Malaisrie4, Patrick McCarthy4, and Michael Markl2

1Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Radiology, Northwestern University, 3Radiology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, 4Cardiac Surgery, Northwestern University

Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) are at increased risk of developing aortopathy compared to Tricuspid Aortic Valve (TAV) patients. However, there is imited data presenting the development of pathophysiologic changes taking place over multi year time period. Our study attempts to quantify the changes that take place from baseline and follow-up scans to help us better understand this process.

288
16:27
3D Linear Regression Analysis Reveals Relationships of 4D flow MRI-derived Aortic Dimensions with Age, Gender and Wall Shear Stress in Patients with Aortopathy
Pim van Ooij1,2, Jeremy D. Collins2, Paul W. M. Fedak3,4, Aart J. Nederveen1, James C Carr2, Michael Markl2,5, and Alex J. Barker2

1Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Division of Surgery-Cardiac Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 4Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada, 5Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

In two groups of patients with bicuspid valves (BAV) and with tricuspid valves with dilated aortas (TAV), 3D correlation coefficient r maps were created to investigate linear relationships between 3D aortic diameter maps and 3D wall shear stress maps (WSS), with age and gender as co-variables. The dependence of diameter on gender was higher for TAV, whereas the dependence of diameter on age was higher for BAV patients. With the addition of WSS to the model, r increased slightly for both groups. In general, r was significantly higher for TAV: BAV mediated aortopathy is suspected to have genetic associations.

289
16:39
Multiparametric Assessment of Patients with Aortic Stenosis using Multipoint 4D Flow MRI - Correlation with Cardiac Biomarkers
Alexander Gotschy1,2, Christian Binter1, Robert Manka2, and Sebastian Kozerke1

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, University & ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland

Various flow characteristics, such as Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE), flow displacement or jet angle, derived from 4D Flow MRI, have been used to investigate the hemodynamic effects of aortic stenosis (AS). However, the predictive value of these flow parameters is still unknown. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between multiple flow parameters and cardiac biomarkers which are known to provide prognostic information on the progression and outcome of AS. Our results revealed that MRI-based TKE and peak velocity significantly correlate with NT-proBNP, implying potential relevance of these imaging parameter for future risk stratification of AS patients.

290
16:51
Blood flow characterization in sigmoid-sinus using 4D-Flow MR among patients with pulsatile tinnitus
Yunduo Li1, Le He1, Xiangyu Cao2, Xianling Wang3, Shubin Chen4, Huijun Chen1, Rui Li1, and Chun Yuan1,5

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Neurosurgery department of the general hospital of PLA, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 4Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 5Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States

Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) is suspected to be associated with abnormal hemodynamics in sigmoid-sinus. In this study, we used 4D-Flow MRI to characterize blood flow in sigmoid-sinus among patients with pulsatile tinnitus and demonstrated that high blood velocity in sigmoid-sinus might be an authentic marker of PT. This study may provide more information for diagnosis and treatment of pulsatile tinnitus, especially for patients with PT of venous origin.

291
17:03
4-Dimensional Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Left Atrial Stasis in Patients with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation: A Comparative Study of Patients Pre- and Post-Ablation
Julio Garcia1, Michael S Bristow2,3, Carmen Lydell3,4, Andrew G Howarth2,3, Bobby Heydari2,3, Frank S Prato5, Maria Drangova5, Rebecca Thornhill6, Pablo Nery7, Stephen Wilton3, Allan Skanes8, and James White2,3

1Department of Cardiac Sciences - Stephenson Cardiac Imaging Centre, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 3Stephenson Cardiac Imaging Centre, Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, Calgary, AB, Canada, 4Diagnostic Imaging, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 5Medical Imaging, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada, 6Diagnostic Imaging, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 7Electrophysiology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 8Department of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada

This study may be of interest for clinicians and clinical researchers who study atrial diseases. This study demonstrates that 4D flow-derived LA 3D stasis is clinically feasible and it may be useful for characterize differences between pre- and post-ablation patients.

292
17:15
4D flow MRI based quantification of regional stiffness in the thoracic aorta in stroke patients compared to transesophageal echocardiography
Thomas Wehrum1, Felix Günther2, Anja Hennemuth3, Johann Drexl3, Hanieh Mirzaee3, and Andreas Harloff1

1Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 2Department of Cardiology and Angiology, University Medical Center Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany

Our purpose was to quantify regional stiffness in the aorta in stroke patients using 4D flow MRI based pulse-wave-velocity quantification in comparison with stiffness quantification using parameters based on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). MRI and TEE based stiffness parameters were highly correlated and increased stiffness as measured using 4D flow MRI and TEE was associated with presence of atherosclerosis. Accordingly, we were able to predict the presence of atherosclerotic lesions with high sensitivity and specificity using both, 4D flow MRI and TEE. Hence, especially non-invasive 4D flow MRI can be used in future longitudinal studies investigating early development of atherosclerotic lesions.

293
17:27
Increased aortic wall shear stress and wall shear stress gradient in patients with an anatomically shaped sinus prosthesis using 4D Flow MRI
Victoria Schultz1, Thekla Oechtering1, Malte Sieren1, Michael Scharfschwerdt2, Anja Hennemuth3, Markus Hüllebrand3, Hans-Hinrich Sievers2, Jörg Barkhausen1, and Alex Frydrychowicz1

1Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany, 2Department of Cardiac and Cardiothoracic Vascular Surgery, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Lübeck, Germany, 3Mevis, Fraunhofer, Bremen, Germany

Patients with anatomically shaped sinus prosthesis have been shown to have near physiological hemodynamics in the aortic bulb but altered flow characteristics distal to the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to compare the aortic wall shear of 12 patients with sinus prosthesis with 12 age-matched volunteers using 4D flow sensitive MRI. The wall shear stress analysis in 8 analysis planes revealed a tendency towards decreased WSS in the region of the prosthesis and increased WSS values distal to the prosthesis. Interestingly, the WSS gradient per plane and segmental WSS distal to the prosthesis were increased throughout the patients.

294
17:39
Post-surgical changes in aortic wall shear stress patterns in patients with aortopathy: a follow-up 4D flow MRI study
Emilie Bollache1, Paul W.M. Fedak2,3, Pim van Ooij4, Ozair Rahman1, Alex Hong1, Eric J. Keller1, S Chris Malaisrie3, Patrick M. McCarthy3, James C. Carr1, Jeremy D. Collins1, Michael Markl1,5, and Alex J. Barker1

1Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Cardiac Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 3Division of Surgery-Cardiac Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 5Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States

Our purpose was to follow up post-surgical changes in peak wall shear stress (WSS) and extent of at-risk tissue using 4D flow MRI in 34 aortopathy patients. Highly variable changes between pre- and post-surgery were found according to the intervention or replaced aortic valve type, while WSS patterns were unchanged in 20 other patients who did not undergo surgery. The reproducible 4D flow MRI WSS indices should be studied in larger cohorts and compared with patient outcome to potentially detect risk of future events in aortopathy patients, while optimizing the extent of resected aortic tissue.

295
17:51
4D Flow MRI during Exercise in Prematurely Born Adults and Children
Jacob Macdonald1, Arij Beshish2, Kristin Haraldsdottir2, Marlowe Eldridge2, Oliver Wieben1,3, and Christopher J Francois3

1Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Pediatrics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 3Radiology, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI, United States

Preterm birth can result in impaired development of lung airways and vasculature, but the long term implications are unclear. With this in mind, we performed 4D flow imaging in the aorta and pulmonary artery during exercise at 70% maximal power in both children and adults who had been born prematurely to identify any differences in flow characteristics relative to healthy controls. Although no statistically significant differences were identified between our groups, some preterm cohorts showed increased cardiac output and mean velocity. The significance of these trends should become apparent as we continue to recruit subjects and increase our statistical power.

296
18:03
k-t Accelerated Dual-Venc 4D flow MRI for Improved Flow Visualization in Pediatric Patients with Congenital Heart Disease
Liliana Ma1,2, Michael Rose3, Ozair Rahman1, Kelly Jarvis1,2, Joshua Robinson1,3, Cynthia Rigsby1,3,4,5, Michael Markl1,2,3,4,5, and Susanne Schnell1

1Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Medical Imaging, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Division of Cardiology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States

This study explores the potential of using dual-velocity encoding 4D flow MRI for in-vivo assessment of complex blood flow patterns in patients with diverse presentations of congenital heart disease. 


Oral

Motion Correction: All Brain

Room 313A Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Jacco de Zwart & Emine Saritas

297
16:15
Prediction of Motion Induced Image Degradation Using a Markerless Motion Tracker
Rasmus Munch Olsen1, Helle Hjorth Johannesen2, Otto Mølby Henriksen2, Lisbeth Marner2, and Oline Vinter Olesen1,2,3

1DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark, 2Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine & PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark, 3TracInnovations, Ballerup, Denmark

In this work a markerless motion tracker, TCL2, is used to predict image quality in 3D T1 weighted MPRAGE MRI brain scans. An experienced radiologist scored the image quality for 172 scans as being usable or not usable, i.e. if a repeated scan was required. Based on five motion parameters, a classification algorithm was trained and an accuracy for identifying not usable images of 95.9% was obtained with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 96.3%. This work shows the feasibility of the markerless motion tracker for predicting image quality with a high accuracy.

298
16:27
Towards a prospective motion correction for the clinic: increasing the accuracy and robustness of collapsed FatNav
Enrico Avventi1,2, Henric Ryden1, Ola Norbeck1,2, and Stefan Skare1,2

1Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, 2Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

Collapsed FatNav is a navigator for prospective motion correction which samples the signal from the fat around the skull collapsed along three orthogonal directions with consecutive EPI readouts. The six rigid body motion parameters can be obtained by performing a 2D/3D projection-based registration. In this work we have greatly improved collapsed FatNav's accuracy and precision. Additionally, by combining with PROPELLER's retrospective correction, we can obtain image quality typical of images acquired without motion.

299
16:39
A Novel Approach to Prospective Motion Correction Using Multi-Slice-to-Volume Registration
Daniel Christopher Hoinkiss1 and David Andrew Porter1

1MR Physics, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen, Germany

This study introduces a novel 2D-EPI-navigated prospective motion correction technique to correct for in-plane and through-plane motion that establishes a flexible steady-state during the measurement. It utilizes a rigid-body multi-slice-to-volume registration using three parallel and well-separated EPI slices. The technique was evaluated using a well-defined motion protocol with translations up to 13mm and rotations up to 9°, which was executed by a volunteer. Results show a substantial reduction of motion parameters to below ±0.5mm/±0.5° and an increase in overall image quality in comparison to a no-motion scan. The navigator acquisition scheme can be adapted for use with a range of multi-shot 2D sequences to allow EPI navigators to be acquired with limited effect on the overall scan time or the contrast-to-noise ratio.

300
16:51
Active-marker motion detection with real-time field tracking in the laboratory frame
Alexander Aranovitch1, Maximilian Haeberlin1, Simon Gross1, Benjamin Dietrich1, Lars Kasper1, Bertram Wilm1,2, David Otto Brunner1, Thomas Schmid1, and Klaas Pruessmann1

1Institute for Biomedical Engineering, ETH Zurich and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 2Skope Magnetic Resonance Technologies, Zurich, Switzerland

We introduce a technique to track NMR markers without a prior calibration measurement. This significantly improves the ease of implementation of field probe based prospective motion correction (PMC). We propose to use rigidly mounted NMR field probes in the laboratory frame to perform concurrent field measurements, which are used for real-time tracking of head-mounted field probes. The proposed method achieves very good tracking performance and is demonstrated in-vivo with PMC of high-resolution brain scans.

301
17:03
Motion correction in volumetric brain imaging based on DISORDER: Distributed and Incoherent Sample Orders for Reconstruction Disentanglement using Encoding Redundancy
Lucilio Cordero-Grande1, Giulio Ferrazzi1, Rui Pedro AG Teixeira1, Hassan Shahzad2, Anthony N Price1, and Joseph V Hajnal1

1Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Electrical Engineering Department, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

The DISORDER framework for motion tolerant reconstruction in parallel volumetric brain imaging synergistically combines distributed and incoherent sample orders with a joint retrospective motion estimation and reconstruction technique based on encoding redundancy provided by coil arrays. DISORDER is fully data-based, does not make use of external sensors or acquisition of navigators, does not require data rejection, and can be applied to different sampling schemes and imaging modalities. In-vivo application of DISORDER has shown robustness against extreme and continuous motion in low resolution images and moderate and continuous motion in standard and high resolution images as well as slightly improved contrast properties in high resolution motion images without deliberate motion.

