Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies: results from first 1,045 specimens tested at a clinical reference laboratory
Sat Dev Batish1, Vivekananda Datta1, Jeff S Radcliff1, Emily Katzman1, Brian Sansoucy1
1Quest Diagnostics
To evaluate the frequency of positive results among clinical specimens submitted for MOG antibody testing at a clinical reference laboratory.
MOG-associated disease (MOG-AD) can present with symptoms similar to those of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS), including optic neuritis, spinal cord inflammation, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). MOG antibody testing can help differentiate MOG-AD from aquaporin 4 antibody-mediated NMO and MS, which is important given their differing prognosis and management.  

In this retrospective analysis of deidentified patient results from a large clinical reference laboratory, we determined the prevalence of positive results from the first 1,045 clinical specimens submitted for MOG Ab testing. MOG Ab testing was performed using a cell-based immunofluorescence assay. Associations of age, sex, and specimen type (serum vs CSF) with positivity were evaluated.

Six patients (all MOG Ab-negative) with missing sex or age data were excluded. The remaining 1,039 patients had a mean (SD) age of 42 (17) years, and almost two-thirds (670; 64%) were female. Results were positive in 62 (6%) specimens and negative in 966 (93%); 1% had inconclusive results. Positivity rates were higher among males (28/369, 7.6%) than females (34/670, 5.1%) (P=.11); children ≤12 years (7/54; 13%) than older individuals (55/985; 5.6%) (P=0.03); and serum (60/843, 7.2%) than CSF specimens (2/196, 1.0%) (P=.001). 

Although MOG-AD is rare, we observed a positive rate of 6% in our laboratory, suggesting the potential utility of MOG antibody testing. MOG antibodies were detected more commonly in serum than CSF.