302
17:15
Image Reconstruction Algorithm for Motion Insensitive Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF)
Bhairav Bipin Mehta1, Dan Ma1, Simone Coppo1, and Mark Alan Griswold1

1Radiology, Case western reserve university, Cleveland, OH, United States

Motion is one of the biggest challenges in clinical MRI. The recently introduced Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) has been shown to be less sensitive to motion. However, it is still susceptible to patient motion primarily occurring in the early stages of the acquisition. In this study, we propose a novel reconstruction algorithm for MRF, which decrease the motion sensitivity of MRF. The evaluation of the algorithm was performed using simulated head tilt and nodding motion, and with prospectively motion corrupted data from healthy volunteers.

303
17:27
Relating external magnetic field changes to head movement using motion and field cameras
Laura I. Bischoff1, James A. Smith1, Olivier E. Mougin1, Glyn S. Spencer1, Kingkarn Aphiwatthanasumet1, Penny A. Gowland1, and Richard W. Bowtell1

1Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom

The effect of head movement in high-field MRI is assessed by measuring changes in the spatial pattern of magnetic field perturbation, generated outside the head, using a set of 16 NMR probes fixed into a specially constructed coil mount. Information from the field probes was combined with head position measurements provided by an optical tracking system and quantitative relations between field and position changes were characterised. By relating the field probe and optical tracking measurements, acquired in a training-phase, it was possible to predict head movements based solely on measured magnetic field changes made in subsequent recordings.

304
17:39
On the impact of real-time motion and B0 correction during 3D-MRSI measurements in Parkinson’s, Mild Cognitive Impairment and young/elderly controls
Eva Heckova1, Michal Považan1,2, Bernhard Strasser1, Petra Hnilicova3, Ovidiu C Andronesi4, Andre van der Kouwe4, Jozef Ukropec5, Siegfried Trattnig1,2, and Wolfgang Bogner1,2

1High Field MR Centre, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 3Biomedical Center Martin, Division of Neurosciences, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine in Martin, Comenius University in Bratislava, Martin, Slovakia, 4Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 5Institute of Experimental Endocrinology, Biomedical Research Center, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia

Presence of motion during MRSI acquisition and scanner instabilities affect the localization accuracy of the measurement and consequential quality of the data. We determined the extent of inter-acquisition head movement, frequency and B0 shim changes during approximately 20 min MEGA-edited MRSI scan with integrated vNav in 4 different groups of subject, with significantly larger amount of head motion in Parkinsons's patients, Mild Cognitive Impairment and elderly controls comparing to young healthy volunteers. With real-time motion, B0 correction and reacquisition we obtained satisfactory data quality in all groups of subjects, which makes it a valuable tool for spectral quality accurance.

305
17:51
AMoCo, a software package for prospective motion correction
Ali Aghaeifar1,2, Martin Eschelbach1, Jonas Bause1, Axel Thielscher1, and Klaus Scheffler1,3

1Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, Tübingen, Germany, 2IMPRS for Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany, 3Department of Biomedical Magnetic Resonance, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany

Long scan time makes MRI prone to subject motion which can result in image artifacts. Here we introduce a library for advanced motion correction (AMoCo) for Siemens platforms which can be embedded in any sequence and enables connecting to any tracking device. The library is programmed in a modular way that allows user to customize the correction procedure. The library is integrated with EPI, GRE, and FLASH sequences and tested with various tracking devices.

306
18:03
Simultaneous prospective motion correction and feedback field control: T2* weighted imaging at high field
Laetitia Vionnet1, Alexander Aranovitch1, Yolanda Duerst1, Maximilian Haeberlin1, Benjamin Emanuel Dietrich1, Simon Gross1, Lars Kasper1,2, Thomas Schmid1, and Klaas Paul Pruessmann1

1ITET, IBT, UZH & ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland, 2TNU, UZH & ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland

T2* weighted imaging, which is particularly relevant in studying dementia, is prompt to artefacts caused by subject-induced field fluctuation and head motion. Solutions have been proposed to tackle each of these issues separately. In this work we propose to address the two issues concurrently with feedback field control and marker-based prospective motion correction based on gradient-tones. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the combination in the scenario of limb motion.


Oral

Preclinical Tumor Microenvironment Imaging

Room 313BC Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Kristine Glunde & Eugene Kim

307
16:15
Imaging of the Tumor Type-specific Microenvironment in Preclinical Cancer Models of Varying Malignancy
Ellen Ackerstaff1, Natalia Kruchevsky1, Ekaterina Moroz1, H. Carl LeKaye1, Kristen L. Zakian1, SoHyun Han2, HyungJoon Cho2, Radka S. Stoyanova3, Nirilanto Ramamonjisoa1, Inna S. Serganova1, Ronald G. Blasberg1, and Jason A. Koutcher1

1Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan, Korea, Republic of, 3Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States

An abnormal tumor microenvironment characterized by hypoxia, low extracellular pH (pHe), vascular abnormalities, and high tumor lactate has been associated with aggressive, treatment-resistant tumors. Using tumor models of different origin and malignancy, and focusing on prostate cancer, we investigated the relationship of lactate metabolism and vascularity, and, in selected models, localized pHe. We found differences in whole-tumor lactate concentrations between tumor models and successfully mapped lactate concentrations.  Vascular blood flow and permeability varied significantly between tumor models in well-vascularized areas, while being similar across all models in hypoxic areas, emphasizing a need for spatial characterization of the tumor microenvironment.

308
16:27
Brain Tumors Disrupt the Resting-State Connectome
Darian Hadjiabadi1, Leland Pung1, Jiangyang Zhang2, BD Ward3, Woo-Taek Lim1, Meghana Kalavar2, Nitish V Thakor1, Bharat B Biswal4, and Arvind P Pathak1,2,5

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Department of Biophysics, The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, United States, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark, NJ, United States, 5Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has become indispensable for mapping the changes in ‘connectivity’ between brain regions in a range of diseases including brain tumors. However, the complex interplay between abnormal brain tumor vasculature, tumor blood flow, and cancer cell-induced neurovascular uncoupling can confound the interpretation of resting-state connectivity in patients. Therefore, in this preclinical study we quantified brain tumor-induced changes on resting-state connectivity relative to that in healthy brains, followed by histological validation. RsfMRI revealed that brain tumors alter the resting-state connectome, and histology confirmed that this was largely due to cancer cell-induced disruption of the neurovascular unit.

309
16:39
Multiparametric MR for assessment of tissue characteristics of small intestine neuroendocrine tumour evaluated by histological correlations
Mikael Montelius1, Oscar Gustafsson1, Johan Spetz1, Ola Nilsson2, Eva Forssell-Aronsson1, and Maria Ljungberg1

1Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2Department of Pathology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

This study investigates the relations between MR derived, quantitative parameters reflecting perfusion, diffusion and relaxation, and histological indices reflecting apoptosis, proliferation, vascularity and fibrosis. We show that important biological characteristics of tumour tissue can be probed by multiparametric MRI. 

310
16:51
Understanding the relationship between R2* and R1 MRI biomarkers of hypoxia: insights from 786-0 renal cancer xenografts and patients with renal carcinoma
Ross A Little1, Yann Jamin2, Jessica KR Boult2, Josephine H Naish1, Yvonne Watson1, Susan Cheung1, Huiqi Lu1, Damien J McHugh1, Geoff JM Parker1,3, Joely Irlam4, Catherine ML West4, John C Waterton1, Simon P Robinson2, and James PB O'Connor4,5

1Centre for Imaging Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 2Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom, 3Bioxydyn Ltd, Manchester, United Kingdom, 4Institute of Cancer Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5Department of Radiology, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom

Quantification of tumour R2* and oxygen-induced ΔR2* and ΔR1 are being investigated as potential biomarkers of tumour hypoxia, but their relationship is complex and not well understood. Here, we used a validated R1 biomarker (oxygen refractory fraction, termed “Oxy-R”) to segment tumours into hypoxic and non-hypoxic sub-regions. This revealed a clear relationship between hypoxic status and native R2* and hyperoxia-induced ΔR2*. Preclinical findings were replicated in clinical data from patients with renal carcinoma. These data highlight the importance of heterogeneity-based analysis of tumours and provide further validation of Oxy-R as a biomarker of tumour hypoxia.  

311
17:03
Co-registration of multi-parametric MRI and histology to study breast cancer Habitats in a preclinical model.
William Dominguez-Viqueira1, Bruna V Jardim-Perassi1,2, Mikalai Budzevich1, Epifanio Ruiz1, Suning Huang1, Pedro M Enriquez-Navas1, Jan Poleszczuk3, Debora A.P.C. Zuccari2, Robert J Gillies1, and Gary V Martinez1

1Department of Cancer Imaging and Metabolism, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, United States, 2Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil, 3Nalecz Institute of Biocybernetics and Biomedical Engineering, Warsaw, Poland

Different tumor micro-environments or habitats are discernible by MRI. In order study these; a co-registration framework was developed using 3D-printed tumor-molds created from in-vivo MRI images of five mice with implanted breast cancer tumors. The results of automated 3D-alignment of MRI images and histology slices are promising and encourage further experiments using the presented workflow. Tumor habitats clustering from multi-parametric MRI images showed encouraging results with similarities to the hypoxic pattern observed by immunohistochemistry. This work will help understanding MRI habitats to monitor cancer evolution as a means to aid treatment decisions in the future.

312
17:15
Fluorine-19 NMR cytometry to quantify human transgenic CAR T cell biodistribution in murine studies of glioblastoma immunotherapy
Fanny Chapelin1, Hideho Okada2, and Eric T Ahrens3

1Bioengineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States, 2Neurological surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Radiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States

Technologies to quantify the biodistribution of emerging immunotherapeutic cell therapies against cancer can accelerate the timeline to evaluate potential candidates. In this study, we describe the use of in ‘NMR cytometry’ to assay immunotherapeutic cell biodistribution in a mouse model of sub-cutaneous glioblastoma (U87) treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells. We examine CAR T cell 19F labeling efficiency, phenotype and biodistribution with 19F NMR at day 2 and 7 post infusion to elucidate T-cell tumor homing, survival, and tissue distribution.

313
17:27
Correlated quantitative assessment of glioblastoma-angiogenesis by T2-mapping and in vivo multiphoton microscopy
Artur Hahn1, Ke Zhang2, Gergely Solecki3,4, Michael O. Breckwoldt1,5, Lukas R. Buschle1,6, Sabine Heiland1, Christian H. Ziener1,6, Martin Bendszus1, Frank Winkler3,7, and Felix T. Kurz1

1Neuroradiology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 2German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 3Neurology Clinic and National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 4Clinical Cooperation Unit Neurooncology, German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg, Germany, 5Clinical Cooperation Unit Neuroimmunology and Brain Tumor Immunology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 6E010 Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 7Neurooncology (G370), German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany

Microvasculatures in healthy cortical tissue, in untreated and in antiangiogenically treated glioblastoma multiforme are compared in a mouse model. From T2-maps, the information entropy is determined for each tissue type. In addition, capillaries are directly imaged through in vivo multiphoton microscopy to obtain sets of microvascular parameters. The T2-entropy is lowest in healthy tissue and significantly higher in glioblastoma, with a moderate decrease in treated tumors. Several vascular characteristics correlate with the T2-entropy. The correlations provide insight into the influence of microvasculature on MR-dephasing.

314
17:39
In vivo tracking of iron oxide labeled T-cells infiltrating preclinical tumor models
Johannes Riegler1, Vincent Javinal2, Maj Hedehus1, Mike Reichelt3, Meredith Sagolla3, Jill Schartner2, Franklin Peal4, and Richard A.D. Carano1

1Biomedical Imaging, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, United States, 2In vivo Pharmacology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, United States, 3Center for Advanced Light Microscopy, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, United States, 4Pathology, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA, United States

The discovery of immune checkpoint pathways such as CTLA4 and PD1/PDL1, which control T-cell activation and activity, has fuelled interest in their modulation to achieve sustained anti-tumor immunity. This requires sufficient T-cell infiltration and activity in tumors. However, these processes are incompletely understood, in part due to the terminal nature of current analysis techniques. We therefore optimized labeling of activated T-cells with iron oxide nanoparticles, transferred labeled T-cells into tumor bearing hosts and performed serial MRI. Although, hypointense spots could be detected in the tumor rim following T-cell transfer, quantification is complicated by vascular abnormality induced susceptibility changes.   

315
17:51
Magnetisation Transfer MRI Facilitates Non-Invasive Identification of Fibrosis in Chemically-Induced Rat Mammary Carcinomas Imaged on a 1.5T Clinical Platform
Jessica KR Boult1, Neil P Jerome1, Matthew R Orton1, James d'Arcy1, Martin O Leach1, Dow-Mu Koh1,2, David J Collins1, and Simon P Robinson1

1CRUK Cancer Imaging Centre, Division of Radiotherapy and Imaging, The Institute of Cancer Research, London, United Kingdom, 2Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom

Intratumoural fibrosis is associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Non-invasive detection of such fibrosis may contribute to the provision of personalised treatment regimens. Multi-parametric MRI, using a clinical MRI scanner and incorporating endogenous contrast mechanisms, was performed on MNU-induced rat mammary carcinomas to identify parameters sensitive to the detection and quantification of fibrosis. Magnetisation transfer MRI derived parameters correlated with percentage picrosirius red staining, which detects collagen I/III, major components of fibrosis, in this heterogeneous tumour cohort. These results strongly support the inclusion of magnetisation transfer in clinical MR breast imaging protocols.

316
18:03
MRI Tracking and Quantitative Analyzing Natural Killer Cell Infusion for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment in a Rodent Model
Zhanliang Su1,2, Xifu wang2,3, Linfeng Zheng2,3, Tianchu Lyu2, Matteo Figini2, Guohong Han4, Daniel Procissi2, Lei Qin5, Bin Zhang5, Jeremy Shi Zhang2, Wei Xing6, Yihe Yang2, Kejiang Wang1, Shixin Wang1, Vahid Yaghmai2,7, Andrew Christian Larson2,7, and Zhuoli Zhang2,7

1Department of Radiology, Tianjin Xiqing Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 4Department of Liver Disease and Digestive Interventional Radiology, Xijing Hospital, Xi’an, United States, 5Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 6Department of Radiology, Affiliated Third Hospital of Suzhou University, Changzhou, People's Republic of China, 7Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center

This paper presents the first evidence that transcatheter IHA NK cell local delivery for HCC adoptive transfer immunotherapy in a rat model.

We use a clinically feasible method by combining FDA-approved drugs heparin, protamine and ferumoxytol to compound HPF nanocomplexes for magnetic NK cell labeling so that their biodistribution can be visualized and quantized in vivo with MRI.

We demonstrated: a) transcatheter IHA NK cell infusion improved their homing efficacy to target tumors; b) quantitative analysis result of serial MRI monitoring of NK cell migrate to target tumors could serve as a key early biomarker for predicting longitudinal response.



Oral

Pancreatobiliary

Room 320 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: Sooah Kim & Bachir Taouli

317
16:15
Physiologically-constrained Multiagent DCE-MRI for Pancreatic Cancer Imaging
Matthias C Schabel1,2, Erin Gilbert3, Alexander Guimaraes4, and Cory Wyatt1

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 2Utah Center for Advanced Imaging Research, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 3Surgery, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States, 4Radiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States

Physiologically-constrained multiagent pharmacokinetic modeling in pancreas using sequential injections of gadoteridol and ferumoxytol reveals differences between healthy pancreas in high-risk patients and both IPMN and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

318
16:27
Improved Characterization of Contrast Uptake in Human Pancreatic Cancer
Douglas Arthur Charles Kelley1, Benjamin Yeh2, Michael Ohliger2, Eric Collisson2, and Zhen Wang2

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, GE Healthcare and UCSF, Larkspur, CA, United States, 2Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, UCSF

We present an improved method for quantifying contrast agent uptake in highly desmoplastic pancreatic tumors in human patients. The new method separates the T1 and T2* effects of the Gadolinium-based contrast agent; uses fast acquisition and non-rigid registration to minimize motion effects; and two point Dixon imaging to separate the water component on a pixel by pixel basis.  

319
16:39
Prognostic value of hepatobiliary phase MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis – Assessment of clinical outcome and evaluation of surrogate parameters
Jennifer Schulze1, Henrike Lenzen2, Jan Hinrichs1, Michael Manns2, Frank Wacker1, and Kristina Imeen Ringe1

1Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany

In this prospective study we assessed the prognostic value of hepatobiliary phase (HBP) MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Relative enhancement (RE) in the HBP after gadoxetate disodium injection correlated significantly with clinical scores (MELD, Mayo Risk) established to estimate survival in patients with chronic liver disease and PSC. More importantly, a significant correlation with previously suggested surrogate parameters for clinical outcome as well as with solid clinical endpoints (development of tumor, liver transplantation, death) at follow-up could be observed. These promising results attest HBP MRI in patients with PSC a potential prognostic role and warrant further long-term evaluation.

320
16:51
Early screening of pancreatic iron overload in thalassemia major with MRI T2*
Jingwen Huang1, Qihua Yang1, Jinglian Zhong1, Xiaodong Chen2, Ziliang Cheng1, Taihui Yu1, Yun Su1, and Biling Liang1

1Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, 2Guangdong Medical College, People's Republic of China

Diabetes Mellitus is a serious complication of thalassemia major. Intensive chelation therapy in the early stage may avoid diabetes. So we aimed to determine the optimal timing age of pancreatic iron screening with MRI T2* technique. Early pancreatic hemosiderin was found in thalassemia major, with the youngest one of 5.3 years old. Early dysfunction of pancreatic exocrine and endocrine glands was found in thalassemia major, with the youngest one of 5.5 years old. Therefore, we suggest age of 5 to 6 years old as the optimal initial age for pancreatic T2* scanning.

321
17:03
The Development And Prognostication Of Magnetic Resonance Elastography Thresholds In Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
Kartik Jhaveri1, Hooman Hosseini-Nik, Nima Sadoughi, Harry Janssen, Jordan Feld, Sandra Fischer, Ravi Menezes, and Angela Cheung

1UHN, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, progressive, cholestatic liver disease which causes bile duct structuring and eventually causes liver cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation. Due to heterogeneity of liver fibrosis distribution and lack of optimal method to assess disease severity accurate disease stratification is challenging. Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) has shown very good results for quantification of hepatic fibrosis. MRE may provide a unique means of stratification and prognostication in PSC with its ability to assess a larger volume of hepatic tissue compared to biopsy or transient elastography(VCTE) and this what we explored in this prospective study.

322
17:15
Diffusion imaging detects differences in disease trajectory between two mouse models of pancreatic cancer
Palamadai Nilakantan Venkatasubramanian1, Matthew Smith2, Jesse Yan2, Brian Hallis2, Emman Mascarinas3, Andrew Diaz3, Brian DeCant3, Ron McKinney3, Paul J Grippo3, and Alice M Wyrwicz1

1Radiology, NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 2NorthShore University HealthSystem, Evanston, IL, United States, 3Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago

Multiparametric MR microimaging deteced differences in pancreatic microstructure between two mouse models of pancreatic cancer, EL-KRASG12D (EK) and p48-Cre/LSL-Kras (KC) mice, that overexpress mutant KRas via different mechanisms. MR signatures characteristic of acinar-ductal metaplasia, fibrosis, cystic neoplasms and precancerous lesions revealed different trajectories of disease development between the two genetically engineered mice.

323
17:27
Insulinoma localization with cross-sectional imaging: head-to-head comparison of contrast-enhanced CT, volume perfusion CT and multi-parametric MR
Liang Zhu1, Zhao-yong Sun1, Hua-dan Xue1, Tian-yi Qian2, and Zheng-yu Jin1

1Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2MR collaborations NE Asia, Siemens Healthcare, Beijing, People's Republic of China

This study aims to compare insulinoma localization with CECT, VPCT and multi-parametric MR (mp-MR) at 3T in the same patients, in a prospective manner. CECT, VPCT and mp-MR were performed in patients with suspected insulinomas. The presence/absence of tumor within the pancreatic head, neck, body and tail region was evaluated with 5-scale confidence levels. ROC analysis was performed. Surgical pathology served as reference standard. We found that VPCT and mp-MR showed improved diagnostic performance for insulinoma localization, compared to CECT. Both modalities could serve as problem-solving tools in difficult cases. mp-MR has the potential to replace CECT as the first-line examination.

324
17:39
3D Pancreatic Perfusion MRI using Through-Time Spiral GRAPPA Acceleration
Yong Chen1, Shivani Pahwa1, Mark Griswold1, Nicole Seiberlich2, and Vikas Gulani1

1Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University

In this study, free-breathing 3D pancreatic perfusion quantification was achieved using a rapid non-Cartesian parallel imaging technique. The method was applied to 11 asymptomatic subjects and the values are in good agreement with literature values. Significant differences in both Ktrans and Kep were noticed between different locations in the pancreas, but no significant difference was found in the volume of distribution (Ve).

325
17:51
Geometric distortion due to B0 inhomogeneity in liver MR imaging under inhalation and exhalation breath-hold
Oi Lei Wong1, Jing Yuan1, Yihang Zhou1, Siu Ki Yu1, and Kin Yin Cheung1

1Medical Physics and Research Department, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hosptial, Hong Kong, Hong Kong

Geometric accuracy is critical for radiotherapy and is one major concern in the application of MRI in radiotherapy. Since the geometric distortion and B0 inhomogeneity are related, we aim to evaluate the geometric distortion due to ΔB0 variation at inhalation and exhalation breath-hold. Based on our results, larger geometric distortion was noted during inhalation than exhalation.

326
18:03
Simultaneous Iron and Fat Quantification Using an Auto Regressive Moving Average Model at 1.5T and 3T
Aaryani Tipirneni-Sajja1, Axel J. Krafft2, Brian Taylor3, Ralf B. Loeffler1, Ruitian Song1, Nathan Artz1, Jane S. Hankins4, and Claudia M. Hillenbrand1

1Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States, 2Radiology – Medical Physics, Medical Center – University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany, 3Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, TX, United States, 4Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, United States

A major confounder of hepatic iron assessment by R2*-MRI is fat (e.g. steatosis) which introduces signal modulations. In this study, we systematically evaluate two signal modeling techniques, an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model and the method provided by the ISMRM Fat-Water Toolbox for simultaneous iron and fat quantification in phantoms and in vivo. Preliminary data suggest that ARMA and Toolbox can be used for iron and fat quantification at 1.5T and 3T. In severe iron-overload cases, both, ARMA and the Toolbox might produce inaccurate FF results, however in vivo ARMA seemed to provide a more robust liver R2* quantification. 


Combined Educational & Scientific Session

Metabolomics & Metabolic Fluxes

Organizers: Jürgen K. Hennig, Ph.D., Roland Kreis, Ph.D. & Peter van Zijl, Ph.D.

Room 314 Monday 16:15 - 18:15 Moderators: John Griffiths & Arend Heerschap

16:15
Metabolomic, tissue
Peter Vermathen1

1Department of Clinical Research, Inselspital, University of Bern, Switzerland

Metabolomics denotes the comprehensive and simultaneous systematic profiling of metabolite levels through the study of biofluids and tissues. As such metabolomics is now considered an integral part of systems biology . Besides Mass Spectrometry, NMR Spectroscopy is the main analytical technique for simultaneous assessment of metabolites in biological fluids and tissues.

16:45
13C Metabolic Fluxes, not Hyperpolarized
Douglas L. Rothman1

1Yale University

An introduction to the use of  13C and 1H-13C MRS to measure metabolic fluxes in pre clinical models and clinical research studies will be presented.  The presentation will have the following sections: 1. introduction to 13C MRS 2. use of 13C MRS to measure metabolite labeling 3. calculations of metabolic fluxes from metabolite labeling curves 4. applications to study metabolism in health and disease 5. application to study therapy.  The main goals are to provide the audience with basic knowledge of how to perform and interpret 13C MRS measurements of metabolic fluxes and their potential for use in clinical research.


327
17:15
NMR-based metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from patient-matched colorectal cancers, adjacent non-cancerous tissues and fecal extracts
Yan Lin1, Changchun Ma2, Zhening Wang1, Jiahao Liang1, Yao Huang1, and Renhua Wu1

1Radiology department, Second Affiliated Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou City, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Hospital, Shantou University Medical College, Guangdong Province, China, People's Republic of China

This study aimed to profile paralleled metabolites of CRC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues alongside pre- and post-operative stools from the same patients, to investigate how fecal metabolomic phenotypes correlate with the tumor tissue especially in a molecular pathology context. Our patient-matched cohort revealed a few overlapping discriminatory metabolites between the CRC and stool metabolomes, indicating the networks for metabolic pathway aberrations across both matrices. The altered metabolites potentially involved in the disruption of normal bacterial ecology, malabsorption of nutrients, increased glycolysis, TCA cycle and glutaminolysis, implying a Warburg effect for cell energy production required for rapid proliferation

328
17:27
Hyperpolarized Micro-NMR for Metabolic Flux Analysis in Cancer Stem Cells and Rapid Assessment of Therapeutic Response
Sangmoo Jeong1, Roozbeh Eskandari1, Sun Mi Park2, Ralph Weissleder3,4, Michael G. Kharas2,5, Hakho Lee3,4, and Kayvan R. Keshari1,5

1Department of Radiology/Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 2Center for Cell Engineering/Molecular Pharmacology Program, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, United States, 3Center for Systems Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States, 4Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States, 5Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, United States

Aberrant metabolic features of cancer cells are closely related to tumorigenesis and therapeutic response. Here, we report a sensitive magnetic resonance sensing platform, capable of analyzing metabolic fluxes in mass-limited samples. Termed hyperpolarized micromagnetic resonance spectrometer (HMRS), this platform achieved to characterize the metabolic flux in cancer stem cells in real-time and assess therapeutic responses much earlier than any changes in cell viability. This will become a versatile platform for rapid and sensitive exploration of metabolic dynamics in cancer.

329
17:39
IDH1 mutation down-regulates choline and ethanolamine metabolism in gliomas
Pavithra Viswanath1, Jose Luis Izquierdo-Garcia1, Joanna J Phillips2, Russell O Pieper2, and Sabrina M Ronen1

1Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States

Aberrant choline and ethanolamine metabolism with elevated phosphocholine (PC) and phosphoethanolamine (PE) levels has emerged as a hallmark of cancer. Interestingly, PC and PE levels are reduced in gliomas with the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation relative to wild-type tumors. Here, we investigated the mechanism behind the reduction in PC and PE levels in genetically-engineered cells and tumor xenografts. Our results indicate that mutant IDH1 gliomas down-regulate the activities of choline kinase and ethanolamine kinase, the enzymes involved in PC and PE synthesis. Reduced PC and PE levels constitute unique metabolic biomarkers and potential therapeutic opportunities in mutant IDH1 gliomas.

330
17:51
13C NMR metabolic flux analysis of mantle cell lymphoma cells to Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors
Seung-Cheol Lee1, Alex Shestov1, Stephen Pickup1, Jeff Roman1, Mariusz Wasik2, and Jerry Glickson1

1Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States

We analyzed various metabolic fluxes of mantle cell lymphoma cells upon Bruton tyrosine kinase signaling inhibitors using 13C NMR and a bonded cumomer modeling method and identified 1H NMR biomarkers translatable to clinic.

331
18:03
Identification of potential biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease by 1H NMR spectroscopy
Senthil Kumaran1, Sadhana Kumari1, Vinay Goyal2, SN Dwivedi3, Achal Srivastava2, and Naranamangalam R Jagannathan1

1Department of NMR and MRI Facility, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 2Department of Neurology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India, 3Department of Biostatistics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India

We studied the metabolic profile of urine samples of patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and healthy controls (HC) using 700 MHz NMR spectrometer (Varian, M/s Agilent Technologies, USA). The data were processed using Vnmrj (version:2.3A) and binning data estimated using MestReNova software (version :10.0,Mestrelab Research, Spain). PLS-DA multivariate analysis was carried out using MetaboAnalyst (ver.3.0), a web-based metabolomics data processing tool to evaluate significance of metabolites in PD with respect to HC. We observed elevated levels of lactate, tryptophan, glycine and reduced levels of citrate, leucine, isoleucine (t-test, p<0.05), suggestive of several metabolic abnormalities, as mitochondrial dysfunction and reduced bioenergetics efficiency in PD patients.


Other

Special Session: Manuscript Reviewing for JMRI

Room 314 Monday 18:30 - 19:15 Moderators: Mark Schweitzer (no CME credit)



Tuesday, 25 April 2017

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Sunrise Session

Cardiovascular MR: "More is Better": Tissue Characterization

Organizers: Daniel K. Sodickson, M.D., Ph.D., Bernd J. Wintersperger, M.D. & Sonia Nielles-Vallespin, Ph.D.

Room 310 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Pedro Ferreira & Christian Stoeck

7:00
MR Relaxometry in the Heart
Matthew Robson

7:25
MR Fingerprinting
Nicole Seiberlich

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

UTE & ZTE Imaging Techniques & Applications

Organizers: Jenny T. Bencardino, M.D., Eric Y. Chang, M.D., Christine Chung, M.D. & Philip Robinson, M.D.

Room 312 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Eric Chang & Florian Wiesinger

7:00
UTE & ZTE Imaging Techniques
Florian Wiesinger

7:25
Clinical Applications of UTE/ZTE
Richard Hodgson

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Bleeding Edge of Brain Techniques: Beyond Conventional MRI

Organizers: Fernando E. Boada, Ph.D. & Christopher P. Hess, M.D., Ph.D.

Room 311 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Fernando Boada & Christopher Hess

7:00
Sodium MRI in the Clinic: What You Can Learn from a 10 Min Scan
Armin Nagel

7:25
Conventional MRI: What We are Missing
Keith Thulborn

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Magnetic Resonance Elastography: Brain & Breast

Organizers: Guoying Liu, Ph.D. & Joshua D. Trzasko, Ph.D.

Room 313A Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Curtis Johnson & Joshua Trzasko

7:00
Brain
Lynne Bilston

7:25
MR-Elastography of the Breast
Ralph Sinkus

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Low Field MR: Systems & Applications

Organizers: Jie Luo, Ph.D., Thomas W. Okell, Ph.D., Signe Johanna Vannesjö, Ph.D., Puneet Bagga, Ph.D., Mary P. McDougall, Ph.D.

Room 313BC Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Fraser Robb & Jason Stockmann

7:00
Low Field MR - System Design & Imaging Aspects
Clarissa Cooley

7:25
Magnetic Particle Imaging
Emine Saritas

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

It Doesn’t Have to Be That Way: Non-Traditional Acquisition

Organizers: Michael S. Hansen, Ph.D. & Joshua D. Trzasko, Ph.D.

Room 315 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Michael Hansen & Sebastian Kozerke

7:00
RF
David Brunner

7:25
Data
Dong Liang

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

fMRI: Best Practices & Cautionary Tales: Analysis & Resting-State Indices

Organizers: Hanzhang Lu, Ph.D. & Karla Miller, Ph.D.

Room 316A Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Molly Bright & Hanzhang Lu

7:00
Analysis Issues
James Pekar

7:25
Resting-State fMRI: Which Index is Really Useful?
Shella Keilholz

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Assessing Response to Immunotherapy

Organizers: Linda Moy, M.D. & Valeria Panebianco, M.D.

Room 314 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Carolyn Mountford & Linda Moy

7:00
Brain Gliomas: Imaging Response to Immunotherapy
Alberto Bizzi

7:25
Investigation & Evaluation of Immunotherapies with Molecular Imaging
Kimberly Brewer

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Sunrise Session

Addressing Clinical Challenges in the Body with MRI

Organizers: Kathryn Fowler, M.D., Kartik Jhaveri, M.D., F.R.C.P.C., Lorenzo Mannelli, M.D., Ph.D. & Edwin J.R. van Beek, M.D., Ph.D., M.Ed., FRCR

Room 320 Tuesday 7:00 - 7:50 Moderators: Utaroh Motosugi & Mi-Suk Park

7:00
Cholangiopathies
Jeong-Min Lee

7:25
Pancreas
Richard (Kinh Gian) Do

7:50
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Traditional Poster: fMRI

Exhibition Hall 1623-1656 Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)

Electronic Poster: Acquisition, Reconstruction & Analysis

Exhibition Hall Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15 (no CME credit)

Study Groups

MR of Cancer Study Group

Room 323ABC Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)


Study Groups

Diffusion Study Group

Room 317AB Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 (no CME credit)


Educational Course

Being Vendor Agnostic

Organizers: Michael S. Hansen, Ph.D. & Joshua D. Trzasko, Ph.D.

Room 314 Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Michael Hansen & Joshua Trzasko

8:15
Sequences
Maxim Zaitsev

On the example of PulSeq, an open-source platform independent sequence programming framework, we consider advantages of the hardware-abstraction in pulse sequence programming as well as the associated challenges.

8:45
Reconstruction & Raw Data
Nicholas Zwart

This session will highlight some of the open source software resources available to the MR community.  There will also be some tips on what steps an MR developer can take to keep their code open and dogma free.

9:15
Image Analysis
Anastasia Yendiki1

1Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital

Combining MRI data collected at multiple sites allows researchers to achieve the large sample sizes required to detect subtle disease effects, although at the expense of increased inhomogeneity in the data due to differences in acquisition hardware and software. This presentation will address what is known about the reproducibility of biomarkers derived from structural, functional, and diffusion MRI data across scanners from different vendors, as well as image analysis strategies that have been proposed to mitigate the effects of scanner-related differences.

9:45
Panel Discussion

10:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Educational Course

MR Physics & Techniques for Clinicians

Organizers: Marcus T. Alley, Ph.D. & Bernd Jung, Ph.D.

Room 316BC Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Michael Ith & Oliver Wieben

8:15
Spin Echo Imaging
Valentina Taviani1

1MR Applications & Workflow, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, United States

The spin echo pulse sequence is one of the most important pulse sequences in MRI. Fast spin echo imaging is routinely used due to its robustness to susceptibility variations and local field inhomogeneities, as well as for its ability to produce excellent T1, T2 and PD images. The aim of this lecture is to describe the basic physical principles governing spin echo imaging and to illustrate the effect of key imaging parameters, such as TE, TR and ETL (echo train length) on image contrast.

9:15
Gradient Echo Imaging
Armin M. Nagel1

1Institute of Radiology, University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques can usually be classified into spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) pulse sequences. In this presentation, the basic physical principles of GRE imaging, as well as different mechanisms to generate image contrast will be explained. Differences between SE and GRE MRI will be discussed. Additionally, the influence of different pulse sequence parameters (e.g. echo time, repetition time, flip angle; as well as spoiling techniques and preparation pulses) on the image contrast will be covered. Clinical applications of GRE imaging techniques will be shown exemplarily.

10:15
Adjournment & Meet the Teachers


Power Pitch

Pitch: Best of Cardiovascular MR: Hemodynamics & Atherosclerosis

Power Pitch Theater A - Exhibition Hall Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15 Moderators: Alex Barker & Michael Hope (no CME credit)

332
8:15
Utilizing Quantitative Measurements of Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage can Improve on Presence Alone in Classifying Patients with and without Acute Cerebral Infarcts
Li Dong1, Zhaoqi Zhang1, Wei Yu1, Sheng Wang2, Qiang Shen1, and Chun Yuan3

1Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Vascular disease, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States

333
8:15
Whole-Brain Vessel Wall MR Imaging Using Inversion-Recovery Prepared SPACE: Reproducibility and Accuracy of Intracranial Artery Morphology
Na Zhang1,2, Fan Zhang1, Zixin Deng1, Qi Yang1, Xiaoming Bi3, Debiao Li1, Xin Liu2, and Zhaoyang Fan1

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen, People's Republic of China, 3Siemens Healthcare

334
8:15
A Preliminary Report on Time-Resolved Coronary Vessel Wall MRI in Heart Transplant Recipients
Giulia Ginami1,2, Jerome Yerly1,3, Jessica AM Bastiaansen1, Ruud B van Heeswijk1, Nathalie Lauriers4, Juan F Iglesias5, Sophie Degrauwe5, Andrea Zuffi5, Roger Hullin5, and Matthias Stuber1,3

1Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne (UNIL), Lausanne, Switzerland, 2Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Centre for Biomedical Imaging (CIBM), Lausanne, Switzerland, 4Department of Radiology, University Hospital (CHUV) of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland, 5Service de Cardiologie, University Hospital (CHUV) of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

335
8:15
Non-Gadolinium-Contrast Relaxation-Enhanced MR Angiography in Children with an Inversion Recovery and T2-Prepared 3D mDIXON Gradient-Echo Technique: Preliminary Experience
Amber L. Pokorney1, Jonathan M. Chia2, Dianna ME Bardo1, Mittun Patel1, Smita S. Bailey1, Scott Jorgensen1, Deepa Biyyam1, Scott Willard1, Jeffrey H. Miller1, Houchun Harry Hu1, and Masami Yoneyama3

1Radiology, Phoenix Children's Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, United States, 2Philips HealthTech, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Philips Electronics, Tokyo, Japan

336
8:15
Ultra-High Spatiotemporal Resolution 4D Flow for Valve and Coronary Arterial Delineation
Shreyas S. Vasanawala1, Furhawn Shah1, Marcus T. Alley1, and Joseph Y. Cheng1

1Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

337
8:15
Noninvasive Functional Evaluation of Coronary Stenosis Using MR Instantaneous wave-Free Ratio (MR-iFR): Pilot patient study using invasive fractional flow reserve as a reference
Zixin Deng1,2, Sang-Eun Lee3, Zhaoyang Fan1, Christopher Nguyen1, Yibin Xie1, Jianing Pang1, Xiaoming Bi4, Qi Yang1, Byoung-Wook Choi5, Jung-Sun Kim3, Daniel Berman1, Hyuk-Jae Chang3, and Debiao Li1

1Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Cardiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital, 4Siemens Healthcare R&D, 5Radiology, Severance Cardiovascular Hospital

338
8:15
Analysis of 4D flow hemodynamics parameters in BAV patients using a finite element method
Julio Sotelo1,2, Lydia Dux-Santoy3, Andrea Guala3, Jose Rodríguez-Palomares3, Arturo Evangelista 3, Daniel Hurtado4, and Sergio Uribe5

1Biomedical Imaging Center, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 3Department of Cardiology, Hospital Universitari Vall d´Hebron. Vall d´Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR). Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona., Barcelona, Spain, 4Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile, 5Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile

339
8:15
Phase-Contrast MRI with Hybrid One- and Two-sided Flow-Encoding and Velocity SPectrum SepAration (HOTSPA)
Da Wang1,2, Jiaxin Shao1, Daniel B. Ennis1,2,3, and Peng Hu1,2

1Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Biomedical Physics Interdepartmental Graduate Program, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States

340
8:15
Association between Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque Calcification and Intraplaque Hemorrhage: A High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Shuo Chen1, Ruolan Lin2, Gaifen Liu3, Rui Li1, Yunjing Xue2, and Xihai Zhao1

1Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology, Fujian Union Hospital, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, People's Republic of China

341
8:15
Association between Age of Intraplaque Hemorrhage and Fibrous Cap Rupture in Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: A High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study
Yuanyuan Cui1, Xihai Zhao2, Huiyu Qiao2, Dongxiang Xu3, Mingming Lu1, Xiaoyi Chen2,4, Lu Ma1, and Jianming Cai1

1Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of People’s Liberation Army (301 hospital), Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Washington, Seattle, United States, 4Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China

342
8:15
Compressed Sensing based Simultaneous Black- and Gray-blood Carotid Vessel Wall MR Imaging
Bo Li1,2, Hao Li3, Guofu Huang1, Xia Qian1, Wei Wang1, and Li Dong4

1Center Laboratory, The First Hospital of Nanchang City, Nanchang, People's Republic of China, 2Department of Radiology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Radiology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 4Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Beijing, People's Republic of China

343
8:15
Comparison of acceleration algorithms in whole-heart 4D flow MRI for aortic and mitral valve flow assessment
Jos Westenberg1, Pankaj Garg2, Pieter van den Boogaard1, and Sven Plein2

1Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands, 2University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom

344
8:15
Golden Step, Golden Angle, Spiral-Cartesian Imaging for Flexible Gated Three-dimensional Angiography
Grzegorz Tomasz Kowalik1, Jennifer Anne Steeden1, David Atkinson2, Kristian Mortensen3, and Vivek Muthurangu1,3

1Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for Medical Imaging, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, United Kingdom, 3Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, United Kingdom

345
8:15
Distribution of Intraluminal Thrombus Composition in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms by Diameter: a High Resolution MRI study
Chengcheng Zhu1, Bing Tian2, Joseph Leach1, Qi Liu2, Jianping Lu2, David Saloner1, and Michael D Hope1

1Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

346
8:15
Evaluation of Portal Vein System in patients after liver transplantation by Unenhanced MR Angiography Using Spatial Labeling with Multiple Inversion Pulses Sequence and by CT portography
hao tang1, daoyu hu, xiaoyan meng, zi wang, zhen li, and yanchun wang

1Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China


Power Pitch

Pitch: Brain Physiology: Flow, Oxygen, Metabolism

Power Pitch Theater B - Exhibition Hall Tuesday 8:15 - 9:15 Moderators: Molly Bright & Hanzhang Lu (no CME credit)

347
8:15
Long-term Cerebrovascular Dysfunction Following Repeated Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
Conner Adams1,2, Margaret Koletar1, Tina L. Beckett1, Lindsay Cahill3, Lydiane Hirschler4,5,6, Jan M. Warnking4,6, Emmanuel L. Barbier4,6, JoAnne McLaurin1,7, John G. Sled2,3, and Bojana Stefanovic1,2

1Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 3Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital For Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada, 4Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Université Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, France, 5Bruker Biospin MRI, Ettlingen, Germany, 6Inserm, U1216, Grenoble, France, 7Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada

348
8:15
Comparative Study of 3D Arterial Spin Labeling and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma perfusion imaging
Bohan Xiao1, Zhaoxiang Ye1, Peiguo Wang1, Ying Liu1, Yingyu Zhao1, and Dandan Zheng2

1Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Department of Radiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute & Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, People's Republic of China

349
8:15
Non-contrast vascular compliance mapping using time-resolved VASO CBV imaging
Yang Li1,2, Deng Mao1,2, Jay J. Pillai1, and Hanzhang Lu1

1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States

350
8:15
Propagation Patterns of Cardiac-driven and Respiratory-driven Cerebrospinal Fluid Velocity Waves Characterized by Correlation Mapping in Conjunction with Asynchronous 2-Dimensional Phase Contrast Technique
Satoshi Yatsushiro1, Saeko Sunohara2, Mitsunori Matsumae3, and Kagayaki Kuroda1,2

1Graduate School of Science and Technology, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan, 2Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa, Japan, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa, Japan

351
8:15
Regionally differentiated cerebral blood flow increases during infancy measured with pCASL MRI
Qinlin Yu1,2,3,4, Huiying Kang1,5, Minhui Ouyang1,2, Yun Peng5, Fang Fang3,4, and Hao Huang1,2

1Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 2Department of Radiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, United States, 3School of Psychological and Cognitive Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 4Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Science, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 5Department of Radiology, Beijing Children’s Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China

352
8:15
Cerebral blood flow as a marker for cortical parcellation
Roy Haast1, Dimo Ivanov1, Elia Formisano1, and Kâmil Uludağ1

1Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Maastricht University, Maastricht, Netherlands

353
8:15
Changes in cerebral blood flow and default mode network connectivity following mTBI observed with pulsed arterial spin labeling
Natalie M. Wiseman1, Armin Iraji2, E. Mark Haacke2,3, and Zhifeng Kou2,3

1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, United States

354
8:15
A Novel Approach to Measuring Cerebral Oxygen Extraction Fraction and Vascular Reserve Using MRI
Charles Cantrell1, Yong Jeong2, Kevin Midlash3, Parmede Vakil2, Sameer Ansari2, and Timothy J Carroll3

1Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Northwestern University, 3University of Chicago

355
8:15
Measurements of Oxygen Delivery and Consumption  Using Hematocrit Derived from Blood T1 Quantification
Feng Xu1,2,3, Wenbo Li1,2, Peiying Liu1,2, Hanzhang Lu1,2, John J. Strouse4, James J Pekar1,2, Peter C.M. van Zijl1,2, and Qin Qin1,2

1F.M. Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiology Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Developing Brain Research Laboratory, Children's National Medical Center, Washington DC, DC, United States, 4Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, United States

356
8:15
Simultaneous cerebral blood flow and bold oxygen level dependent signal assessments using multi-band multi-echo pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (M2-PCASL)
Shiyang Chen1, Junjie Wu2, Kyle Pate2, Xiaodong Zhong2,3, Bruce Crosson2,4, and Deqiang Qiu2

1Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States, 3MR R&D Collaborations, Siemens Healthcare, Atlanta, GA, United States, 4Department of Neurology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, United States

357
8:15
Measuring Blood Oxygenation and Hematocrit with a Combined T2 and T1 Approach: Initial Experience in Humans
Thomas Christen1, Jia Guo1, Wendy Wei Ni1, Michael Moseley1, and Greg Zaharchuk1

1Radiology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, United States

358
8:15
Whole-Brain Arteriography and Venography Using an Improved Velocity-Selective Saturation (VSS) Pulse Trains
Wenbo Li1,2, Feng Xu 1,2,3, Jing Liu1,4, Michael Schär1, Taehoon Shin5, Peter van Zijl1,2, Ye Qiao1, Bruce Wasserman1, and Qin Qin1,2

1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States, 3Developing Brain Research Lab, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, United States, 4Department of Radiology, People’s Hospital, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD, United States

359
8:15
Simultaneous acquisition of oxygen extraction fraction and cerebral blood flow during brain activation
Yayan Yin1, Yaoyu Zhang1, Yang Fan2, Bing Wu2, and Jia-Hong Gao1

1Center for MRI Research, Peking University, Beijing, People's Republic of China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Beijing, People's Republic of China

360
8:15
A Method for Quantitative Cerebrovascular Reserve
Yong Ik Jeong1, Charles G Cantrell1, Kevin Midlash2, Renee Qian, Parmede Vakil3, Sameer A Ansari3, Gregory Christoforidis2, and Timothy J Carroll2

1Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, United States, 2University of Chicago, 3Northwestern University

361
8:15
Robust Visualization of MCA Main Trunk by Improved Acceleration-Selective Arterial Spin Labeling (iAccASL) for Intracranial MR Angiography
Yuta Akamine1, Makoto Obara1, Osamu Togao2, Shuhei Shibukawa3, Masami Yoneyama1, Tomoyuki Okuaki4, and Marc Van Cauteren4

1Philips Electronics Japan, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan, 2Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, 3Department of Radiology, Tokai University Hospital, Japan, 4Asia Pacific, Philips Healthcare, Shinagawa, Tokyo, Japan


Oral

Liver Quantitation

Room 310 Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Sachin Jambawalikar & Eric Sigmund

362
8:15
Robust agreement between MRI and MRS hepatic proton density fat fraction despite biologically plausible variability in fat spectra in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
Cheng William Hong1, Adrija Mamidipalli1, Jonathan C Hooker1, Gavin Hamilton1, Tanya Wolfson2, Soudabeh Fazeli Dehkordy1, Scott B Reeder3, Rohit Loomba4, and Claude B Sirlin1

1Liver Imaging Group, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 2Computational and Applied Statistics Laboratory, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Departments of Radiology, Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, and Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 4NAFLD Research Center, Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States

MRI- and MRS-based proton density fat fraction (PDFF) techniques require accurate modeling of the multi-peak spectrum of triglycerides (TG) in order to achieve accurate hepatic fat quantification. However, variations in TG spectrum may lead to quantification variability. We performed a secondary analysis of adults with biopsy-confirmed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis undergoing confounder-corrected chemical-shift-encoded 3T MRI and MRS, and calculated variant PDFF values using a range of biologically plausible spectral models. Within the range of fat fractions seen in the liver, PDFF estimation using MRI and MRS was robust to variability in the TG spectrum. Greater bias was seen when the baseline fat fraction was higher, but remained low. 

363
8:27
Free-breathing Fat Quantification in the Liver Using a Multiecho 3D Stack-of-Radial Technique: Investigation of Motion Compensation and Quantification Accuracy
Tess Armstrong1,2, Thomas Martin1,2, Alto Stemmer3, Xinzhou Li1,4, Yutaka Natsuaki5, Kyunghyun Sung1,2, and Holden H. Wu1,2

1Radiological Sciences, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Physics and Biology in Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3Siemens Healthcare GmbH, Erlangen, Germany, 4Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 5Siemens Healthcare, Los Angeles, CA, United States

Multiecho Cartesian MRI methods can non-invasively quantify liver fat, but are susceptible to motion artifacts and limited by breath-hold (BH) imaging. We have developed a new free-breathing (FB) liver fat quantification technique using 3D stack-of-radial imaging (Radial). In this work, we further investigate motion compensation and quantification accuracy for FB Radial. In n=11 healthy volunteers, FB Radial fat quantification demonstrated significant correlation (ρ > 0.9876) and low mean difference (< -1.19%) compared to BH Cartesian and BH single-voxel spectroscopy. FB Radial can potentially achieve accurate whole-liver fat quantification with either a fast 1-2 minute scan or a 3-minute self-navigated scan.

364
8:39
Linearity, Bias, and Precision of Proton-Density Fat Fraction for Liver Fat Quantification: A Meta-Analysis
Ali Pirasteh1, Mustafa Bashir2, Scott B Reeder3, Claude B Sirlin4, An Tang5, Guido M Kukuk6, Jens-Peter Kuhn7, Holger Hetterich8, Ji Soo Song9, and Takeshi Yokoo1

1Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Radiology, Center for Advanced Magnetic Resonance Development, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States, 3Radiology, Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, and Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 4Liver Imaging Group, Radiology, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 5Radiology, University of Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada, 6Radiology, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany, 7University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany, 8Ludwig-Maximilian University Hospital, Munich, Germany, 9Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju, Korea, Republic of

Proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) is a quantitative imaging biomarker (QIB) of hepatic triglyceride concentration and steatosis. Liver PDFF can be measured noninvasively using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or spectroscopy (MRS). Various MRI-based PDFF methods have been validated in single-center studies at 1.5T or 3T field strength using a specific reconstruction algorithm on a single vendor platform. However, its technical performance as a QIB is unknown in a multi-center, multi-vendor setting. In this meta-analysis of previously published data from multiple studies, we demonstrated excellent linearity, negligible bias, and high repeatability/reproducibility of MRI-PDFF across different field strengths, vendors, and reconstruction algorithms.

365
8:51
Monitoring Resolution of Fatty Liver Disease with MRI following Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective, Multi-center Study
B. Dustin Pooler1, Curtis Wiens1, Alan McMillan1, Nathan Artz2, Alexandra Schlein3, Yesenia Covarrubias3, Jonathan Hooker3, Jeffrey Schwimmer3, Luke Funk1, Guilherme Campos4, Jacob Greenberg1, Garth Jacobsen3, Santiago Horgan3, Claude B. Sirlin3, and Scott B. Reeder1

1University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 3University of California-San Diego, San Diego, CA, 4Viginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

The temporal resolution of fatty liver disease following bariatric surgery is poorly understood.  We used a validated chemical shift encoded MRI (CSE-MRI) method to measure liver proton density fat fraction (PDFF) as a biomarker of liver fat.  We followed a cohort of 50 obese adults undergoing bariatric surgery with pre-operative very low calorie diet (VLCD) and conclude that average liver PDFF normalizes to <5% by 6 months following bariatric surgery.  Normalization of liver fat is seen in 79% of patients who lower body mass index (BMI) by ≥10 mg/k2 and 83% of patients who lose ≥30 kg.

366
9:03
A paradoxical systemic bias in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of the liver: a comparison of SMART1Map and MOLLI.
Akira Yamada1, Sachie Fujita1, Yoshihiro Kitoh2, Yasuo Adachi2, Hayato Hayashibara2, Aya Shiobara2, Atsushi Nozaki3, Yuji Iwadate3, Glenn S Slavin4, Yasunari Fujinaga1, and Masumi Kadoya1

1Department of Radiology, Shinshu Univ. School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Japan, 2Department of Radiology, Shinshu Univ. Hospital, Matsumoto, Japan, 3GE Healthcare Japan, Japan, 4GE Healthcare, United States

SMART1Map (saturation method using adaptive recovery times for cardiac T1 mapping) is a new single-point T1 mapping technique that directly measures true T1 unlike look-locker approaches. The feasibility of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry of the liver using SMART1Map was evaluated comparing with modified look-locker inversion recovery (MOLLI). A significant paradoxical systemic bias was observed between and within SMART1Map and MOLLI in Gd-EOB-DTPA-administrated liver, although SMART1Map may be more reproducible than MOLLI in the rest of conditions. Careful consideration should be given to the effect of the paradoxical systemic bias in the evaluation of liver function using Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 relaxometry.

367
9:15
Determining the T1 of the water in the liver by modelling the effects of fat, iron and off-resonance frequencies on MOLLI T1 measurements
Ferenc Emil Mozes1, Elizabeth Mary Tunnicliffe1, Thomas Marjot2, Christina Kim Levick1,3, Michael Pavlides1,3, and Matthew David Robson1

1University of Oxford Centre for Magnetic Resonance Research, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 2Oxford Centre for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, 3Translational Gastroenterology Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom

The frequency dependence of balanced steady-state free precession signals causes significant alterations in modified Look-Locker inversion recovery T1 measurements of livers with fat accumulation, leading to either under- or over-estimation of liver T1 values. This is further to the already-known influence of iron. The present study shows a possibility to correct for these effects, yielding a T1 measurement that represents the T1 of the water component independent of the fat and is tested both in phantoms and human participants.

368
9:27
Bayesian prediction for insufficient liver enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase imaging
Yuki Mori1, Utaroh Motosugi1, Tatsuya Shimizu1, Shintaro Ichikawa1, and Hiroshi Onishi1

1Department of Radiology, University of Yamanashi, Chuo, Japan

Insufficient liver enhancement due to decreased liver function is a major limitation in gadoxetic acid-enhanced hepatobiliary phase imaging (HBP). Recent research shows that insufficient liver enhancement is associated with liver function tests including total bilirubin level, Child-Pugh classifications, indocyanine green tests, and liver stiffness measured by MR elastography. However, none of these tests have been practically used for determining the patients with insufficient liver enhancement before MR imaging. We used univariate tests and logistic regression to determine predictive factors and performed cross validation to reveal utility of Bayesian method for predicting patients with insufficient liver enhancement in gadoxetic acid-enhanced HBP.

369
9:39
Flexible and Efficient 2D Radial TSE T2 Mapping with Tiered Echo Sharing and with “Pseudo” Golden Angle Ratio Reordering
Yutaka Natsuaki1, Mahesh Bharath Keerthisavan2, Ali Bilgin2,3, Bradley D Bolster4, Kevin J Johnson5, Xiaoming Bi1, Gerhard Laub6, and Maria I Altbach7

1Siemens Healthcare, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 3Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States, 4Siemens Healthcare, Salt Lake City, UT, United States, 5Siemens Healthcare, Tucson, AZ, United States, 6Siemens Helathcare, San Francisco, CA, 7Medical Imaging, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States

There has been recent increased interest in quantitative T2 mapping for accurate diagnosis of many pathological disorders.  2D radial TSE with tiered echo sharing and bit-reverse view ordering acquires TE data for T2 mapping in an efficient and motion robust fashion, but imposes limits on the choice of Echo Train Length (ETL).  The current work introduces a novel view ordering algorithm with “pseudo” Golden Angle ratio (pGA) that removes restrictions in the ETL.  With this algorithm, the scan time of 2D radial TSE is reduced (by18% in this study) without a compromise in image quality or in T2 mapping accuracy.

370
9:51
Assessment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) Activity Score (NAS) with MR Elastography (MRE)
Meng Yin1, Alina M. Allen2, Kevin J. Glaser1, Sudhakar K. Venkatesh1, Taofic Mounajjed3, Vijay Shah2, and Richard L. Ehman1

1Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 2Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States, 3Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, United States

To investigate the utility of a hepatic imaging protocol “hepatogram”, which includes multi-parametric MR Elastography (MRE) and fat fraction assessment, in predicting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS: 0-8). In both preclinical and clinical subjects with histology-proven NAFLD, generalized linear models of liver stiffness, damping ratio and fat fraction successfully distinguished each NAS score with excellent accuracy (AUROC>0.89 for all). Misclassifications in distinguishing steatohepatitis (NAS≥3) from NAFLD (NAS<3) was only 2/64 mice and 3/51 human subjects. Our findings indicate the hepatogram imaging protocol can predict NAS score and may be useful to monitor NAFLD disease progression and regression.

371
10:03
Accuracy and Reproducibility of Iron Quantification using Ultra-Short TE Imaging at 1.5T and 3.0T
Curtis N Wiens1, Ante Zhu1,2, Kevin M Johnson1,3, Scott B Reeder1,2,3,4,5, and Diego Hernando1,3

1Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 3Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 4Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States, 5Emergency Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, United States

This work examined the accuracy and reproducibility of ultra-short TE (UTE) R2* mapping in patients with liver iron overload.  Fifteen subjects with known or suspected liver iron overload were scanned at 1.5T and 3.0T using a radial UTE, two Cartesian multi-echo, gradient-echo acquisitions, and an R2-based (FerriScan) reference acquisition.  UTE R2* measurements demonstrated excellent reproducibility across field strengths (with expected linear increase with field strength) and high correlation with liver iron concentration. Cartesian approaches offered excellent reproducibility for R2*<1000s-1.  However R2*>1000s-1, neither Cartesian approach were reproducible across field strength, suggesting that the range of R2* had been surpassed.


Oral

The Matrix: Collagen Function & Microstructure

Room 311 Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Ashley Williams & Martijn Froeling

372
8:15
7T Diffusion Tensor Imaging of High Mechanical Stress Achilles Tendon-to-Bone Interface
Simone Angela Winkler1, Lara Kuntz1,2, Christoph Leuze1, Hossein Nejadnik1, Laura J Pisani1, and Heike Daldrup-Link1

1Dept of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Clinics of Orthopedics and Chair of Cellular Biophysics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munich, Germany

We present imaging analysis using MRI of the Achilles tendon-to-bone interface (“enthesis”) to investigate on the four distinct zones responsible for mechanical force transfer. Conventional T1- and T2-weighted imaging in humans yields very low MR signal. We therefore present T1-weighted FLASH 3D imaging at ultra high-field (7T), using a porcine sample from a minipig leg. We were able to identify the four zones (fibrous connective tissue, uncalcified fibrocartilage, calcified fibrocartilage, and bone) in both T1 and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 

373
8:27
3D UTE-T2* analysis of diseased Achilles tendons and the correlation with clinical score
Yang Qiao1, Hong-Yue Tao1, Yi-Wen Hu1, Jianxun Qu2, Kui Ma3, Zi-Ying Wu3, and Shuang Chen1

1Department of Radiology, Fudan University Affiliated Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 2MR Research China, GE Healthcare, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, 3Department of Sports Medicine, Fudan University Affiliated Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, People's Republic of China

This study used 3D UTE-T2*, a novel quantitative technique with potential short-T2* relaxations to investigate T2* value in diseased Achilles tendon(AT) and correlation between T2* value and AOFAS, ATRS scores. Fifteen patients with AT disease and ten healthy controls matched sex, age, BMI were included. The results showed T2* values of insertion(INS), middle(MID), muscle-tendon junction(MTJ) and bulk region of AT in patients were statistically higher than healthy controls and negatively correlated with AOFAS, ATRS scores, which suggests UTE-T2* may be a promising marker for the detection of matrix changes in AT and give a precise guidance to clinical outcome.

374
8:39
Difference Image Ultra-Short Echo Time T2* Mapping Using a 3D Cones Trajectory
Amin Nazaran1,2, Grayson Tarbox3, Randy Hartley4, and Neal Bangerter4,5

1Electrical Engineering, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 2University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, United States, 3Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, United States, 4Electrical Engineering, Brigham Young University, 5Radiology, University of Utah

This study introduces a methodology for detecting subtle variations in tissues with very rapid T2* decay through a difference image ultra-short T2* mapping technique using a 3D cones k-space trajectory.  The new method is demonstrated in both a normal and surgically repaired Achilles tendon.  The resulting UTE images were differenced and T2* values were calculated using a mono-exponential least squares fit on a voxel by voxel basis.  The ultrashort T2* maps yield very consistent short T2* values in healthy tendon of 0.3 – 0.5 ms, while notable variations and elevations of T2* values are observed in the surgically repaired tendon. 

375
8:51
Bi-Component Ultra-short Echo-Time T2* Analysis in Patients with Patellar Tendinopathy
Fang Liu1, John Wilson2, and Richard Kijowski1

1Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, United States, 2Department of Orthopedics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI

A bi-component ultra-short echo-time (UTE) T2* mapping sequence was performed on the knees of 10 patients with patellar tendinopathy and 10 healthy volunteers at 3T.  The fraction of the fast relaxing water component (FF) and the T2 relaxation times of the fast relaxing (T2*F,) and slow relaxing (T2*S) water components of patellar tendon were measured.  Patients with patellar tendinopathy had significantly lower FF (P=0.007), significantly higher T2*F (P=0.014), and similar T2*S (P=0.10) of patellar tendon when compared to healthy volunteers.  Our results suggest that bi-component UTE T2* analysis can detect early compositional and microstructural changes in degenerative tendon.

376
9:03
Rotator Cuff Tendon Assessment Using Magic-Angle Insensitive 3D Ultrashort Echo Time Cones Magnetization Transfer (UTE-Cones-MT) Imaging and Modeling
Yanchun Zhu1, Yajun Ma1, Jiang Du1, and Eric Y Chang1,2

1Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States, 2Radiology Service, VA San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA, United States

The rotator cuff tendon (RCT) is the primary dynamic stabilizer of the glenohumeral joint. However magic angle effect decrease the sensitivity of MRI in assessment of RCT. The purpose of our study is to utilize the 3D ultrashort echo time Cones sequence with magnetization transfer preparation (UTE-Cones-MT) and two-pool quantitative MT modeling to assess the RCT.

377
9:15
Diffusion Tensor Imaging of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Graft
Pieter Van Dyck1, Eline De Smet1, Martijn Froeling2, Peter Verdonk3, Michaël Torfs1, Pim Pullens1, Jan Sijbers4, Paul M Parizel1, and Ben Jeurissen4

1Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital Antwerp, Edegem, Belgium, 2Dept. of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands, 3Dept. of Orthopedics, Monica Orthopedic Research (MoRe) Foundation, Monica Hospital, Belgium, 4Vision Lab, Dept. of Physics, University of Antwerp, Belgium

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using a tendon graft remains the standard of care for ACL injuries. Postoperatively, the graft undergoes a biologic transition from tendinous to ligamentous in appearance. Despite substantial research efforts, little is known about the human ACL graft ligamentization process. Much of the current knowledge on graft ligamentization have been derived from biopsy studies. However, biopsies are invasive and suffer from sampling error. Our study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for visualization and quantification of the ACL graft and supports its potential to serve as a biomarker to assess graft maturity.

378
9:27
Advances in Angle Sensitive MRI: Towards in vivo analysis of collagen fibre tracts in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament
Karyn E Chappell1, Quentin Herreros2, Donald W McRobbie3, and Djordje Brujic4

1Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Institut de Physique Nucléaire de Lyon, Lyon, France, 3Medical Physics & Radiation Safety, Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, Australia, 4Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom

There is great interest in collagen MR imaging due to its non-invasive nature. To be able to detect early structural changes in collagen the main magnetic field must move around the patient.  

A new rotatable MR system enabling in vivo Angle Sensitive MRI was designed and its prototype has been built. Key elements of the new method are: optimisation of scanning directions, collagen orientation distribution computation and fibre tract reconstruction.  

We have proved that nine scans in optimal directions achieve satisfactory accuracy. Previous Angle Sensitive MRI times are almost halved whilst analysis time is shortened by more than 100 times.


379
9:39
Collagen fiber to magnetic field angle dependence in human meniscus – a preliminary T2* MR-microscopy study at 7T
Benedikt Hager1,2, Sonja Walzer3, Vladimir Juras1,4, Martin Zalaudek1, Xeni Deligianni5, Oliver Bieri5, Andreas Berg6, Joachim Friske1, Markus Schreiner3, Reinhard Windhager3, and Siegfried Trattnig1,2

1High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 2Christian Doppler Laboratory for Clinical Molecular MR Imaging, Vienna, Austria, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, 4Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia, 5Department of Radiology, Division of Radiological Physics, University of Basel Hospital, Basel, Switzerland, 6Center for Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria

We evaluated the fiber-to-field dependence of a meniscal specimen using T2* mapping on high-field 7T MRI in combination with an MR microimaging insert and validated the results with histology. We found that, different structures of the meniscus behave very differently with orientation to the magnetic field. For example, short T2/T2* tendon-like structure located in the external circumference showed strongest T2* dependence reflecting the anisotropic nature of these structures and consequential incomplete averaging of dipolar coupling. The results shown here are the first MR Microscopy evaluations of the orientational dependence of T2* relaxation in human meniscus.

380
9:51
The magic angle effect can (partially) explain load-induced increases in meniscal T2 and T1ρ
Valentina Mazzoli1,2,3, Danny Tsui2, Larry de Graaf2, Klaas Nicolay2, Andre M Sprengers3, Dennis Janssen3, Nico Verdonschot3, Aart J Nederveen1, and Gustav J Strijkers4

1Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2Biomedical NMR, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands, 3Orthopaedic Research Lab, Radboud UMC, Nijmegen, Netherlands, 4Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Often, knee injury and disorders are caused by or lead to abnormal biomechanical loading patterns in the knee joint menisci. Quantitative information on in vivo loading patterns is therefore in high demand to evaluate therapy and prevent further damage. T and T2 in meniscus were shown to increase upon application of compressive load, although the mechanisms leading to changes remain unclear. In this work we apply compressive load on the meniscus of volunteers and one cadaver and show that compression-induced internal fiber reorganization may manifest as the magic angle effect, which may be responsible for load-induced T2 and T increases.  

381
10:03
Quantitative Off Resonance Saturation 3D UTE Imaging
Michael Carl1, Yajun Ma2, and Jiang Du2

1GE Healthcare, San Diego, CA, United States, 2UCSD, CA, United States

Off-resonance saturation (ORS) is a tool which can be used in UTE magnetic resonance imaging to selectively reduce short T2 signals. Here we develop a simple quantitative theoretical model. The theoretical equations can be used to determine the ORS sequence parameters such as foff and θORS to maximize short T2 contrast.


Oral

Novel Pulse Sequences

Room 312 Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Priti Balchandani & Klaus Scheffler

382
8:15
Extended RF shimming: Sequence level parallel transmission optimization applied to steady state free precession MRI of the heart
Arian Beqiri1, Anthony N Price1,2, Joseph V Hajnal1,2, and Shaihan J Malik1

1Biomedical Engineering and imaging Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2Centre for the Developing Brain, King's College London, London, United Kingdom

Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cardiac MRI benefits greatly from reduced repetition time (TR). Minimum TR is often limited by specific absorption rate (SAR) and hardware constraints. RF shimming can be used with parallel transmission (PTx) to work within such constraints, but direct minimization of TR is not straightforward since the constraints themselves vary as TR is reduced.

We present an extended RF shimming framework in which PTx degrees of freedom are simultaneously optimised with pulse sequence properties. The result is minimum TR bSSFP sequences that operate at the SAR limits and within hardware constraints for 3T cardiac MRI.


383
8:27
Multi-Contrast EPI for use as a Neuro MR Scout and Screening
Mathias Engström1, Enrico Avventi2,3, Ola Norbeck2,3, Henric Rydén2,3, and Stefan Skare2,3

1Applied Science Laboratory, GE Healthcare, Uppsala, Sweden, 2Dept. of Neuroradiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, 3Dept. of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden

This work describes a new sub-minute EPI-based sequence that produce T2*, T2, T2-FLAIR, T1-FLAIR, DWI, and ADC images as well as a 3-plane localizer as an alternative to the conventional scout, enabling a clinical screening at the beginning of the exam. 

384
8:39
High resolution imaging by phase encoded xSPEN MRI
Zhiyong Zhang1, Michael Lustig2, and Lucio Frydman1

1Department of Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel, 2Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, CA, United States

We have recently introduced cross-term SPatiotemporal ENcoding (xSPEN), a technique with exceptional resilience to field heterogeneities. Like other single-shot methods, however, xSPEN’s resolution and SNR are intrinsically limited. This study explores a multi-scan, phase-encoded extension of xSPEN, which improves sensitivity while increasing resolution along both the phase-encoded and the slice-selection dimensions simultaneously. This reflects xSPEN’s unusual kernel whereby a y-axis can be sampled by a z-gradient and viceversa. Furthermore, as each phase-encoded xSPEN scan provides an entire 2D image, each low-resolution xSPEN scan in the set may be used to correct motions leading to very high definition 3D MRI capabilities.

385
8:51
Improved signal uniformity for balanced steady-state free precession by employing Direct Signal Control parallel transmission
Francesco Padormo1 and Priti Balchandani1

1Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, United States

We present a method to minimize signal intensity variations observed when performing balanced steady state free precession imaging in non-uniform B0 and B1+ fields. This is achieved by harnessing parallel transmission, with RF shims calculated in order to produce the most uniform signal for the desired tissues given measured B0 and B1+ field maps.

386
9:03
Faster than Mulitband ... Advanced Pseudo Fourier Imaging's (API) response to the current state of the art
Nishant Zachariah1, Jason Langley2, Justin Romberg1, and Xiaoping P. Hu3

1Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, United States, 2Center for Advanced Neuroimaging, University of California at Riverside, CA, United States, 3Department of Bioengineering, University of California at Riverside, CA, United States

Multiband (MB) imaging is limited in its acceleration factor by the high correlation that exists between receiver coils. In this work, we present a novel technique, Advanced Pseudo Fourier Imaging (API) which achieves parallel excitation beyond that which is currently possible using multiband imaging. In doing so, API forms a generic framework for seamless transition from 2D to 3D imaging. Unlike MB, API is less sensitive to the RF excitation profile in its slice reconstruction by virtue of the introduced phase variations. We demonstrate the viability of API through 1D simulations and 3D head phantom data acquired at 3T. 

387
9:15
Whole Brain Inversion Recovery Diffusion Weighted Imaging Using Slice-Shuffled Acquisition
Hua Wu1, Qiyuan Tian2,3, Christian Poetter1, Kangrong Zhu2, Matthew J Middione4, Adam B Kerr2, Jennifer A McNab3, and Robert F Dougherty1

1Center for Cognitive and Neurobiological Imaging, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 3Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 4Applied Sciences Laboratory West, GE Healthcare, Menlo Park, CA, United States

Combined acquisition of diffusion weighted MRI and T1 relaxation allows us to extract information about the microstructures of human brain on a sub-voxel level. We design an inversion recovery pulse sequence with diffusion weighting using the slice-shuffled technique to accelerate the T1 measurement and demonstrate whole brain scans acquired in under 20 minutes. We show potential applications of the sequence in differentiating the T1 relaxation of compartments with different diffusion properties within a voxel . 

388
9:27
Whole-brain multi-slice multi-spoke parallel transmit RF pulse design in the large flip angle regime at 7 Tesla
Vincent Gras1, Alexandre Vignaud1, Alexis Amadon1, Franck Mauconduit2, Denis Le Bihan1, and Nicolas Boulant1

1UNIRS, CEA/DRF/I2BM/Neurospin, Gif-sur-Yvette, France, 2Siemens Healthcare, Saint Denis, France

At ultra-high field, transmit RF field inhomogeneity mitigation methods exploiting parallel transmission and multi-spoke pulses are readily applicable for brain imaging with small flip angle (FA) protocols. The extension to large FAs yet appears more challenging due to the inherent computationally extensive calculations. Dealing now with multi-slice applications, where specific absorption rate (SAR) issues often come into play, a SAR-aware slice-specific pulse design algorithm can improve significantly the output. This work thus presents a large FA slice-specific multi-spoke pulse design approach enforcing explicitely SAR constraints and, to reduce computations, where the spin dynamics is approximated with Average Hamiltonian Theory.

389
9:39
Velocity Encoded and Compensated Multi-Spoke RF Pulses for Flow Quantification at Ultra-High Fields
Simon Schmidt1, Sebastian Flassbeck1, Mathies Breithaupt1,2, Peter Bachert1, Mark E. Ladd1, and Sebastian Schmitter1,3

1Medical Physics in Radiology, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, 2Institute for Forensic Medicine and Traffic Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 3Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig and Berlin, Germany

In this work we present and demonstrate a novel technique to generate multi-spoke RF excitation with arbitrary zeroth and first gradient moments, allowing for clean flow imaging without errors. The RF pulses are demonstrated in flow phantoms and in-vivo at 7 Tesla, paving the road for 4D flow imaging using pTX spoke excitation.

390
9:51
A single-channel universal SPINS pulse for calibration-free homogeneous excitation without PTX
Ronald Mooiweer1,2, Joseph V Hajnal1, and Shaihan J Malik1

1Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, King's College London, London, United Kingdom, 2UMC Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands

A universal single-channel pulse was created that improves excitation homogeneity at 3T, for low flip angles. This method does not require subject specific calibration nor a PTX system, thus making it widely applicable. Though even better homogeneity could be achieved through the use of PTX or subject-specific pulse design, in our study the universal single-channel pulse always outperformed the quadrature mode excitation. This could be used to create more uniform contrast in MP-RAGE imaging. 

391
10:03
Optimal control B1-robust T2 preparation
Martin A Janich1, Ana Beatriz Solana Sánchez1, and Florian Wiesinger1

1GE Global Research, Munich, Germany

T2 is an important MR imaging contrast, including visualizing edema, myocarditis, separating coronary lumen from myocardium, as well as cerebrospinal fluid from gray and white matter. For diagnostic accuracy, it is important to achieve uniform T2-weighting throughout the imaging field-of-view. This is often not achievable because of non-uniform B1, especially at ultra-high magnetic field. This limitation was overcome by numerical optimization of a T2 preparation module. The optimal control T2 preparation pulse achieved good T2 contrast despite ±40% B1 variation and was scalable to achieve different T2 weighting times. Evaluation was done with Zero-TE imaging in the human brain at 3T.


Oral

From Aging Brain to Alzheimer's Disease

Room 313A Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Eric Achten & Masaaki Hori

392
8:15
Age-related neuropathologies associated with white matter hyperintensities burden: a study of a community cohort of older adults.
Nabil Alqam1, Arnold Evia1, Luis Filipe Campos Cardoso1, Lucas Fagundes Lopes1, Diego Vieira Pereira1, Julie A. Schneider2,3,4, Sue E. Leurgans2,3, David A. Bennett2,3, and Konstantinos Arfanakis1,2,5

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Department of Pathology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States

White­ matter hyperintensities (WMH) are lesions commonly observed in the brain of older adults, and have been associated with lower cognitive function, lower motor performance, and increased risk of dementia. The purpose of this work was to investigate the neuropathologic correlates of WMH burden by combining ex-vivo MRI and pathology on a large community cohort of older adults.

393
8:27
Age-related changes in cerebrovascular reactivity and their relationship to cognition and vascular risk: A four-year longitudinal study
Shin-Lei Peng1,2, Xi Chen3, Yang Li1, Karen M Rodrigue3, Denise C Park3, and Hanzhang Lu1

1Department of Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States, 2Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Science, China Medical University, 3Center for Vital Longevity, School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences, University of Texas at Dallas

Although cerebrovascular factors are the cause of cognitive impairment, the vascular decline in aging have not been characterized. In this work, we present four-year longitudinal cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) data measured in 116 individuals. Our data revealed temporal lobe showed the fastest CVR decline and middle age manifested the fastest CVR decline. Vascular risk of hypertension results in a lower CVR when compared to normal and well-controlled subjects. Individuals with poorer general cognitive status, as indexed by a low mini-mental-state-exam (MMSE), had a lower CVR compared to participants with higher MMSE scores. These findings help elucidate age-related decline in brain hemodynamics.

394
8:39
Cerebral Arteries Hemodynamics in Alzheimer's Disease Assessed by Phase-Contrast Velocity Mapping
Reyes García de Eulate1, Irene Goñi2, Alvaro Galiano1, Marta Vidorreta3, Miriam Recio4, Mario Riverol4, Jose Luis Zubieta1, and María Fernández-Seara1,2

1Radiology, University of Navarra Hospital, Pamplona, Spain, 2Biomedical Engineering, TECNUN, University of Navarra, San Sebastian, Spain, 3Center for Functional Neuroimaging, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, United States, 4Neurology, University of Navarra Hospital, Pamplona, Spain

Vascular disease increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The assessment of vascular dysfunction in subjects at risk for AD has the potential to contribute to the disease early diagnosis and management. In this work, the phase-contrast velocity mapping MRI technique was used to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics in patients with cognitive dysfunction and healthy controls. Results showed significant differences in hemodynamic parameters (velocity and flow) across groups with lower mean values in the AD and MCI groups compared to the CO group. PC-MRI can be used to assess hypoperfusion in an early stage of AD.

395
8:51
Association of cerebral blood flow and amyloid burden in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease
Lirong Yan1, Collin Liu2, Koon-Pong Wong3, Sung-Cheng Huang3, John Ringman2, and Danny JJ Wang1

1Stevens Neuroimaging and Informatics Institute, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 2Neurology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States, 3University of California Los Angeles, United States

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of cerebral blood flow alternation with cerebral amyloid deposition in autosomal dominant Alzheimer’s disease. Cross-subject negative correlation between cerebral blood flow and amyloid deposition was observed, indicating brain regions with high amyloid deposition may be associated with hypoperfusion. Our finding suggests cerebral hypoperfusion may contribute to the onset and progression of AD.

396
9:03
Association of vascular risk factors with cerebral metabolic rate
Kevin King1, Min Sheng2, Peiying Liu3, Christopher Maroules4, Craig Rubin5, Ron Peshock6, Roderick McColl7, and Hanzhang Lu8

1Huntington Medical Research Institutes, Pasadena, CA, United States, 2Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 4Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, 5Geriatrics, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 6Radiology, Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 7Radiology, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 8Radiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Vascular risk factors that confer a susceptibility for dementia are thought to result in silent brain changes decades before disease onset.  We hypothesized that vascular risk factors would be associated decreased Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen consumption (CMRO2).   CMRO2 was derived from Arterial Spin Labelling cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) from TRUST MRI in this IRB approved study with informed consent on 70 participants.  In stepwise linear regression higher diastolic blood pressure was correlated with decreased CMRO2 but was not associated with CBF, suggesting mechanisms other than insufficient blood flow underlie the association with metabolic rate.  

397
9:15
One-year aerobic exercise increases regional cerebral blood flow in anterior cingulate cortex: a blinded, randomized trial in patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment
Binu P. Thomas1, Takashi Tarumi2, Min Sheng1, Benjamin Y. Tseng2, Kyle Womack3, Munro C. Cullum4, Rong Zhang2,5, and Hanzhang Lu1,6

1Advanced Imaging Research Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 2Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Texas Health Presbyterian Hospital, Dallas, TX, United States, 3Department of Neurology and Neurotherapeutic, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 4Department of Psychiatry, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 5Department of Internal Medicine, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, United States, 6Department of Radiology & Radiological Science, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, United States

Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents the early stage of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Much research has focused on preventing the inevitable decline of MCI to AD. Aerobic exercise is considered a viable choice, and is shown to improve cognitive function in MCI. We focus on understanding the mechanisms that lead to this improvement. Pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling (PCASL) was used to assess resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) in two MCI groups. One group performed aerobic exercise, while another non-aerobic stretching. CBF was measured before and after training. CBF increase in the anterior-cingulate-cortex (ACC) was the proven mechanism that improves cognitive function in MCI. 

398
9:27
Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Cerebral Blood Flow Changes in the Progression from Normal Cognition to Alzheimer’s Disease Measured with Continuous Arterial Spin Labeling (CASL)
Wenna Duan1, H. Michael Gach2, Arvind Balachandrasekaran3, Parshant Sehrawat1, Ashish B. Bhumkar1, Paresh B. Boraste1, James T. Becker4, Oscar L. Lopez5, and Weiying Dai1

1Department of Computer Science, Binghamton University (SUNY), Binghamton, NY, United States, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University, Saint Louis, St. Louis, MO, United States, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, United States, 4Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States, 5Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States

Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) versus cognitive status were performed in an elderly cohort. Voxel-based ANOVA was used to test the CBF difference between normal control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) groups at the baseline. Eight significant clusters were found between groups. The longitudinal CBF change in each cluster was compared across 4 longitudinal groups (stable NC, NC-to-MCI, stable MCI, and MCI/AD-to-AD) using a multiple linear regression model. The results indicated that CBF rises in AD-related regions of the brain during MCI and then drops dramatically in advanced MCI or early AD.

399
9:39
Effects of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43) pathology on amygdala volume and shape, in a community cohort of older adults
Nazanin Makkinejad1, Junxiao Yu1, Aikaterini Kotrotsou1, Arnold M. Evia1, Julie A. Schneider2,3,4, Sue E. Leurgans2,3, David A. Bennett2,3, and Konstantinos Arfanakis1,2,5

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, United States, 2Rush Alzheimer's Disease Center, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 3Department of Neurological Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 4Department of Pathology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States, 5Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, United States

TDP43 pathology is now recognized as a common and deleterious neuropathology of the aging brain. TDP43 pathology typically originates in the amygdala, which is, however, commonly affected by other age-related neurodegenerative pathologies. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effects of TDP43 pathology on the volume and shape of the amygdala in a large community cohort of older adults.

400
9:51
Fixel-based analysis of Alzheimer's Disease using multi-tissue constrained spherical deconvolution of multi-shell diffusion MRI
Diana L. Giraldo1,2, Hanne Struyfs 3, David A. Raffelt4, Paul M. Parizel5, Sebastiaan Engelborghs3,6, Eduardo Romero2, Jan Sijbers1, and Ben Jeurissen1

1Vision Lab, Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 2Computer Imaging and Medical Applications Laboratory, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota, Colombia, 3Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 4Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Australia, 5Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, 6Department of Neurology and Memory Clinic, Hospital Network Antwerp (ZNA) Middelheim and Hoge Beuken, Antwerp, Belgium

In this study, we used multi-shell, multi-tissue constrained spherical deconvolution to investigate group differences in white matter between control subjects, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and patients with dementia due to AD. Using the recently proposed fixel-based analysis approach, we distinguish between different fibre populations within a single voxel and characterize them with 3 measures: fibre density, fibre cross-section and the product of these two. We found significant decreases of these metrics in MCI and AD patients compared to healthy controls.

401
10:03
HFE Mutations Alter White Matter Diffusion and Relaxation Parametrics in Alzheimer’s Disease
Mark D Meadowcroft1,2, Jianli D. Wang2, Carson J Purnell1, Paul J Eslinger3, James R Connor1, and Qing X Yang2

1Neurosurgery, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 2Radiology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States, 3Neurology, The Pennsylvania State University - College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, United States

This work demonstrates that HFE mutations in cognitively normal compared to wild-type subjects lead to differences in diffusion and relaxation parametrics, such that HFE mutation carrier parametrics converge towards AD subjects.  Furthermore, HFE mutations appeared to be preservative against white matter integrity loss in AD patients.  Iron-loading HFE mutations appear to preserve relaxation and diffusion neuroimaging biomarkers in AD patients, but adversely affect cognitively normal subjects.  


Oral

Late-Breaking Abstracts: Machine Learning

Room 313BC Tuesday 8:15 - 10:15 Moderators: Tim Leiner & Reza Nezafat

5657
8:15
Improved Multi-echo Water-fat Separation Using Deep Learning
Enhao Gong1, Greg Zaharchuk2, and John Pauly1

1Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States, 2Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, United States

Multi-echo water/fat separation may fail on cases due to noise, inaccurate estimation of water/fat signal and inhomogeneous $$$B_0$$$ field. Here we developed novel data-driven method to improve water/fat separation using Deep Learning. A Residual-Convolutional-Neural-Network model was trained on image patches of multi-contrast information (from initial estimation of water/fat signal, R2* map and field map), to generate better estimation of Fat-Fraction (FF) image patches and entire FF image. The proposed approach was validated and demonstrated improvement from existing methods on ISMRM datasets with variable anatomies. This method can handle flexible echo times in acquisition and is efficient and effective.

5658
8:27
Temporal-autoencoding neural network revealed the underlying functional dynamics of fMRI data: Evaluation using the Human Connectome Project data
Jong-Hwan Lee1,2, Eric C. Wong3, and Peter Bandettini2

1Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of, 2Section on Functional Imaging Methods, Laboratory of Brain and Cognition, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, United States, 3Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States

We proposed a novel approach based on a temporal autoencoding neural network (TANN) model to predict the fMRI volume in the next time point or repetition time (TR) based on the fMRI volume in the present TR. Using motor task data from the Human Connectome Project, our TANN model revealed the human motor cortex dynamics. The highly task-specific foot, hand, and tongue networks within the motor-related areas were clearly identified from the TANN weight features and the task-associated networks across the frontal, parietal, temporal, and visual areas were also clearly parcellated without any task information. 

5659
8:39
Fully Automated Left Ventricle Scar Quantification with Deep Learning
Johannes Rausch1, Bjoern Menze1, Raymond H Chan2,